|CHAPTER 10 OUTLINE: AMERICANS WIN INDEPENDENCE ( 1776-1787)
I. EARLY YEARS OF THE WAR
A. The Country Divided..........
1. During the British occupation, Redcoats were able to take and hold every city they
wanted (except for Boston) because they had more fire power, trained troops, and supply
ships from Britain.
2. The countryside was a different story, and was very dangerous for the British
3. To complicate matters, not all Americans took sides....1/5 were Loyalists on the side
of the Brits, 2/5 were Patriots, willing to actively support the Revolution, but the other 2/5
insisted on remaining neutral, thus there were bitter disagreements, often even within
4. In general, most fighting Patriots came from New England and Virginia, while the
greatest number of Loyalists were concentrated in New York.
5. In fact, in NY, they provided more troops for the British than for the Patriots.
6. Other Loyalists came from the Carolinas and cities close to the Atlantic coast, often
they were employees of the British government or clergy of the Church of England.
7. Quakers remained neutral. So did the Germans in Pennsylvania.
8. Most Indians sided with the British, believing that if the Patriots won, the Indians would
loose their land, however the war permanently split the League of 6 Iroquois Nations----- the Tuscarora and Oneida siding with the Americans, while the rest supported the Brits.
9. The Continental Congress had offered Indian land to colonial men who enlisted in the
B. Americans at War......
1. Washington’s army needed everything: blankets, shoes, soap, food, even guns,
ammunition, clothes, wagons, horses, and tents.
2. He sought help from the Continental Congress, who attempted to raise funds by issuing
paper money, but because the British continued to use silver and gold to pay for goods, the
Continental paper money became increasingly devalued (“not worth a Continental”)
3. The enlisted men often didn’t want to stay very long, consequently Washington was
frequently forced to rely on very inexperienced troops.
4. Nonetheless, the lure of land after the war convinced many to enlist. Others hoped to
gain social standing and money by serving for a while.
5. Free black men were, however eager to enlist and willing to stay for longer. Though
Washington at first opposed their inclusion, fearing it would threaten the slave system, he
quickly changed his mind when the Governor of Virginia offered freedom to black slaves who enlisted to fight for the Brits.
6. Approx. 5,000 African Americans served in the Continental Army.
7. Women also played a role, some joining their husbands in the army camps because they had no other way to survive (a notable example: Martha Washington). The women did the washing, cooking, sewing, and nursing for the soldiers, and some even joined them on the
battlefield - like Mary Hays, who they named “Molly Pitcher” because she brought water to the men during a battle, and took her husband’s place at the cannon when he had fallen.
8. Women also contributed their pewter for musket balls, and engaged in spying. In the
towns, they forced merchants to set fair prices to help with wartime shortages.
C. New York City 1776........
1. When Abigail Adams watched the Brits sail out of Boston in March of 1776, Washington guessed they would soon show up in New York City, so he quickly relocated his troops to NY.
2. Britain’s General Howe showed up (from Nova Scotia) in July of 1776, with the
largest seaborne army ever launched: 8,000 Hessian Mercenaries (soldiers for hire).
3. All that summer Washington and Howe’s men fought, but Washington had to retreat
into New Jersey and Pennsylvania in order to save his army. Howe had won New York
City, and had chased Washington as he retreated.
4. During the cold winter, Howe ordered the Hessians on to New Jersey, while he and his
men returned to New York, counting on the cold to finish Washington’s men off.
D. New Jersey Victories.........
1. Howe almost got his wish. Many of the men left, and went home, reducing the army
from 20,000 to a few thousand.
2. Then Thomas Paine began to publish rousing patriotic pamphlets, the first being,
--(“these are the times that try men’s souls.....”)
3. On Christmas Day 1776, before many of his men’s enlistments ended the following day, Washington took a desperate gamble, rowing across the icy waters of the Delaware River going from the Pennsylvania side, over to the New Jersey side, to wage a surprise attack on the Hessian in Trenton, who were sleeping off their Christmas celebrations.
4. The famous trip is known as “Washington’s Crossing”, and it enabled Washington
to capture or kill over 1,000 Hessian, as well as much needed supplies.
5. One week later, the Patriots won another victory in Princeton, giving the army new
hope, and attracting new recruits.
E. Philadelphia 1777...........
1. The Brits were not overly worried about their losses in New Jersey. The Patriot army
still had only 4,000 men.
2. In the summer of 1777, Howe set out to take Philadelphia. He thought seizing the
American capital, and largest city, it would break the Patriots’ spirit.
3. He easily took the city in September, but the Patriots did not give up, rather they only
moved into the Pennsylvania countryside to a town called York.
F. British Strategy.......
1. Overall, the British strategy was to gain control of the Hudson River Valley, which
would isolate/cut off New England, and divide the American colonies in half.
2. The British plan was to have three British armies meet in Albany, New York: General
would come south from Canada, Gen. Barry St. Leger
would go east from Lake Ontario, down the Mohawk Valley, and General Howe
would head north up the Hudson river from New York City.
3. Burgoyne (“Gentleman Johnny”) left with a force including German mercenaries and about 400 Indians. He traveled slowly, throwing big parties between battles, giving the
Patriots time to cut down trees to block his route, as well as burning crops in the countryside, and running off the livestock, so that Burgoyne would have no means of
re-supplying his advancing Redcoats.
4. Burgoyne re-captured Ft. Ticonderoga, and became more confident, but that soon
ended on the 20 mile slog through the swampy New York wilderness--it took him three
weeks to get to the Hudson.
5. Expecting to rendezvous with St Leger and Howe there, instead, Burgoyne got word
Howe wasn’t coming. He was staying to deal with Washington in Pennsylvania.
G. Battles along the Mohawk......
1. General St. Leger was busy in present day Rome, NY the fighting Patriots at Fort Stanwix.
2. St. Leger had about 1,000 Iroquois, led by Mohawk chief, Joseph Brant (a.k.a.
Thayendanegea), a large number of Loyalists, and British and Hessian troops.
3. In the end of August, Benedict Arnold
headed north to assist the Patriot troops
at Ft. Stanwix. He sent Indian allies ahead to spread rumors that he was coming with
a huge army. St. Leger retreated so fast, they abandoned tents, canons, and supplies.
*(Much Later, on Sept. 23, 1780, a British spy was captured with a note from Benedict Arnold, who was seeking 20,000 British Pounds in exchange for betraying American defenses at West Point. Arnold fled to England, and returned to fight as a British Brigadier General)*
4. This effectively ruined the British strategy, although bitter fighting continued
throughout the Mohawk Valley for the rest of the war.
H. Saratoga---A Turning Point......
1. By August, Burgoyne was running low on horses and supplies because a raiding
party sent to Vermont had been badly defeated in the Battle of Bennington, but he
headed to Albany anyway.
2. At Freeman’s Farm a powerful Continental force, led by Gen. Horatio Gates (NOT Gage!) waited.
3. In order to continue, Burgoyne would have to get through the earthworks, a earthen wall put up by Thaddeus Kosciuszko (a polish engineer who had come to help the Patriots) as a protection for the Continental Army.
4. Burgoyne decided to wait for more troops to arrive.
5. But, as his now hungry army was fired upon constantly by Patriot forces, he decided
to fight instead.
6. Twice he tried to break through the earthworks and failed. In both battles
at Freeman’s Farm, Benedict Arnold’s courageous attacks were crucial in stopping
Burgoyne. Yet Gates received most of the credit. Arnold’s resentment about this is
part of the reason he “turned-coat”.
7. Burgoyne started to retreat, but was cut off at Saratoga by the Continental Army, and
forced to surrender his 6,000 troops.
I. Help from Abroad.......
1. The Battle of Saratoga was the turning point in the war. Now France realized too that
an American victory was possible, and recognized America’s independence by forging an
alliance with the new nation in 1778, persuading Spain to join the American side a year
2. France and Spain donated badly needed funds and supplies, and Spain also gave
3. In 1779-1780, General Bernardo de Galvez, the Spanish Governor of
Louisiana, took British strongholds at Natchez and Baton Rouge, then went on to take
, and Pensacola
3. These victories prevented the British from attacking
America from the Southwest, and they extended Spain’s empire in North America.
II. THE PATH TO VICTORY
A. Winter at Valley Forge......
1. After Howe drove Washington out of Philadelphia, Washington and his army
wintered 1777-1778 at Valley Forge. The soldiers were without food, adequate
clothing or shoes, and were not paid.
2. 1/4 of Washington’s troops died of the cold, small pox, typhoid, or starvation that
3. Many deserted because of the conditions.
4. With Washington was the Marquis de Lafayette, a 19 year old French nobleman,
who had volunteered with the army in the summer of 1777. With Lafayette, came an experienced professional soldier, the Baron de Kalb
, and another volunteer,
General Baron von Steuben
, who arrived in the spring of 1778.
5. Gen. Von Steuben drilled 100 soldiers at a time at Washington’s request, and
taught them military formations, and how to charge with bayonettes attached to
their muskets. He insisted on cleanliness and hygiene, and within a month they were
doing precision drills.
6. When it came time in June, to engage the British troops leaving Philadelphia,
the preparations had clearly paid off.
B. War on the Frontier......
1. George Rogers Clark volunteered with Patrick Henry to help Virginia maintain the
lands it had claimed along the western frontier (in present day Indiana and Illinois).
2. In the summer of 1778, Clark traveled down the Ohio River with 175
Virginians for 900 miles, and then left their boats, proceeding on foot towards
Kaskaskia, a British fort on the Mississippi (in present-day So. Illinois).
3. They took Kaskaskia without problems and moved on east towards
, on the Wabash River in present-day Indiana.
4. That winter Henry Hamilton had led British forces to recapture Vincennes.
Hamilton, the “hair buyer”, so called because he supposedly paid rewards for American scalps, was not alone in this practice. In New Hampshire, large rewards were offered
for the scalps of hostile male Indians. Scalps of women and children brought only half
5. Clark and his men caught Hamilton off guard, and took him prisoner.
6. Clark’s victory gave the Americans a hold on the vast area between the Great Lakes
and the Ohio River (half the total size of the 13 states).
7. However, Fort Detroit remained in British control.
C. War at Sea..........
1. By 1777, there were over 100 British warships off of the American coast, providing
the Brits total control of the Atlantic trade routes.
2. Since outright defeat of the powerful British navy was impossible, they continued
or commerce raiding
3. Privateer crews would capture an enemy ship, sell its cargo, and share the prize.
4. The states and Congress commissioned more than 2,000 privateers to prey on
enemy ships with hit and run tactics that were very effective in disrupting British shipping.
5. Scottish-born John Paul Jones was one of the most famous privateers. In 1779
he left a French port, sailing the Bonhomme Richard, named after Ben Franklin’s Almanac character, Poor Richard because his ship was worn and rotting. Jones was in command of a fleet of 3 ships carrying privateers.
6. While patrolling the coast of England in 1779, Jones’ ships approached a convoy of
trading ships guarded by two British warships. Jones attacked.
7. His ship leaking, Jones refused to surrender (“I’ve not yet begun to fight”) and after
three hours, he won. Two days later his ship sunk.
D. Setbacks in the South....
1. In 1778, after 3 years of fighting, the British were no nearer to victory than in 1775.
2. British Generals decided to shift the focus to the South, thinking that the many southern
Loyalists would be a benefit to them.
3. They also thought slaves would join them in large numbers.
4. Because of the promise of freedom, over 50,000 slaves helped the British as guided,
spies, and laborers. Many of them did not ever get that freedom, because, instead, they
were sold by British officers in the West Indies.
5. In November of 1778, British forces captured Savannah, and soon the Brits had
control of Georgia.
6. In 1780, they captured Charleston, SC, decimating the Patriot army in the south when its 5,000 defenders surrendered.
7. For Americans, it was the worst disaster of the war.
8. Washington asked Horatio Gates, the General who had won at Saratoga to form a new
9. At its center, was a group of several hundred led by Baron de Kalb.
10. With several thousand new, untrained recruits, Gates started out for Camden, SC,
and a battle with the Brits, under General Charles Cornwallis.
E. The “Swamp Fox”........
1. On the way to Camden, Gates joined forces with a rag tag band of 20 men led by
(a.k.a. the “Swamp Fox”, for his knowledge of the coastal swamp lands
of S. Carolina).
2. Marion was sent ahead to seize the river crossings behind Camden, cutting off the Brit’s
communications with Charleston.
3. However, in August 1780, at The Battle of Camden, when faced with the veteran British troops, de Kalb’s men fled and the Baron was killed.
4. This was a very demoralizing defeat for the Patriots.
5. British troops left for Charleston with a column of Patriot prisoners.
6. Marion and his band attacked, freeing the prisoners, and capturing the Redcoats.
F. Guerilla Fighting.....
1. Guerilla is Spanish literally for “little war”- it now means a small defensive force of
2. Marion’s guerilla force cut off the British supply lines between Charleston and the
interior of the region.
3. Other Patriots and Loyalists in the region formed guerilla bands, raiding each other,
with all rules of warfare cast aside.
4. At the bloody Battle of King’s Mountain, fought in 1780, on the border between the Carolinas, a patriot group of guerillas slaughtered a British force of over 1,000 men.
G. The Tide Turns in the South.....
1. In 1780, a new General, Nathanel Greene took charge of the southern army. Green was the son of a Quaker preacher, expelled by the Quakers for his willingness to enter the Revolution, he was one of Washington’s best men.
2. Greene began a policy of mercy towards Loyalists, and also won over the Cherokee
Indians to the American side.
3. Under Green, the army avoided full-scale conflicts where Britain could out shoot them.
4. Instead, they forced British forces to expend their energy chasing the Patriots all around
the country-side. When they did fight, they made sure British losses were heavy, before
H. The End of the War......
1. The war entered its 6th year, and opposition to it in Britain grew.
2. Some British leaders began to argue that American independence might not be so bad.
3. Most of the fighting was now in Virginia. Cornwallis had set up a British base at
Yorktown on the Chesapeake Bay, so that his army could get supplies by ship from New York.
4. At the same time, forces commanded by General Jean Rochambeau arrived in
Rhode Island to help American troops. In addition, Washington discovered that a large
French fleet had arrived from the West Indies.
5. The French fleet cut Yorktown off from resupply by sea.
6. Washington and Rochambeau marched south and cut Cornwallis off, and began to
bombard his troops.
III. INDEPENDENCE WON
A. Why the Americas won.....
On October 19, 1781, Cornwallis surrendered his army of 8,000.
1. Better leadership-
- British generals made mistakes in judgment, in part because many got their jobs
as favors, and through connections, rather than because of valid experience and ability.
- British leaders were also overly confident in many instances
- Washington was an excellent, experienced leader
2. Foreign Aid-
-Britain’s rivals, especially France, helped the Patriots with loans and military assistance
which they couldn’t have won without.
3. Knowledge of the land-
- the Americans knew the terrain better than the Brits, esp. inland.
4. Motivation -
- the Patriots had more at stake (homes, property, basic liberties) and thus, fought harder.
B. The Cost of the War.....
1. 25,000 Americans, 10,000 Brits dead.
2. Many Americans left the army penniless, having not been paid at all while serving.
3. Many had to sell the land grants they had received for fighting, in exchange for food.
4. The U.S. itself had gone deeply into debt to finance the war.
- later Congress would establish the right to tax American trade and that revenue
would help pay off the war debt.
C. Treaty of Paris.....
1. 1782 - American Officials started meetings with British officials to negotiate the peace
2. 1783 The Treaty of Paris is the name given to the final peace agreement that said:
- The U.S. was independent.
- U.S. boundaries extended west to the Mississippi River, north to Canada, and
to Spanish Florida
(the exact location here remains disputed for some time)
- U.S. gained fishing rights off of Canada’s Atlantic coast (near Newfoundland &
- Each side would repay pre-war debts
- Brits would return any captured slaves
- Congress would recommend that property taken from Loyalists be returned
3. Some didn’t like the treaty provisions
- Eg. Virginia Tobacco planters owed Britain millions, and had hoped to get out of paying
4. Neither side fully followed the terms
- Americans did not repay pre-war debts to British merchants, nor return Loyalist property
- Britain did not return slaves sold in the West Indies, nor give up military outposts in the
Great Lakes region--e.g. Ft. Detroit
D. Fate of the Loyalists......
1. Many Loyalists (betw. 80,000 - 100,000) left the U.S. during and just after the war
- they included ex-soldiers, Indian allies, 4,000 African Americans
2. As refugees, they went north to Nova Scotia and Quebec creating new towns.
3. Quebec had so many the Government divided the Province in half.
-Joseph Brant, the Mohawk chief and his Iroquois Loyalists went there
- the previously French Quebec was changed forever as it incorporated English language
and traditions-leading to Canada having both as official languages.
4. Loyalists also fled to E. Florida, but had to move again when Britain gave it to Spain in the
post war period, many went to Caribbean islands such as the Bahamas.
E. New State Governments......
1. With the Declaration of Independence, the colonies had become states.
2. Statehood meant they had to write laws to govern themselves because most colonial
governments had been formed by charters (written contracts specifying how the colony
would be governed.
3. Between 1776 and 1780 each of the 13 colonies formed a state government
4. Eleven of the states drew up a new state constitution
5. Connecticut and Rhode Island simply re-worded their colonial charters.
6. This was the first time in history that people were creating their own rules for government.
7. The basic underlying ideas that shaped these rules were:
- idea that people should work together to create agreements for the common good
- idea that “good” government required the consent of the people
- idea that there are bottom line laws that are different/more important than ordinary laws,
and that these fundamental laws should not be changed by lawmakers
8. For all 13 state’s governments, jobs were divided into 3 categories, or branches:
- Legislative - lawmaking branch
- Executive - (executes the laws- included a governor or council that enforced the laws
- Judicial - Interpreted the laws
F. Forming a Republic.....
1. While states were setting up their own governments, they also debated how the country overall should be run.
2. They decided upon a Republic, in which voters would choose the representatives who would
make the laws.
3. Congress proposed a loose union or Confederation of states, much like the Iroquois Confed.
4. They called the proposal “The Articles of Confederation”. It would create a national
government, but give states most of the power.
5. By 1779, 12 states had ratified the Articles
6. Maryland refused because they were upset that huge sections of its western lands were claimed by other states.
7. Maryland wanted those lands turned over to the nation so that the other states would not be
too much stronger than them.
8. As Maryland continued to hold out, one by one the larger states agreed to sacrifice part of
their claims “in the common interests of America” said Virginia.
G. A (weak) National Government.....
1. March 1781, the Articles of Confederation were finally ratified by Maryland.
2. It was not a national government like today’s national government.
3. Running the country was a Congress comprised of between 2-7 delegates from each state,
who, regardless of their total number, together share only one single vote for the state, assuring
that the smaller states had an equal say to larger ones.
4. Many mistrusted the idea of a central government, and preferred that states retain most of the
5. Thus, the Articles of Confederation strictly limited the Congress’s powers.
- e.g.: only states told tax people and enforce laws.
6. However, Congress had more authority over foreign affairs,
- it had the power to wage war & make peace
- It also had the power to set up trade rules with Indian nations
7. To create laws or make major decisions in Congress, 9 of the 13 states had to agree.
8. To make changes in the Articles themselves, it had to be by unanimous vote of the 13
9. Because the colonists had so grown to fear and hate the abuses of authority they had
experienced under Britain’s kings and royal governors, the Executive Branch was not setup to
concentrate power in the hands of one individual.
- There was no President like we have today.
10. Instead, a 3 person Committee led the Executive Branch, and their powers were limited
IV. THE CONFEDERATION: SUCCESSES AND PROBLEMS
A. Moving Westward......
1. Westward movement was occurring quickly -
- In 1775, Kentucky had 100 white settlers, in 1780 - 20,000!
2. Few, however, had yet settled north of the Ohio River in Kentucky, partly because there
were Indians there, determined to keep their land.
3. Although states had originally claimed this land, they had given up the right to govern it in
order to get the Articles of Confederation ratified.
- State land claims dated back to the colonial charters - eg: in 1609 Virginia was
granted a large chunk of land from “sea to sea”, and the Massachusetts Bay Co. got
land “extending to the Pacific”.
- When the Governor Henry of Virginia sent George Rogers Clark on a military
expedition to the Northwest in 1778, it was to strengthen Virginia’s orig. claim
4. The same area had since come to be called “the Northwest Territory”, and now belonged
to the national government.
5. Members of Congress began to propose plans for how the Northwest Territory should be
6. Thomas Jefferson, Congress member, suggested dividing it into 14 territories, but got
- Westerners objected because it called for rectangular boundaries that didn’t take natural
features like streams and mountains into account.
- Easterners didn’t like the plan because the 14 new territories would likely become new
States, having an instant majority over the existing 13 states in Congress. They also
said that the settlers weren’t ready to govern themselves.
B. The Ordinance of 1785.....(excerpt in back of textbook)
1.) New laws began to emerge in Congress regarding the settling and governing of the NW
Terr., called “Ordinances”
2. The early ordinances had to do with the selling of the land, not the governing of it.
- Congress was in a hurry to raise $ to pay off war debts
- In 1785 they passed an ordinance to have the NW Terr. land surveyed (measured)
and then for sections to be sold to the highest bidders.
C. The Northwest Ordinance.......
1. In 1787, Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance saying:
- Congress would choose a Governor and 3 judges to rule the territory
- the territory would eventually become no less than 3, no more than 5 separate new states
- the way a territory could become as state was by completing 2 steps:
Get 5,000 free men to settle in the territory
Have those settlers elect an assembly to work with the territorial Gov. and judges
until there were 60,000 free citizens--they could then apply to join the union as
a state on equal footing with existing states provided they were voted in.
- citizens in the territory would have freedom of religion, speech, and right to a trial
by jury, as well as protection from unfair punishment.
- settlers were also required to treat Indians fairly.
- slavery was banned in the territory (the future states of WI, IN, OH, IL, & MI would
never have slavery.
2. The NW Ordinance was a very effective plan (it outlasted the Articles of Confederation)
because it protected the freedoms of the settlers while allowing frontier governments to change
as the populations and their needs changed.
3. This became a model for settlement of other territories.
D. Toward Greater Equality.......
1. There were strong feelings of “Republicanism” - the idea that for the country to thrive, its
citizens needed particular virtues:
- A sense of equality, simplicity, and the will to sacrifice for the public good.
2. This sense of republicanism came out in many ways:
- complaints about the big fancy wig of a judge
- Ben Fkln’s hope that his daughter would not wear jewelry
- the attitude that people should prefer doing good deeds over going to the theater
3. It also included a call for greater religious freedom.
- laws that punished based on religious views were changed
- after the war, states began to end restrictions against Catholics and Jews and Atheists
holding public office
- states also stopped supporting churches with tax money (Virginia was first)
4. Republicanism led to the growth of the belief that the nation needed educated citizens
- new schools and universities were started
- women’s education also got more attention (a wise mother needed a proper education)
E. African Americans.......
1. Slavery was reconsidered, as not being in keeping with the new ideals.
- By 1840 all northern states had ended slavery.
2. Rhode Island and Connecticut had restricted slave trade in 1774, and Virginia,
Pennsylvania and Maryland followed.
3. Elizabeth Freeman, an African American, sold as a slave at 6 mos old to John Ashley of
- Ashley held meetings in his home to draft the Constitution---Elizabeth
took the wording “all are born free and equal” at face value, and sued for her freedom
in Massachusetts courts. She won in 1781, and her case ended slavery in the state.
4. Virginia, Delaware & Maryland passed laws allowing slaves to be freed without getting
5. Vermont banned slavery in its constitution in 1777.
6. Once some blacks had gained their freedom, blacks in general began to think differently.
7. Richard Allen, a black Methodist preacher, became a leader in the free black community
- he founded the Free African Society, as a means for African Americans to work
on their problems together
- it helped the needy and paid for education black children
8. In 1794, Allen started the first Methodist church for African Americans - a model for
F. A Troubled Government......
1. The NW Ordinance was the Continental Congress’s biggest success, in other areas they failed
2. The Congress’s biggest problem was not having a way to tax---
- It depended totally on the states to give it money, which they seldom did.
- the nation was unable to pay its debts
3. The largest debt was form the Revolution, during which Congress had borrowed large sums
from France, Holland, Spain, and many European banks.
4. It also owed money to soldiers who had served in the Continental army but not been paid
- June 1783: Hundreds of disgruntled soldiers surrounded the State House in Phila.
during a meeting of the Congress, forcing the legislators to flee, and symbolizing
Congress’s lack of power.
G. International Problems......
1. Americans did not have enough power to earn the respect of other nations.
2. America found themselves shut out of old trading patterns, especially by Britain, who
stopped American trade in the West Indies by blocking shipping.
3. Spain was involved in quarrels with America over Florida, and also blocked American
shipping in the West Indies.
4. Spain also threatened to restrict American use of the lower Mississippi River, a water link to world markets that Americans in their pursuit of western development depended upon.
H. The Not So United States.......
1. Now that the Revolution was over, there was no common enemy to pull Americans
together, and help them overcome their differences.
2. The Confederation Congress couldn’t provide that function either.
- they had trouble simply getting enough delegates to show up to have necessary votes
much less agree on anything...
3. There were no courts to settle disputes between member states
- Pennsylvania and Connecticut almost went to war over a land dispute
4. Each state began to pursue its own trade policy
5. The northern states favoring taxing imports, while Delaware and southern states did not
6. Many states heavily taxed goods from other states.