Chapter 1: Historical Perspective and Current Trends



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Chapter 1: Historical Perspective and Current Trends

1. What was believed to be the cause of health problems in ancient times?

A) Fresh air

B) Evil spirits

C) The gods

D) Germs
2. Which of the following persons wrote a code of laws to protect the ill?

A) Hippocrates

B) Socrates

C) Hammurabi

D) Plato
3. Which of the following persons initiated the building of the first hospital in the United States?

A) George Washington

B) Isabel Hampton Robb

C) Benjamin Franklin

D) Clara Barton
4. Which of the following statements is true, regarding Florence Nightingale's beliefs about nursing?

A) Practicing nurses should be licensed

B) Promotion of good health and treating the ill were the nursing priorities

C) Nurses could simultaneously have a career and a marriage

D) Organisms caused infection
5. Which of the following persons was a Civil War nurse (she later became the first president of the Red Cross Association) ?

A) Dorothea Dix

B) Linda Richards

C) Isabel Hampton Robb

D) Clara Barton
6. Which of the following nurses is credited with being the first to develop a charting system?

A) Florence Nightingale

B) Clara Barton

C) Linda Richards

D) Lavinia Dock
7. During her lifetime, which of the following contributions did Mary Eliza Mahoney make to nursing?

A) She organized the first visiting nurse association.

B) She founded the American Journal of Nursing.

C) She founded the National League of Nursing

D) She worked for the acceptance of African Americans into the nursing profession.
8. Three nurses have the title the “Great Trio” because of their contributions to nursing. The nurses are:

A) Goodrich, Wald, and Nutting.

B) Mahoney, Dock, and Nutting.

C) Barton, Richards, and Robb.

D) Nightingale, Barton, and Dix.
9. The first official school of “practical nursing” was:

A) The Johns Hopkins School of Nursing.

B) The Ballard School in New York.

C) The New England Hospital for Women and Children.

D) The Army School of Nursing.
10. Which of the following professional organizations was the first to focus on licensed practical nurses (LPNs) ?

A) National Association for Practical Nurse Education and Services (NAPNES)

B) National Federation of Licensed Practical Nurses (NFLPN)

C) National League for Nursing (NLN)

D) American Nurses Association (ANA)
11. In what year did every state finally pass laws for LPN licensure?

A) 1945


B) 1935

C) 1955


D) 1925
12. When LPNs join the NFLPN, they know that this organization is:

A) for both registered nurses (RNs) and LPNs.

B) for LPNs/LVNs only.

C) for anyone who is interested in practical nursing.

D) for anyone who is employed in the healthcare field.
13. Much of the education in the earliest nursing schools focused on:

A) learning procedures and technical skills.

B) administration of medications.

C) development of charting skills.

D) scrubbing floors and cleaning and changing bed linens.
14. _____ began modern nursing with a strong tradition of caring.

A) Clara Barton

B) Isabel Hampton Robb

C) Florence Nightingale

D) Linda Richards
15. The two vocational LPN organizations are:

A) ANA and NLN.

B) NFLPN and NLN.

C) NAPNES and NFLPN.

D) NAPNES and NLN.
16. The LPN should join a professional organization because:

A) it is a way to be a lifelong learner.

B) it is a requirement in any job.

C) these organizations give the LPN a voice for concerns and opinions.

D) A and C
17. Who is known as the Father of Medicine?

A) Theodore Fliedner

B) Plato

C) Socrates

D) Hippocrates
18. Who worked to improve the care of the mentally ill?

A) Clara Barton

B) Florence Nightingale

C) Dorothea Dix

D) Lillian D. Wald
19. Who founded the American Red Cross?

A) Florence Nightingale

B) Clara Barton

C) Linda Richards

D) J.H. Durant
20. Which of the following eras saw a decline in nursing?

A) The Christian era

B) The Modern era

C) The Renaissance era

D) The Middle Ages
21. Who worked for changes in nursing education?

A) Isabel Hampton Robb

B) Mary Eliza Mahoney

C) Lavinia Dock

D) Linda Richards
22. The difference between LPN and LVN nursing titles is

A) LPNs have a longer educational program than LVNs.

B) LVNs and LPNs have the same duties and skills, just different titles.

C) LVNs are able to perform venipuncture and LPNs cannot.

D) LPNs are working on their RN licensure while LVNs are not.
23. The Latin word for nursing, “nutricitus,” translates in English to mean:

A) healing.

B) health.

C) nature.

D) nourishing.
24. Healthcare was promoted in ancient times by which mythical god?

A) Apollo

B) Zeus

C) Isis


D) Ares
25. During the Dark Ages, nursing care was provided primarily by:

A) priests.

B) midwives.

C) family members.

D) trained nurses.
26. Which religion is most responsible for the growth of early nursing?

A) Christianity

B) Judaism

C) Buddhism

D) Islam
27. Which virus is carried in rodents and contracted by contact with mouse droppings?

A) HIV/AIDS

B) Hantavirus

C) SARS


D) All of the above are correct
28. The most important way to prevent the contamination with SARS is:

A) washing hands between patients.

B) being vaccinated.

C) using universal precautions.

D) avoiding SARS patients' admission in the hospital.
29. How can nurses, today, best be prepared for the fight against terrorism?

A) Know the hospital's policies regarding emergencies

B) Avoid work during terrorist alerts

C) Listen to the daily news

D) Read the newspaper
30. Which of the following factors has impacted the nursing shortage the most in the 21st century?

A) Later age of women having children

B) Fewer women being born

C) Overall unemployment rate

D) More employment options for women
Answer Key
1. B

Response:

In ancient times, evil spirits were believed to be the cause of health problems.

2. C

Response:

Hammurabi, a king of ancient Babylonia, wrote a code of laws to protect persons who were ill. These laws defined legal limitations regarding caregivers (the forerunner of licensure) .

3. C

Response:

Benjamin Franklin initiated the building of the first hospital in Philadelphia.

4. B

Response:

One of Florence Nightingale's strongest beliefs was that promoting good health and treating the ill were nursing priorities. Throughout her career, Nightingale implemented changes in the nursing practice to enhance the health of all who were ill.

5. D

Response:

Clara Barton was a volunteer nurse during the Civil War. She later became the first president of the Red Cross Association, which is now known as the American Red Cross.

6. C

Response:

Linda Richards was the first trained nurse in the United States. When she was a night superintendent of Bellevue Hospital, she developed a system for recording details about patients that served as the basis for modern nursing notes.

7. D

Response:

Mary Eliza Mahoney was the first African American nurse in the United States. She spent her life working for the acceptance of African Americans into the nursing profession and was also the organizer and the first president of the National Association for Colored Graduate Nurses.

8. A

Response:

Annie Goodrich, Lillian Wald, and Mary Adelaid Nutting have been given the title of the “Great Trio” because of their numerous contributions to nursing.

9. B

Response:

The first official school for the education of practical nurses was established in 1893 at the Ballard School in New York. The program was 3 months long and focused on homemaking skills, as well as nursing care.

10. A

Response:

NAPNES was the first professional organization to focus on LPNs. NAPNES is very active today, with continuing education opportunities and publications for LPNs.

11. C

Response:

All states passed LPN licensure laws in 1955. Prior to this time, LPN education and licensure had become more formal and the NLN developed a system for the standardization of LPN requirements.

12. B

Response:

The NFLPN is considered the official membership organization for the licensed practical nurse/licensed vocational nurse (LPN/LVN) ; therefore, only the LPN/LVN may join this organization.

13. D

Response:

In the earliest nursing schools, much of a nurse's education focused on duties such as scrubbing floors, cleaning, and changing linens. Cleanliness often was not considered a priority in the care of the ill, but nursing leaders recognized that cleanliness was fundamental to a patient's care and recovery.

14. C

Response:

Florence Nightingale is the founder of modern nursing. She demonstrated caring through her long career of serving others. The work she did in the Crimea War changed the face of nursing forever.

15. C

Response:

The two vocational LPN organizations are the National Federation for Licensed Practical Nurses and the National Association for Practical Nurse Education and Service.

16. D

Response:

Professional organizations can provide both lifelong learning for the LPN and giving the LPN a voice for concerns and opinions. Professional organizations represent the LPN at both the state and national levels. Regarding lifelong learning, professional organizations publish journals and other information that is sent to members.

17. D

Response:

During the 5th century B.C., a Greek scholar named Hippocrates translated, into a textbook of medicine, the work of the priests who had been administering to the sick. Hippocrates is referred to as the Father of Medicine, and his ethical oath is still taken today by physicians as they enter their medical practice.

18. C

Response:

Dorothea Dix championed the development of psychiatric hospitals, and her work also brought about improvement for prisoners in jails.

19. B

Response:

Clara Barton became the first president of the Red Cross Association, which is now known as the American Red Cross.

20. C

Response:

Nursing during the Renaissance period was not forward moving or powerful. The Renaissance was an era of musical and artistic development for societies, and an increased interest in scientific method and medicine allowed many basic principles of medicine to be established and supported. However, Martin Luther, who opposed the teachings of the Catholic Church, led the fight for the decline of women's roles and nursing as a profession.

21. A

Response:

Isabel Hampton Robb was a strong activist for nursing. She initiated reform for nurses and students. She also initiated the 3-year educational program for nursing, and fought for licensing examinations and registration to protect patients from incompetent nurses and to raise the standards of the profession.

22. B

Response:

Both LPNs and licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) are legally recognized and practice in diverse healthcare settings today. LVN education predominantly takes place in California and Texas, whereas, LPN education is common in other geographic areas of the country.

23. D

Response:

The very word comes from the ancient Latin word, nutricitus, which means nourishing.

24. A

Response:

The primitive healthcare that was available was provided by males, except for the midwives, and was promoted by a belief in Apollo, the mythical Greek healer.

25. C

Response:

Nursing care was practiced by friends and relatives; however, there was no scientific basis for the care given, and medical theory disintegrated along with the level of civilization.

26. A

Response:

Another positive aspect of this era was the growth of Christianity. As this religion spread, convents were established where women administered healthcare to the sick and the poor. The first public health nurses were the deaconesses from this historical period.

27. B

Response:

Hantavirus is a recently recognized disease in North America. It is potentially deadly and requires immediate admittance to the intensive care unit (ICU) once symptoms are exhibited. (CDC, 2003) . It is a virus carried by rodents, predominately deer mice; the virus is found in the mouse droppings.

28. C

Response:

The most important aspect of SARS contamination is for you to always use universal precautions in a meticulous manner.

29. A

Response:

Modern nurses must always be emotionally prepared for the potential “9–11” in their career. It requires a conscientious attention to the policies and emergency programs wherever you are employed.

30. D

Response:

One reality of the nursing shortage is that the 21st century woman has more employment options that women had previously.




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