|Chapter 10 Study Guide Answer Key
1. In what respects did Byzantium continue the patterns of the classical Roman Empire? In what ways did it diverge from those patterns?
Continued Patterns (Original: p. 271 and p. 276; With Sources: p. 427 and p. 432)
Divergences (Original: pp. 272-273; With Sources: pp. 428-429)
▪Continuance can be seen in Byzantium’s roads, military structures, centralized administration, imperial court, laws, and Christian organization
▪It can also be seen in Byzantium’s pursuit of the long-term struggle with the Persian Empire.
▪Byzantium diverged through the development of a reformed administrative system that gave appointed generals civil authority in the empire’s provinces and allowed them to raise armies from the landowning peasants of the region.
▪It also diverged through the new ideas encompassed in caesaropapism that defined the relationship between the state and the Church.
2. What happened to the Byzantine Empire after 1085?
After 1085, Byzantine territory shrank, owing to incursions by aggressive Christian European powers, by Catholic Crusaders, and later by Turkic Muslim invaders. (Original: p. 273; With Sources: p. 429)
3. How did Eastern Orthodox Christianity differ from Roman Catholicism?
Unlike Western Europe, where the Catholic Church maintained some degree of independence from political authorities, in Byzantium the emperor assumed something of the role of both “Caesar,” as head of state, and the pope, as head of the Church. Thus the Byzantine emperor appointed the patriarch of the Orthodox Church, sometimes made decisions about doctrine, called church councils into session, and generally treated the Church as a government department.
In the Eastern Orthodox Church, Greek became the language of religious practice instead of the Latin used in the Roman Catholic Church.
More so than in the West, Byzantine thinkers sought to formulate Christian doctrine in terms of Greek philosophical concepts.
The Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches disagreed on a number of doctrinal issues, including the nature of the Trinity, the relative importance of faith and reason, and the veneration of icons.
Priests in Byzantium allowed their beards to grow long and permitted to marry, while priests in the West shaved and, after 1050 or so, were supposed to remain celibate.
Orthodox ritual called for using bread leavened with yeast n the mass, but Catholics used unleavened bread.
Eastern Orthodox leaders sharply rejected the growing claims of Roman popes to be the sole final authority for all Christians everywhere. (Original: pp. 273-275; With Sources: pp. 429-431)
4. In what political, economic, and cultural ways was the Byzantine Empire linked to a wider world?
Political—On a political and military level, Byzantium continued the long-term struggle with the Persian Empire.
Economic—Economically, the Byzantine Empire was a central player in the long-distance trade of Eurasia, with commercial links to Western Europe, Russia, Central Asia, the Islamic world, and China.
Cultural—Culturally, Byzantium preserved much of ancient Greek learning and transmitted this classical heritage to both the Islamic world and the Christian West. Byzantine religious culture spread widely among Slavic-speaking peoples in the Balkans and Russia. (Original: p. 276; With Sources: p. 432)
5. Who were Cyril and Methodius and what did they do?
Already in the ninth century, two Byzantine missionaries, Cyril and Methodius, had developed an alphabet based on Greek letters with which Slavic languages could be written. This Cyrillic script made it possible to translate the Bible and other religious literature into these languages and greatly aided the process of conversion. (Original: pp. 276-277; With Sources: pp. 432-433)
6. Why did Prince Vladimir reject Islam and adopt Eastern Orthodox Christianity?
He actively considered Judaism, Islam, Roman Catholicism, and Greek Orthodoxy before finally deciding on the religion of Byzantium. He rejected Islam because it prohibited alcoholic drink and “drinking is the joy of the Ruses.” (Original: p. 277; With Sources: p. 433)
7. What did Kievan Rus extensively borrow from Byzantium?
a. Byzantine architectural styles
b. the Cyrillic alphabet
c. the extensive use of icons
d. a monastic tradition stressing prayer and service
e. political ideas of imperial control of the Church (Original: p. 277; With Sources: p. 433)
8. Why did Russian leaders proclaim the doctrine of a “third Rome?”
Russian leaders believed the original Rome had betrayed the faith, and the second Rome, Constantinople, had succumbed to Muslim infidels. Moscow was now the third Rome, the final protector and defender of true Orthodox Christianity. This notion reflected the “Russification” of Eastern Orthodoxy and its growing role as an element of Russian national identity. (Original: p. 278; With Sources: p. 434)
9. What happened to trade in Western Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire in 476 C.E.?
Outside Italy, long-distance trade dried up as Roman roads deteriorated, and money exchange gave way to barter in many places. (Original: p. 279; With Sources: p. 435)
10. What replaced the Roman order in Western Europe?
Politically, the Roman imperial order collapsed, to be replaced by a series of regional kingdoms ruled by Germanic warlords. However, these states maintained some Roman features, including written Roman law and the use of fines and penalties to provide order and justice. Some of the larger Germanic kingdoms, including the Carolingian Empire and the empire of Otto I of Saxony, also had aspirations to recreate something of the unity of the Roman Empire, although these kingdoms were short-lived and unsuccessful in reviving anything like Roman authority. In the West, a social system developed that ws based on reciprocal ties between greater and lesser lords among the warrior elites, which replaced the Roman social structure. Roman slavery gave way to serfdom. The Roman Catholic Church increased its influence over society. (Original: pp. 279-281; With Sources: pp. 435-438)
11. What were some similarities between the Roman Catholic Church and the Buddhist establishment in China?
Like the Buddhist establishment in China, the Church later became extremely wealthy, with reformers accusing it of forgetting its central spiritual mission. With the wealth and protection of the powerful, ordinary people followed their rulers into the fold of the Church. This process was similar to Buddhism’s appeal for the nomadic rulers of northern and western China following the collapse of the Han Dynasty. Christianity, like Buddhism, also bore the promise of superior supernatural powers, and its spread was frequently associated with reported miracles of healing, rainfall, fertility, and victory in battle. (Original: p. 281; With Sources: p. 437)
12. How did the Roman Catholic Church deal with the considerable range of earlier cultural practices, with regard to the conversion of Western Europe to Christianity?
The Church proved willing to accommodate a considerable range of earlier cultural practices, absorbing them into an emerging Christian tradition. Amulets and charms to ward off evil became medals with the image of Jesus or the Virgin Mary; traditionally sacred wells and springs became the sites of churches; festivals honoring ancient gods became Christian holy days. December 25 was selected as the birthday of Jesus, for it was associated with the winter solstice. The spreading Christian faith, like the new political framework of European civilization, was a hybrid. (Original: p. 282; With Sources: pp. 437-438)
13. In what ways did European civilization change after 1000, during the High Middle Ages?
Population grew; new lands had to be opened for cultivation to accommodate the population growth; growth in long-distance trade; population of towns grew on the sites of older Roman towns; these towns gave rise to and attracted ne groups of people, particularly merchants, bankers, artisans, and university-trained professionals such as lawyers, doctors, and scholars. (Original: p. 282-284; With Sources: pp. 438-440)
14. In what ways were women offered new opportunities between the 11th and 13th centuries?
Economic growth and urbanization offered European women substantial new opportunities. Women were active in weaving, brewing, milling grain, midwifery, small-scale retailing, laundering, spinning, and of course, prostitution. (Original: p. 284; With Sources: p. 440)
15. What was a reason offered for the change in women’s opportunities by the 15th century?
Opportunities for women were declining because most women’s guilds were gone, and women were restricted or banned from any others. Even brothels were run by men. Technological progress may have been one reason for this change. Water and animal-powered grain mills replaced the hand-grinding previously done by women, and larger looms making heavier cloth replaced the lighter looms that women had worked. Men increasingly took over these positions and trained their sons as apprentices, so they took these jobs away from women. (Original: p. 285; With Sources: pp. 440-441)
16. What was the impact of the Crusades on European economies?
As European civilization expanded, Western economies grew. Merchants, travelers, diplomats, and missionaries brought European society into more intensive contact with more distant peoples and with Eurasian commercial networks. By the 13th and 14th centuries, Europeans had direct, though limited, contact with India, China, and Mongolia. Europe clearly was outward bound. (Original: p. 286; With Sources: p. 442)
17. What were the most famous Crusades aimed at doing?
They were aimed at taking back Jerusalem and the holy places associated with the life of Jesus from Islamic control and returning them to Christendom. (Original: p. 287; With Sources: p. 443)
18. In the long term, the crusading movement by Western Europeans did not bring the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Christian churches closer together, but the crusading notion was used by the Europeans later to do what?
European empire building, especially in the Americas, continued the crusading notion that “God wills it.” (Original: p. 289; With Sources: p. 445)
19. By 1500, Europe had caught up with and, in some areas, surpassed China and the Islamic world. What were some technological breakthroughs in agriculture and the arts of war/sea?
Agriculture---The Europeans developed a heavy-wheeled plow, iron horseshoes, horse collar, a three-field system of crop rotation, which allowed considerably more land to be planted at any one time.
Arts of War/Sea—From China came gunpowder but the Europeans were probably the first to use it in cannons. Advances in shipbuilding and navigational techniques—including the magnetic compass and stern-post rudder from China, and adaptations of the Arab lateen sail, which enabled vessels to sail against the wind—provided the foundation for European mastery of the seas. (Original: pp. 290-292; With Sources: pp. 446-448)
20. Why was Europe unable to achieve the kind of political unity that China experienced? What impact did this have on the subsequent history of the European multi-centered political system?
Geographic barriers, ethnic and linguistic diversity, and the shifting balances of power among Europe’s many states prevented the emergence of a single empire like that of China. As a result, European nations engaged in many conflicts and Europe was unable to achieve domestic peace for many centuries. (Original: p. 292; With Sources: p. 448)
21. How did the struggle among the elites elevate the European urban-based merchant class? How does this compare with China?
The three-way struggle for power among kings, warrior aristocrats, and church leaders enabled urban-based merchants in Europe to achieve an unusual independence from political authority. Wealthy merchants exercised local power in many cities, and won the right to make and enforce their own laws and appoint their own officials. The relative weakness of Europe’s rulers allowed urban merchants more leeway, and paved the way to a more thorough development of capitalism in later centuries. By contrast, Chinese cities, which were far larger than those of Europe, were simply part of the empire and enjoyed few special privileges. While commerce was far more extensive in China than in a developing Europe, the powerful Chinese state favored the landowner over merchants, monopolized the salt and iron industries, and actively controlled and limited merchant activity far more than the new and weaker royal authorities of Europe were able to do. (Original: p. 293; With Sources: p. 449)
22. Who was the 13th century theologian that thoroughly integrated Aristotle's ideas into a logical and systematic presentation of Christian doctrine?
Thomas Aquinas (Original: p. 295; With Sources: p. 451)
Explain the significance of the following:
Justinian—Byzantine emperor (ruled 527-565 C.E.), noted for his short-lived reconquest of much of the former western Roman Empire and for his codification of Roman law. (Original: p. 272, 275; With Sources: p. 428, 431)
Caesaropapism—A political-religious system in which the secular ruler is also head of the religious establishment, as in the Byzantine Empire. (Original: p. 273; With Sources: p. 429)
Iconoclasm—The destruction of holy images; a term used most often to describe the Byzantine state policy of image destruction form 726- 843. (Original: p. 275; With Sources: p. 431)
Greek fire—Form of liquid fire that could be sprayed at eh enemy; invented by the Byzantines and very important in their efforts to halt the Arab advance into Byzantine territory. (Original: p. 276; With Sources: p. 432)
Charlemagne—Ruler of the Carolingian Empire (ruled 768-814), who staged an imperial revival in Western Europe. (Original: p. 280; With Sources: p. 436)
Beguines—Beguines were groups of laywomen, often from poorer families in Northern Europe, who lived together, practiced celibacy, and devoted themselves to weaving and to working with the sick, the old, and the poor. (Original: p. 285; With Sources: p. 441)
Anchoress—A religious woman who withdrew to a locked cell, usually attached to a church, where she devoted herself wholly to prayer and fasting. (Original: p. 285; With Sources: p. 441)