Chapter 10 The Presidency



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FALSE

 

96. The effect of presidential coattails in elections is quite small today. 


TRUE

 

97. Popular presidents are more successful at getting bills that they support passed in Congress. 


TRUE

 

98. The popularity that a president has immediately after being sworn in often declines by the midterm elections. 


TRUE

 

99. In 2002 the Republicans gained seats in the House and the Senate. 


TRUE

 

100. President Eisenhower's style of leadership was similar in public and in White House conferences. 


FALSE

 

101. President Kennedy preferred clear hierarchical lines of authority. 


FALSE

 

102. Because Lyndon Johnson knew almost everyone in Washington, he was comfortable delegating decisions. 


FALSE

 

103. Richard Nixon disliked personal confrontations. 


TRUE

 

104. Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan were considered Washington outsiders. 


TRUE

 

105. George H. W. Bush had a recognized skill at one-on-one foreign diplomacy. 


TRUE

 

106. When the Republicans gained control of Congress in 1994, President Clinton began governing as a liberal “old” Democrat. 


FALSE

 

107. George W. Bush had little background in foreign affairs. 


TRUE

 

108. Executive privilege refers a president's right to withhold information from Congress. 


TRUE

 

109. The pocket veto may be used during both recesses and adjournments of Congress. 


FALSE

 

110. Presidents must accept or reject bills in their entirety. 


TRUE

 

111. Presidential vetoes are often overridden by Congress. 


FALSE

 

112. George W. Bush made vigorous use of the veto power. 


FALSE

 

113. The Constitution specifically allows presidents to withhold private communications between themselves and their principal advisers. 


FALSE

 

114. In United States v. Nixon, the Supreme Court held that the president has a qualified executive privilege only. 


TRUE

 

115. Presidential claims of executive privilege were supported in Supreme Court cases throughout the Clinton administration. 


FALSE

 

116. The Budget Reform Act of 1974 may be unconstitutional because it contains a provision for a legislative veto. 


TRUE

 

117. A signing statement can be controversial when it challenges the constitutionality of a bill. 


TRUE

 

118. Although President Obama was opposed to the issuance of signing statements, he has signed five that raised constitutional objections. 


TRUE

 

119. A typical work week for the president might be ninety hours. 


TRUE

 

120. Most federal expenditures are beyond the president's control. 


TRUE

 

121. The president's best legislative strategy is to have a policy on almost everything. 


FALSE

 

122. Before the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment in 1951, several presidents served more than two full terms. 


FALSE

 

123. Most vice presidents have had success in later running for the presidency. 


FALSE

 

124. The only official task of a vice president is to appear at all state funerals. 


FALSE

 

125. Presidential succession is a concern only in the event a president dies in office. 


FALSE

 

126. When Ford and Rockefeller were sworn in as president and vice president, there was a crisis in public opinion. 


FALSE

 

127. According to law, federal civil servants are not subject to impeachment. 


FALSE

 

128. President Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives. 


TRUE

 

129. There is a sense of rivalry between the president and Congress, even when they are of the same political party. 


TRUE

 

130. The president tends to be stronger in foreign than in domestic policy. 


TRUE

 

131. The Department of State has a reputation for representing the interests of other nations as well as those of the United States. 


TRUE

 

132. The Department of Defense coordinates the military but plays a small role in the policy-making process. 


FALSE

 

133. President Nixon vetoed the War Powers Act. 


TRUE

 

134. Presidents have complained about the War Powers Act but have complied with all its provisions. 


FALSE

 

135. Historically, military interventions have increased the popularity of presidents. 


TRUE

 

136. Although President Obama made campaign promises to change our approach to terrorism, he has kept many policies in place. 


TRUE

 

137. The American people tend to hold presidents more strictly accountable for foreign affairs than for domestic issues. 


FALSE

 

138. Authority over economic policy is more widely dispersed in government than authority over foreign policy. 


TRUE

 

139. The Federal Reserve Board, although nominated by the president, functions largely independently of the chief executive. 


TRUE

 

140. The Federal Reserve Board influences both the supply and price of money. 


TRUE

 

141. The term budget deficit refers to the accumulated debt since the founding of the nation. 


FALSE

 

142. The recent recession started when President Obama took office. 


FALSE

 

143. There is one main reason for the recent recession:  banks gave mortgages to people who could not afford them. 


FALSE

 

144. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) was passed in February 2009. 


TRUE

 

145. Discuss the essentials of the electoral college, including size and rules related to the assignment of votes and winning. 



  Answer Notes       a. Each state has votes equal to the number of senators (two) and representatives (varies with size of state).       b. Total of 538; 270 needed to win.       c. All but two states assign votes according to popular vote.       d. Possible to win a majority of electoral votes without winning the popular vote (has happened three times).       e. Candidates have a strong incentive to campaign in large states.       f. If no candidate wins majority, the House of Representatives chooses (one vote per state delegation).

 

146. Identify and describe three types of organizational schemes for White House staff and link them with particular presidents. 



  Answer Notes       a. Circular structure: A few key assistants report to the president (Carter).       b. Pyramid structure: Most reports are filtered though one chief of staff (Eisenhower, Nixon, Reagan after 1985, elder Bush).       c. Cluster structure: Key advisors have access with no clear chain of command (Roosevelt, Clinton).

 

147. Summarize the constitutional qualifications for the president. 



  Answer Notes       a. Thirty-five years old       b. Natural-born citizen       c. Resident of United States for at least fourteen years

 

148. Explain the circumstances surrounding the Court's 1973 ruling on executive privilege and the logic of its decision. 



  Answer Notes       a. Watergate scandal broke, and Nixon invoked privilege to deny prosecutors' access to tapes.       b. Court, in unanimous decision, allowed such claims, but not in an "unqualified" manner.       c. Military or diplomatic matters might justify such a claim.       d. If it were unqualified, courts would not be able to fulfill constitutional duty to decide criminal cases.       e. Nixon had to surrender tapes.

 

149. Discuss some of the restraints on a president's ability to plan a program. 



  Answer Notes       a. Adverse reactions.       b. Limits on time and attention span.       c. Unexpected crises.       d. The federal government and programs can only be changed marginally.

 

150. Explain the two ways to measure presidential success in the legislature. 



  Answer Notes       a. Examine the number of bills that the president submits to Congress that are approved.       b. Compare the proportion of bills that the president supports against the number that are approved.

 

151. Summarize the major provisions of the War Powers Act. 



  Answer Notes       a. President reports in writing to Congress within forty-eight hours of introducing troops.       b. Within sixty days, Congress declares war or continues hostilities via statutory authorization.        c. If there is no such authorization, president must withdraw troops.       d. A concurrent resolution (which cannot be vetoed) can direct the removal of troops.

 


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