Chapter 1 Outline
Chapter 1 goes in to explain the background of how the Native Americans lived in the land which was known as the New World. Descriptions of how the natives lived in places such as the Mississippi River Valley to the ones in the Eastern North America were discussed. Domesticity roles of the Native Americans were discussed to give a comparison to the European roles of domesticity. This goes further to see how the Europeans thought of native societies. Comparisons between Christian and native freedoms were included in the explanations of the societies.
Furthermore, the Portuguese journeys around Africa were discussed along with trade in the Far East. and slavery in Africa This gives the background to why and how Christopher Columbus reached the New World. Later, the Columbus expeditions and, subsequently, the expeditions of the conquistadors in the Spanish New World. The system of government and the how the Spanish ruled their New World colonies were also discussed and how the Native Americans dealt with the Spanish mission system and their rule (the Pueblo Revolt and Las Casa’s Complaint). The subsequent reforms of the Spanish Empire were discussed along with the some of the further Spanish settlement in North America, especially near and in Florida. The French colonizations, resulting from expeditions of explorers such as Jacques Cartier, were detailed where they settled in New France. Native American relations and French relations were cited among the life in New France. This was described in contrast to Dutch settlement in New Netherland which was part of the expanding Dutch Empire. Ways of Dutch settlement in New Netherland, such as their freedoms of women and property were discussed. Subsequent Native American and Dutch relations involving the land in what is today New York was discussed.
Cahokia- a Mississippi River Valley city that was inhabited by the mound builders around 3,500 years ago
reconquista- when Spain was fully under control under the kingdoms of Aragon and Castile from the Moors in 1492
peninsulares- the small minority in the Spanish colonial social class that represented the extremely rich landowners
mestizos- people of mixed origin that composed of the large proportion of the urban population in New Spain
Huguenots- French Protestants who faced persecution in their own country which lead to their migration to the New World
wampum- a string of beads used by the natives as currency and a component for their religious ceremonies
“Indian identity centered on the intermediate social group-a tribe, village, chiefdom, or confederacy.” (13)
“Families “owned” the right to use the land, but they did not own the land itself.” (14)
“They [the Spanish] had immense confidence in the superiority of their own cultures to those they encountered in America.” (30-31)
“In the eighteenth century, colonial authorities adopted a more tolerant attitude toward traditional religious practices and made fewer demands on Indian labor.” (40)
“The French prided themselves on adopting a more humane policy than their imperial rivals.” (41)
“The Dutch prided themselves on their devotion to liberty. Indeed, in the early seventeenth century they enjoyed two freedoms not recognized elsewhere in Europe- freedom of the press and broad religious toleration.” (45)
Although the Dutch, French, and Spanish brought commerce, religion, and new type of society to the Indians, they suffered under the hands of the Europeans due to diseases brought by them (smallpox), widespread brutality both individually and as a community, and disrupted their communal society due to the implementation of the more self oriented European society.
Chapter one begins with the summary of Native American culture and lifestyle in the America’s, focusing mainly on pre European influence. Native Americans had different life styles form that of the European conquerors. One of the main difference in there societies where gender roles as women in European cutler where forced into the cult of domesticity as they where made to keep in charge of the household, by cooking, cleaning, and raising children. Men in European culture would have a profession like farming and would bring home money and food for their family. Native American cutler was different as women where grated more rights like the ability to farm and become a tribal elders while men took care of the hunting, something seen as leisurely inEuropean culture. The view from the Europeans came to be that Native America men mistreated their women by forcing them to farm while they hunted, but in reality women where much more free in Native American culture.
To make matters worse Native Americans held a different belief about freedom than the European settlers. To Native American’s freedom hinged on the idea that they could live in nature and appreciate its virtues and bounty. To European settlers their freedom was derived from their ability to use the land around them for a profit and to worship the god of their choice while spreading their belief onto other that did not share them. These social differences led to the eventual warring and massacres that would mare the United States and the colonies for centuries to come.
Chapter one also focuses on the European exploration and colonization that led to the founding of the colonies. Men like Christopher Columbus and Hernan Cortes traversed the Atlantic Ocean in and found the New World. Hernan Cortes discovered and overthrow the Aztec Empire, and Christopher Columbus landed at a small Island in the Bahamas, and was the first European explorer to find the continent since the Vikings made settlements in norther Canada. After these men found the America’s European power took over areas of them. Spain and Portugal split up South and Central America. The Spanish also controlled modern day Florida and the west cost of Modern day America. France took most of Canada and the midwest of America. England made several settlement along the east cost like Jamestown and Plymouth (eventually incorporated). The Netherlands made settlements in what is now New York city with the help of Henry Hudson. These colonies and settlements where the start of what would become the North and South America we see today. The history of how these cultures where built and founded can not be overlooked when diving into the history of the United States.
Edict of Nantes: extended religious tolerance to Protestants in 1685
Mestizos: a person who was part native and part Spaniard
Francisco Pizarro: took over Incan kingdom
Hernan Cortes: overthrew Aztec empire
Tenochtitlan: The capitol of the ancient Aztec Empire, located in modern day Mexico City
The Great League of Peace: a league of six Native American Nations also know as the Iroquois Confederacy that presided in the New York area of now a day America
“it seamed to Adam Smith that the “discovery” of America had produced both great “benefits” and “misfortunes’”
“The discovery of America was one of the two greatest and most important events recorded in the history of mankind” -Adam Smith
“The residents of America where no more a single group than Europeans or Africans. They spoke hundreds of different languages and lived in numerous kinds of societies”
“Indians had no sense of “America” as a continent or hemisphere. They did not think of themselves as a single unified people, and idea invented by Europeans and only many years later adopted by Indians themselves.”
“Many Europeans saw Indians as embodying freedom.”
Native America culture was unique and very different from European culture, and these differences allowed European powers to justify taking their land and enslaving their people.
Summary: England wanted to colonize the New World in order to compete with countries like Spain and France which were establishing colonies there. They were also trying to prevent the spread of Spanish Catholicism and spread Protestantism. America was thought to be a land of opportunity because people could work for themselves and work on the fertile American soil instead of staying in English cities where it was starting to become overcrowded and half of the population was living under the poverty line.
Many people came over as indentured servants which were people who agreed to basically be slaves temporarily if someone paid for their passage to America. The settlement of Jamestown, Virginia struggled in the beginning with a high death rate and no thought for a long term plan there. Thanks to James Smith, the colony survived because of his strict leadership. Virginia later had trouble with the natives in during the Uprising of 1622 but the settlers showed the supremacy in the War of 1644 where the locals of the area were forced to surrender and were made to live on reservations. Virginia also made its profits from the cash crop of tobacco.
Puritans came over to America in order to worship how they wanted. They wanted “moral” liberty which meant that they had the freedom “to that only which is good.” Pilgrims were the first Puritans to come to America and they signed the “Mayflower Compact”, which was the first frame of government in the U.S., right before they arrived in Plymouth. These people helped turn the area into Massachusetts. There was disagreement however and this led to the founding of Rhode Island by Roger Williams and Connecticut by Thomas Hooker. Meanwhile, the English Civil War brought debates of freedom in England as well as the colonies.
Key Terms Defined:
Mayflower Compact-Signed in 1620 aboard the Mayflower before the Pilgrims landed in Plymouth, the document committed the group to a majority-rule government.
Great Migration-The name for the large emigration of people from England to Massachusetts between 1629 and 1642.
Uprising of 1622-An attack done by Native Americans led by Opechancanough which killed ¼ of the settlers in Virginia in a single day.
Half-Way Covenant-A decision by the Puritans which allowed the grandchildren of those who came over during the Great Migration to have a “half-way” membership
Indentured Servant-Settler who signed on for a temporary period of servitude to a master in exchange for passage to the New World
“But by going to the war, declared Governor Francis Wyatt, the Indians had forfeited any claim to the land.” (p.65)
“Its animals were supposedly so abundant and its climate and soil so favorable that colonists could enrich the mother country and themselves by providing English consumers with goods now supplied by foreigners and opening a new market for English products.” (p.58)
“Like slaves, servants could be bought and sold, could not marry without the permission of their owner, were subject to physical punishment, and saw their obligation to labor enforced by the courts.” (p.60)
“Of the 120,000 English immigrants who entered the Chesapeake region during the seventeenth century, three-quarters came as servants.” (p.67)
“By 1600, the traditional definition of ‘liberties’ as a set of privileges confined to one or another social group still persisted, but alongside it had arisen the idea that certain ‘rights of Englishmen’ applied to all within the kingdom.” (p.84)
Main Idea/Thesis: Although the settling of North America brought freedom to the groups like the Puritans and economic prosperity for many, it came at the cost of freedom for groups like the Native Americans and indentured servants as well as helping create the debate of what freedom really was.
Chapter 2 is called "Beginnings of English America, 1607-1660". This chapter is about the migration of the English and the Irish and New England. This chapter talks about religion, division of the New Englanders, and Settling the Chesapeake. Religion talks about the rising of Puritanism. Many people had come to the New World by being indentured servants. This chapter is mostly about the settling and the development of religions, different social groups, and the Transformation of Indian life.
Indentured Servants: a labor system where people paid for their passage to the New World by working for an employer for a certain number of years.
Protestantism: One of the three major forces for Christianity
Puritans: A group of English Reformed Protestants who sought to purify the Church of England from all Roman Catholic practices
Tobacco Colonies: Helped for the income and riches for the New World
Crisis in Maryland: In early 1861, Maryland was walking a tightrope between the Union and the Confederacy. In addition to being physically between the two sides, Maryland depended equally on the North an South for its' economy.
"But bringing freedom to Indians was hardly the only argument Hakluyt marshaled as England prepared to step onto the world stage." (57)
"Jamestown lay beside a swamp containing malaria carrying mosquitoes, and the garbage settlers dumped into the local river bred germs that caused dysentery and typhoid fever." (63)
"Despite harsh conditions of work in the tobacco fields, a persistently high death rate, and laws mandating punishments from whipping to an extension of service for those who ran away or were unruly, the abundance of land continued to attract migrants." (67)
"In the colonies as in England, a married woman possessed certain rights before the law, including a clam to 'dower rights' of one-third of her husband's property in the event that he died before she did." (67)
"Puritans announced that they intended to bring Christian faith to the Indians, but they did nothing in the first two decades of settlement to accomplish this. They generally saw Indian as an obstacle to be pushed aside, rather than as potential converts." (81)
When new settlers moved to North America, their main goal was to gained the freedom they could not have in England. Colonists were attracted by the idea of having more land and liberty for the cost of a passage to the New World. Some British settlers called America the “best poor man’s country,” meaning that anyone from any background could come to the New World and find freedom and prosperity. Many master-less men, or unemployed wanders, came to the New World for a new start.
During the eighteenth century, British settlers developed a strong attachment to slavery in the colonies. They strongly believed that their prosperity was due to the slaves in the New World. Their opinion was, that without the large amount of slave labor, the production rates would never have reached what they were at. Although it is true that they could not have had such high production rates without the slaves, these men believed that their prosperity was not solely because of the slaves.
Land was the main selling point for new settlers to come to America. The tempting idea to own fifty acres of your own land for the price of your passage to the New World was overwhelming. Farming was the biggest market for Englishmen at the time. Tobacco was selling at immense rates, and farmers were making quite the profit. The amount of land one had said a lot about their social ranking in early American history. If one lacked land, they were not considered not as important or wealthy. If one owned lots of land, they were of high social ranking and taken very seriously in society.
In the farming colonies, most work revolved around the home. A common saying in a colony was, “He that hath an industrious family shall soon be rich.” The independence of a farmer depended on the amount of labor that the dependent woman and child did. As the death rate and population grew, the lengths of marriage began to grow longer. The society revolved on male dominance and female submission, much like every other colony in America. As the colony grew, opportunities quickly receded. Women, who were banned from becoming attorneys, disappeared from all judicial activities. Women and men both worked on the land due to the lack of labor in the colony. A woman's work was stereotypical: cleaning, cooking, making butter, sewing, and sometimes, helping with agricultural chores. A constant reminder women received was, “A woman’s work was never done.”
By the eighteenth century, Indian lifestyle had changed drastically. Most of Indian land had been taken or sold to English settlers. Tribes that had existed for hundreds of years had diminished. New tribes had formed from the remnants of old ones. Indian cultures had changed immensely from what they were when English settlers arrived in America. English believed that they could take from the Indians because they were inferior to them. Many English took over civilizations because they believed they were doing a favor to the Indians. Wars had broken out between tribes and the colonists, usually over land. This and disease were the main causes of death for the Indian tribes.
Witchcraft had been known since the beginning of the seventeenth century, but heightened near the end due to the overwhelming crises happening around Salem. 1692 was the year when almost all the executions played out. Witches were the scapegoats at the time since many English settlers had no one else to blame. When women were accused of witchcraft, the only way to escape persecution was to either admit to sorcery or name another witch. Because of this rule, many women named any woman they could to save their own life, creating a domino effect of executions. Thousands died, most were innocent. The governor of Massachusetts recognized their was an issue at hand, and dissolved the court and ordered the prison to release all accused of witchcraft. After this, there was only a two cases of witchcraft and both were found not guilty.
William Penn and the Puritans both saw their colonies as a “holy experiment,” meaning, those who looked to escape religious persecution could experiment their new lives in America, practicing the religion of their choice. However, Puritans were only allowed to practice their religion, whereas in the Quaker colony, one could have full religious freedom. The goal of the Quaker colony was to offer full religious freedom, and to condemn anyone who tried to enforce “religious uniformity.” Penn claimed his colony “a free colony for all mankind that should go hither.” William Penn also believed that Indians and new colonists should coexist in full harmony, contrary to Puritan beliefs.
1. King Phillips War: Beginning in 1675, an uprising against white colonists by Indians. A multi-year conflict, the end result was broadened freedoms for white New Englanders and the dispossession of the region's Indians.
2. Navigation Acts: Passed by the English Parliament to control colonial trade and bolster the mercantile system, 1650-1775; enforcement of the acts led to growing resentment by colonists.
3. Bacon's Rebellion: Unsuccessful 1676 revolt led by planter Nathaniel Bacon against Virginia governor William Berkeley's administration because of governmental corruption and because Berkeley had failed to protect settlers from Indian raids and did not allow them to occupy Indian lands.
4. English Toleration Act: A law of 1690 that allowed all Protestants to worship freely.
5. English Bill of Rights: Enacted in 1689 by Parliament; listed parliamentary powers such as control over taxation as well as rights of individuals, including trial by jury.
"Others benefited enormously from English rule. The Duke of York and his appointed governors continued the Dutch practice of awarding immense land grants to favorites, including 160,000 acres to Robert Livingston and 90,000 to Fredrick Philipse. By 1700, nearly two million acres of land were owned by only five New York families who intermarried regularly, exerted considerable political influence, and formed one of colonial America's most tightly knit landed elites." (Page 98)
"Nonetheless, anti-black stereotypes flourished in seventeenth century England. Africans were seen as so alien-in color, in religion, in social practices- that they were 'enslavable' in a way that poor Englishmen were not." (Page 102)
"As sugar cultivation intensified, planters turned increasingly to slave labor. By 1660, the island's population had grown to 40,000, half European and half African. Ten years later, the slave population had risen to 82,000, concentrated on some 750 sugar plantations. Meanwhile, the white population stagnated." (Page 104)
"As stability returned after the crises of the late seventeenth century, English North America experienced and era of remarkable growth. Between 1700 and 1770, crude backwoods settlements became bustling provincial capitals. Even as epidemics continued in Indian country, the hazards of disease among colonists diminished, agricultural settlements pressed westward, and hundreds of thousands of newcomers arrived from the Old World. Thanks to a high birth rate and continuing immigration, the population of England's mainland colonies, 265,000 in 1700, grew nearly tenfold, to over 2.3 million seventy years later." (Page 113)
"People, ideas, and goods flowed back and forth along the Atlantic, knitting together the empire and its diverse populations - British merchants and consumers, American colonists, African slaves, and surviving Indians - and creating webs of interdependence among the European empires. Sugar, tobacco, and other products of the Western Hemisphere were marketed as far away as eastern Europe. London bankers financed the slave trade between Africa and Portuguese Brazil. Spain spent it's gold and silver importing it's goods from other countries." (Page 123)
Chapter 3 Outline
From the late 17th century to mid 18th century, the colonies witnessed several social and political changes. England sought to gain the most profit as possible from the colonies through mercantilism and the Navigation Act. The Dutch surrendered New Netherland to the English in 1664, which transformed into a major seaport and military asset. New Netherland became New York after the duke of York was given complete power. English rule, however, limited the rights that women and Africans, especially, obtained under Dutch rule. The Iroquois Confederacy aided and received aid relatively from the colonists and the French, while they controlled and prospered from the fur trade. In response to complaints from colonists regarding their rights as Englishmen, the Charter of Liberties and Privileges emerged from the elected assembly in 1683, outlined these liberties.
Native American uprisings rose as Carolina, founded by eight proprietors in 1663, began enslaving Native Americans. Pennsylvania was established by William Penn, a devout Quaker who aimed for the colony to become a place of refuge for persecuted Quakers in England. Although a considerably ‘free’ atmosphere, Penn often emphasized moral behavior and beliefs based on Jesus Christ. Chesapeake Planters looked to the transatlantic slave trade for workers to cultivate tobacco plantations. Africans were easily distinguished from whites, which supposedly made them eligible for enslavement and being labeled as savage. The boundary between slavery and freedom foreshadowed the justification of slavery employed later in America, despite the minimal number of Africans that remained steady until 1680.
King Philip’s War originated in Native American anger towards white interference on the land, yet was defeated. Bacon’s rebellion in Virginia stemmed from colonist discontent with Governor William Berkeley’s corrupt government that distributed profitable land only to favorites and from Berkeley’s refusal to allow encroachment upon Native American land. The end result of the rebellion was mainly the strengthening of the ruling elite, an opening of Native American land and a rise of slavery. In 1705, the House of Burgesses enforced a slave code that reinforced white supremacy and further acknowledged African slaves as property. The Glorious Revolution in England augmented the relationship between Protestantism and freedom in both the mother country and the colonies. The colonies acted in utter resentment when James II formed the Dominion of New England made up of Connecticut, Plymouth, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York and East and West Jersey between 1686 and 1688. The dominion was ruled by Sir Edmund Andros, who was later destroyed, followed by the reinstatement of the colonies’ original separation.
The witch trials in Salem, Massachusetts, greatly altered the justice system in the colony after thousands were executed. Of all the colonies, the separation of church and state was upheld only by New Jersey, Rhode Island, and Pennsylvania. Native Americans often lived separately from whites, but began to rely on European goods. However, land disputes upset relations. Atlantic commerce led to widespread circulation of various goods so much that tea became accessible and necessary for all classes. The ruling elite sought the livelihood of the British aristocracy, and the middle class reveled in the economic independence that came from land ownership. The view of freedom during this time period, therefore, centered on the ability to rule over others and be free from work.
Mercantilist System - According to the system, the government should regulate economic activity so as to promote national power.
Navigation Acts - certained “enumerated” goods - essentially the most valuable colonial products, such as tobacco and sugar - had to be transported in English ships and sold initially in English ports, although they could then be re-exported to foreign markets.
Covenant Chain - the imperial ambitions of the English and Indians reinforced one another.
Slave Code - enacted by the House of Burgesses in 1705 that brought together the scattered legislation of the previous century and adding new provisions that embedded the principle of white supremacy in the law.
Anglicanism - the Church of England.
Glorious Revolution - established parliamentary supremacy and secured the Protestant succession to the throne.
Walking Purchase - in 1737; The Lenni Lanape Native Americans agreed to an arrangement to cede a tract of land bounded by the distance a man could walk in 36 hours. Governor James Logan hired a team of swift runners, who marked out an area far in excess of what the Native Americans had anticipated.
“The most important social distinction in the seventeenth-century Chesapeake was not between black and white but between the white plantation owners who dominated politics and society and everybody else - small, farmers, indentured servants, and slaves” (104).
“Thanks to a high birthrate and continuing immigration, the population of England’s mainland colonies, 265,000 in 1700, grew nearly tenfold, to over 2.3 million seventy years later” (113).
“The widely publicized image of America as an asylum for those ‘whom bigots chase from foreign lands,’ in the words of a 1735 poem, was in many ways a byproduct of Britain’s efforts to attract settlers from non-English areas to its colonies” (114).
“But increasingly, de facto toleration among Protestant denominations flourished, fueled by the establishment of new churches by immigrants, as well as new Baptist, Methodist, and other congregations created as a result of the Great Awakening” (117).
“Elites in different regions slowly developed a common lifestyle and sense of common interests. But rather than thinking of themselves as distinctively American, they became more and more English - a process historians call “Anglicanization” (125).
“Taking the colonies as a whole, half of the wealth at mid-century was concentrated in the hands of the richest 10 percent of the population” (127).
“But large numbers of colonists enjoyed far greater opportunities for freedom - access to the vote, prospects of acquiring land, the right to worship as they pleased, and an escape from oppressive government - than existed in Europe” (130).
Main Idea/Thesis: From roughly 1660-1750, America witnessed dramatic changes that contributed to its future as an asylum for mankind as well as to the definition of true freedom amidst the establishment of an institution that barred Africans from barely any freedom.
This chapter discussed slavery in the different parts of colonial America up to 1763. The Chesapeake system was based on tobacco. The Northern system was not based on any one staple crop. There, slaves worked on small family farms to some degree but also worked in urban occupations. The colonial molasses trade, sugar from the Caribbean was traded to Europe or New England, where it was distilled into rum. The profits from the sale of sugar were used to purchase manufactured goods, which were then shipped into West Africa, where they were bartered for slaves. The slaves were then brought back to the Caribbean to be sold to sugar planters. The profits from the sale of the slaves were then used to buy more sugar, which was shipped to Europe, restarting the cycle.
It also talked about the Atlantic trade route, the middle passage, and the crisis of 1739-1741. The Atlantic trade route, or the Atlantic trade triangle was based on three points. The first leg of the triangle was from a European port to Africa, in which ships carried supplies for sale and trade, such as copper, cloth, trinkets, slave beads, guns and ammunition. When the ship arrived its cargo would be sold or bartered for slaves. On the second leg, ships made the journey of the Middle Passage from Africa to the New World. Many slaves died of disease in the crowded holds of slave ships. Once the ship reached the New World enslaved survivor were sold in the Caribbean or the American colonies. The ships were then prepared to get them thoroughly cleaned, drained, and loaded with export goods for a return voyage, the third leg, to their home port, from the West Indies the Main export cargoes were in sugar, rum, and molasses; from Virginia, tobacco and hemp. The ship then returned to Europe to complete the triangle.
Moreover, it also detailed the religious rivalries, First Great Awakening, and the imperial rivalries. The British Empire was built less on the back of military conquest, and more on exploration, colonization and trade. Frequently, colonial America was opposed by the French, who had their own ambitions in that direction and a long-standing (mutual) dislike of the English. To this end, both fought over Canada, India came under British rule to protect the tea trade that the French had tried to disrupt, and the French rushed to the aid of the American colonists in their struggle for Independence. The Seven Years' War also happened.
Key Terms Defined:
Middle Passage (P.141)
The middle “leg” in the triangular trade that slaves took on their voyage across the Atlantic
Stono Rebellion (P. 149)
Tightening of South Carolina slave code and temporary imposition of a prohibitive tax on imported slaves
Republicanism (P. 152)
Active participation in public life
Economically independent citizens
property owning citizens possessed a virtue
Government is based on the consent of the governed
Pontiac’s Rebellion (P, 170)
During the French and a Native American War Chief named Pontiac gathered up Native American groups and captured British posts
Native American alliance and British won
Native Americans came to a peace agreement and British took control of the land
Taught the following:
To reject European technology
To free themselves of commercial ties with whites and dependence on alcohol
To clothe themselves in the garb of their ancestors
To drive the Brits from their territory
That all Native Americans are a single people
Albany Plan of the Union (P. 174)
Creation of a Grand Council
Delegates from each colony
Had the power to levy taxes
Deal with Indian relations
Rejected by the colonial assemblies
“By the mid-eighteenth century, three distinct slave systems were well entrenched in the Britain’s mainland colonies: tobacco-based plantation slavery in the Chesapeake, rice-based plantation slavery in South Carolina and Georgia, and the non plantation slavery in New England and the Middle Colonies” (141).
“On the mainland, slaves seized the opportunity for rebellion offered by the War of Jenkins’ Ear, which pitted England against Spain. In September 1739, a group of South Carolina slaves, most of the recently arrived from Kongo where some, it appears, had been soldiers, seized a store containing numerous weapons at the town of Stono. Beating drums to attract followers, the armed band marched southward toward Florida, burning houses and barns, killing whites they encountered, and shouting ‘Liberty’” (149).
“Property qualifications for officeholding were far higher than for voting” (155).
“The most famous colonial court case involving freedom of the press demonstrated that popular sentiment opposed prosecutions for criticisms of public officials. This was the 1735 trial of John Peter Zenger..[he] lambasted the governor for corruption, influence peddling, and ‘tyranny’” (159).
“In December 1763, while Pontiac’s Rebellion still raged, a party of fifty armed men, mostly Scotch-Irish farmers from the vicinity of the Pennsylvania town of Paxton, destroyed the Indian village of Conestoga, massacring half a dozen men, women, and children who lived there under the protection of Pennsylvania’s governor” (173-174).
Although there were political conflicts, such as that of the French versus the British, regarding land and property, slavery’s diversity depending on region, and numerous conflicts such as Pontiac’s Rebellion, the Seven Years’ War, and Pennsylvania and the Native Americans, these events, including the political sphere, and the imperial and religious rivalries, ultimately led colonial America’s declaration from Britain.