Temperance movement (461)-reform movement during antebellum era that helped Americans see danger/sin of drinking, tried to persuade Americans to stop drinking altogether
Perfectionism (464)-idea that many reformers in the antebellum era came up with that all incurable “ills (immoral practices)” could be “cured (eliminated)”
American Anti-Slavery Society (465)-Abolition movement founded in 1833 in order to protest slavery and immediately abolish it
Uncle Tom’s Cabin (471)-Harriet Beecher Stowe’s controversial book on slavery which exposed the horrors of the subject and helped movement to gain support
Women’s suffrage (479)-effort for women to gain right to vote, most prominent meeting was at Seneca Falls in Upstate New York
“Reformers never amounted to anything like a majority of the population, even in the north, but they had a profound impact on both politics and society. (455)”
“Perfecting American society, they [(white, militant) abolitionists] insisted, meant rooting out not just slavery, but racism in all its forms. (466)”
“Many black abolitionists called on free blacks to seek out skilled and dignified employment in order to demonstrate the race’s capacity for advancement. (473)”
“The Grimkes were the first to apply the abolitionist doctrine of universal freedom and equality to the status of women. (479)”
“When organized abolitionism split into two wings in 1840, the immediate cause was a dispute over the proper role of women in antislavery work. (485)”
The Antebellum reform movements faced both internal and external opposition from the society they lived in, yet because of the persistence of their leaders and the ways they spread their message, these movements were able to influence American society and change the thinking of many Americans during the Antebellum period.
Chapter 13 Outline
This chapter covers the events that occurred between the years 1840 and 1861. This includes the events like the Texas Revolt, Election of 1844, the Election of 1860, and the Dred Scott Decision. Several states were established during these years: Florida, Texas, Iowa, Wisconsin, California, Minnesota, Oregon, and Kansas.
The presidents discussed in this chapter were John Tyler, Martin Van Buren, James K. Polk, Zachary Taylor, Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan, and Abraham Lincoln. The main slavery and anti-slavery disputes are discussed in these chapters as well. The Fugitive Slave Act and Kansas- Nebraska Act were put into effect to try and control the “slavery issue” going on. Chapter 13 is a preview to the Civil War, covering all the events that led up to it.
Several major political parties are introduced in this chapter such as the Free Soil Party and the Republican Party. These really revolved around the “slavery issue”. This usually involved different territorial advancements like the introduction of the Texas territory after the Mexican War.
The Texas Revolt (pg 496):
This revolt occurred between the years 1830 and 1845. The inhabitants of the Texas territory, that was acquired in the Mexican War, wanted to be annexed into the union as a state. They were eventually annexed in 1845.
Free Soil Party (pg 507):
A political party that opposed slavery in the new territory acquired in the Mexican War that was formed in 1848. They nominated Martin Van Buren for president in the same year. Most of the party’s members had joined the Republican Party by 1854.
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 (pg 510):
This allowed for runaway slaves in the North to be captured and taken back to their masters in the South. This was often brought up in cases involving fugitive slaves and used for the benefit of the South, which caused quite a bit of opposition in the North.
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 (pg 511):
This was a law passed to allow settlers in the newly organized territories of the Missouri border to decide whether or not to be slave states, it was sponsored by Stephen A. Douglas. There were many negative opinions about this law and the resulting repeal of the Missouri Compromise of 1820. This led to violence in Kansas and the formation of the Republican Party.
Know-Nothing Party (pg 515):
This party was made up of anti-Catholic Nativists. They were a third party organized in 1854 in reaction to the large-scale German and Irish immigration. The parties only presidential candidate was Millard Fillmore in 1856.
Dred Scott Decision (pg 519):
This was the result of a state senate case, Dred Scott v. Sandford between a slave and his master in 1857. Dred Scott had accompanied his master to a free state and claimed that he was a free man and attempted to sue his master. The court ruling in this case was that no black person was considered a citizen of the United States and thusly could not sue.
“Settlement in Oregon did not directly raise the issue of slavery. But the nation’s acquisition of part of Mexico did. ” (pg 495)
“The Mexican War was the first American conflict to be fought primarily on foreign soil and the first in which American troops occupied a foreign capital.” (pg 499)
“With the end of the Mexican War, the United States absorbed half a million square miles of Mexico’s territory, one-third of that nation’s total area. A region that for centuries had been united was suddenly split in two, dividing families and severing trade routes.” (pg502)
“The Free Soil position had a popular appeal in the North that far exceeded the abolitionists’ demand for immediate emancipation and equal rights for blacks… The idea of preventing the creation of new slave states appealed to those who favored policies, such as the protective tariff and government aid to internal improvements, that the majority of southern political leaders opposed.” (pg 507)
“The fugitive slave issue affected all the free states, not just those that bordered on the South.” (pg 510)
“Before Lincoln assumed office on March 4, 1861, the seven seceding states formed the Confederate States of America, adopted a constitution, and chose as their president Jefferson Davis of Mississippi.” (pg 530)
Main Idea/ Thesis:
Although the United States government tried repeatedly to solve the “slavery issue” with the Fugitive Slave Act, and Kansas- Nebraska Act, the Civil War was inevitable due to the social and political disputes over slavery introduced with the Mexican War, and the same measures taken to prevent the issue in the first place.
Chapter 14 Outline
Chapter 14 discussed the American Civil War between the Union and the Confederacy over slavery and 'states rights', the rights of which were the right to own slaves. The war was fought from around 1861 and ended 1865. The American Civil War was often considered to be the first modern war, the reasoning behind this being due to the amount of modern weaponry used to make this the bloodiest war in American history, clocking in at over 600,000 casualties. The American Civil War was also a time of great technological improvements. Advances in things such as: steamboats, as shown in Monitor v. Merrimac, communication in the form of telegraphs, in order to send important war-related information from state to state, and medical care, while it was primitive with amputations and what not it would later lead to greater sanitation practices.
Additionally, the ability on both sides to mobilize their resources through the railroad systems contributed to the intensity of this war as well. Both sides had their advantages, the South was fighting on home territory and had more natural resources, where as the North was more industrial and had more manpower. But economically the North had almost every advantage, they had a greater population, more factories, greater value of goods produced (and therefore more capital and money), longer railroad tracks, more textiles, more firearms and more processed goods like iron. All of which the South needed more of in droves.
In an effort to end the war sooner, President Abraham Lincoln issued a preliminary proclamation on September 22, 1862, freeing the slaves in areas under Confederate control as of January 1, 1863, the date of the final proclamation, which also authorized the enrollment of black soldiers into the Union army. With this new wave of troops with full morale, and a major source of labor being taken away from the South the Union was able to defeat the South more and more. And with Lee's surrender at the Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, on April 9 the Civil War finally came to an end.
Monitor v. Merrimac (Pg 541)- revolutionizing naval warfare. The war saw the use of the telegraph for military communication, the introduction of observation balloons to view enemy lines, and even primitive hand grenades and submarines
national banking system (Pg 543) - The lack of this on both sides resulted in a near financial catastrophe as there were no systems to tax citizens for war funds.
Radical Republicans (Pg 549) - The most uncompromising opponents of slavery before the war and concluded that the institution must become a target of the Union war effort.
Emancipation Proclamation (Pg 550)- President Abraham Lincoln issued a preliminary proclamation on September 22, 1862, freeing the slaves in areas under Confederate control as of January 1, 1863, the date of the final proclamation, which also authorized the enrollment of black soldiers into the Union army.
“King Cotton diplomacy”(Pg 568)- An attempt by the South to encourage British intervention by banning cotton exports.
“The mobilization of the Union’s resources for modern war brought into being a new American nation-state with greatly expanded powers and responsibilities. The United States remained a federal republic with sovereignty divided between the state and national governments. But the war forged a new national self-consciousness, reflected in the increasing use of the word “nation”—a unified political entity—in place of the older “Union” of separate states” (Pg 558)
“Under Davis, the Confederate nation became far more centralized than the Old South had been. The government raised armies from scratch, took control of southern railroads, and built manufacturing plants. But it failed to find an effective way of utilizing the South’s major economic resource, cotton.” (Pg 568)
'“We are fighting for our liberty,” wrote one volunteer, without any sense of contradiction, “against tyrants of the North . . . who are determined to destroy slavery.” But public disaffection eventually became an even more serious problem for the Confederacy than for the Union.” (Pg 569)
“In November 1864, Sherman and his army of 60,000 set out from Atlanta on their March to the Sea. Cutting a sixty-mile-wide swath through the heart of Georgia, they destroyed railroads, buildings, and all the food and supplies they could not use.” (Pg 576)
“Nearly the entire white population fled, leaving behind some 10,000 slaves. The navy was soon followed by other northerners—army officers, Treasury agents, prospective investors in cotton land, and a group known as Gideon’s Band, which included black and white reformers and teachers committed to uplifting the freed slaves.” (Pg 574) in regards to The Sea Island Experiment.
Although the South had many advantages in the their natural resources and wide open territory, the North was ultimately destined to victory because of their greater industrial strength, their sheer manpower and overall resource count, and one of the greatest political moves in the Emancipation Proclamation.
Chapter fifteen discusses the political and social ramifications of Radical Reconstruction in the South, detailing how different visions of freedom between former slaves and slaveholders manifested in different goals. Though many former slaves insisted that, though their unpaid labor, they ought to acquire a right to the land, the failure of land reform under the Johnson administration ensured the vast majority of rural freemen remained destitute and without property. Resultantly both black and white farmers found themselves entangled in crop-lien and sharecropping systems.
State governments were granted a free hand in managing local affairs in the war-torn South, violating free labor principles set in place by the Republican North. Though Andrew Johnson identified himself as the champion of “yeomen” farmers, it became clearly evident he lacked Lincoln’s tact and political foresight; as for one example, Johnson removed the Secretary of War from office in 1868 to demonstrate his dislike for the Tenure of Office Act, subsequently leading to his impeachment. Johnson was succeeded by Ulysses S. Grant, who oversaw the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment in 1868.
The laws and amendments of Reconstruction reflected the intersection of two products of the Civil War era—a newly empowered national state and the idea of a national citizenry enjoying equality before the law. Though these inspired an outburst of political organization among Blacks, a “reign of terror” inspired by secret societies such as the Klu Klux Klan along with the 1873 depression waned the North’s commitment to Reconstruction. Additionally some Republicans, alienated by rampant corruption under Grant’s administration, formed the Liberal Republican Party, contributing to a resurgence of racism in the North. Through the Bargain of 1877, Rutherford B. Hayes ensured southern white Democrats would exercise unilateral control over the South for a century, thus ending Reconstruction.
Key Terms Defined (at least five)
The use of crop as collateral for loans from merchants for supplies.
A presidential device to kill a piece of legislation without issuing a formal veto by simply not signing a given bill and letting it expire after Congress adjourns.
Laws passed by southern states during the Reconstruction Era denying ex-slaves civil rights.
A labor system through which freedmen agreed to exchange a portion of their harvested crops for use of the land, a house, tools, and other capital.
An insult referring to Northerners who moved to the South during Reconstruction. “Carpetbaggers” generally included Union veterans who had served in the South, reformers who sought to help ex-slaves, and merchants who sought business opportunities.
Important quotes (at least five with page number)
“With planters seeking to establish a labor system as close to slavery as possible, and former slaves demanding economic autonomy and access to land, a long period of conflict over the organization and control of labor followed on plantations throughout the South. It fell to the Freedmen’s Bureau, an agency established by Congress in March 1865, to attempt to establish a working free labor system.” (592)
“A fervent believer in states’ rights, Johnson insisted that since secession was illegal, the southern states had never actually left the Union or surrendered the right to govern their own affairs.” (600)
“…[A]t the president’s urging, every southern state but Tennessee refused to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment. The intransigence of Johnson and the bulk of the white South pushed moderate Republicans towards the Radicals. In March 1867, over Johnson’s veto, Congress adopted the Reconstruction Act.” (604)
“Former Confederates reserved their greatest scorn for these ‘scalawags,’ whom they considered traitors to their race and region. Some southern-born Republicans were men of stature, like James L. Alcorn, the owner of one of Mississippi’s largest plantations and the state’s first Republican governor.” (614)
“By the mid 1870s, Reconstruction was clearly on the defensive. Democrats had already regained control of states with substantial white voting majorities such as Tennessee, North Carolina, and Texas. The victorious Democrats called themselves Redeemers, since they claimed to have “redeemed the white South from corruption, misgovernment, and northern and black control.” (620)
The Confederacy’s defeat completely demoralized southerners, leaving planter families facing profound changes. Radical Republicans sought for a strict restriction of Johnson’s overpowering state governance and the guarantee of the right to vote for black men, opposing the establishment of new “rebel-led” governments created in the aftermath of war. This clash of interests manifested into a hotbed of political struggles and reigns of terror that underlay future developments in American history.
Though Radical Republican’s efforts to extend suffrage and integrate Blacks within the South’s political structure proved successful in spite of legislated repression and reigns of terror from secret societies, the failure of these progressives to reform the South’s economic system strengthened the notion that Black citizens could be poor and completely dependent to white landowners.
Chapter 16 Outline
In chapter sixteen, Foner discusses the Second Industrial Revolution, the West’s change, the Politics and ideas of freedom at the time, and the Republics relation to labor. it is clear that although there was an economic advance at the time, this only occurred among the upper class (as shown by John D. Rockefeller and others). With this ‘second revolution’ came more westward expansion and new ideas of what the West meant; people began to realize that it was full of potential profit and valuable natural resources (however many of these resources were key in Native American’s livelihoods). The politics of the time were full of corruption, many of the upper class controlled government, or at least had a strong influence, allowing many laws and decisions that were passed (or vetoed) to be in their favor. The lower class struggled, and with ideas like Social Darwinism, it was hard for them to get help or become successful. Labor’s, and their conditions, were either not acknowledged, or dismissed as not important. Their issues were not the issues of the upper class, so they often did not get dealt with.
“Great upheaval” of 1886: This was a series of protests and strikes by laborers that occurred all across the nation. Many ended of these protests/strikes ended violently between the police and the protesters. They brought awareness to the social divisions among class in the country.
“Captains of Industry” v. “Robber Barons”: someone whose hard work and innovation helped push the economy forward versus someone who used their power and control to take advantage and do things without taking responsibility for their actions.
Greenbacks: the paper money used by the Union during the Civil War, these become worthless after the war, leaving many poor and in need of money.
Social Darwinism: the idea of someone being naturally superior to another. This was used to justify slavery and the success and failures of people (as well as whole social classes).
Knights of Labor: this was a labor union, one of the firsts to attempt to organize unskilled workers, women, men, blacks, and whites alongside each other (they did exclude asians on the west coast). In 1886 there were 800,000 members;these ‘knights’ held strikes and boycotts and were involved in political action, and educational/social activities.
“The era from 1870 to 1890 is the only period of American history commonly known by a derogatory name---The Gilded Age, after the title of an 1873 novel by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner. “Gilded” means covered with a layer of gold, but it also suggests that the glittering surface covers a core of little real value and is therefore deceptive. Twain and Warner were referring not only to the remarkable expansion of the economy in this period but also to the corruption caused by corporate dominance of the politics and to the oppressive treatment of those left behind in the scramble for wealth. “Get rich, dishonestly if we can, honestly if we must,” was the era’s slogan, according to The Gilded Age.” (p.656)
“The railroad made possible what is sometimes called the ‘second industrial revolution’. Spurred by private investment and massive grants of land and money by federal, state, and local governments, the number of miles of railroad track in the United States tripled between 1860 and 1880 and tripled again by 1920, opening vast new areas to commercial farming and creating a truly national market for manufactured goods.” (p. 635).
“The idea of natural superiority of some groups to others, which before the Civil War had been invoked to justify slavery in an otherwise free society, now reemerged in the vocabulary of modern science to explain the success and failure of individuals and social classes. In 1859, The British scientist Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species.One of the most influential works of science ever to appear, it expounded the theory of evolution whereby plant and animal species best suited to their environment took the place of those less able to adapt.
In a highly oversimplified form, language borrowed from Darwin, such as ‘natural selection’ , ‘the struggle for existence’, and ‘the survival of the fittest’, entered public discussion of social problems in the Gilded Age. According to what came to be called Social Darwinism, evolution was as natural a process in human society as in nature, and government must not interfere. Especially misguided, in this view, were efforts to uplift those at the bottom of the social order, such as laws regulating conditions of work or public assistance to the poor. The giant industrial corporation, Social Darwinists believed, had emerged because it was better adapted to its environment than earlier forms of enterprise.To restrict its operations by legislation would reduce society to a more primitive level.” (p.662)
“Nowhere did capitalism penetrate more rapidly or dramatically than in the trans-Mississippi West, whose ‘vast, trackless spaces,’ as the poet Walt Whitman called them, were now absorbed into the expanding economy. At the close of the civil war, the frontier of settlement did not extend far beyond the Mississippi River. To the west lay millions of acres of fertile and mineral-rich land roamed by giant herds of buffalo whose meat and hides provided food, clothing, and shelter for a population of more than 250,000 Indians.
In 1893, the historian Frederick Jackson Turner gave a celebrated lecture ‘The Significance of the Frontier in American History,’ in which he argued that on the western frontier the distinctive qualities of American culture were forged: individual freedom, political democracy, and economic mobility. The West, he added, acted as a ‘safety valve,’ drawing off those dissatisfied with their situation in the East and therefore counteracting the threat of social unrest. Turner’s was one of the most influential interpretations of American history ever developed. But his lecture summarized attitudes toward the West that had been widely shared among Americans long before 1893. Ever since the beginning of colonial settlement in British North America, the West- a region whose definition shifted as the population expanded- had been seen as a place of opportunity for those seeking to improve their conditions in life.” (p.643-644)
"These and other industrial leaders inspired among ordinary Americans a combination of awe, admiration, and hostility. Depending on one's point of view, they were 'captains of industry' whose energy and vision pushed the economy forward, or 'robber barons' who wielded power without any accountability in an unregulated marketplace. Most rose from modest backgrounds and seemed examples of how inventive genius and business sense enabled Americans to seize opportunities for success. But their dictatorial attitudes, unscrupulous methods, repressive labor politics, and exercise of power without any democratic control led to fears that they were undermining political and economic freedom. Concentrated wealth degraded the political process, declared Henry Demarest Lloyd in Wealth against Commonwealth (1894), an expose of how Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company made a mockery of economic competition and political democracy by manipulating the market and bribing legislation. 'Liberty and monopoly,' Lloyd concluded, 'cannot live together.'" (641)