National Differences in Political Economy
1. (p. 42) A country's political economy and culture are independent of each other.
2. (p. 42) It is not possible to have democratic societies that emphasize a mix of collectivism and individualism.
3. (p. 43) The communists believed that socialism could be achieved by democratic means and turned their backs on violent revolution and dictatorship.
4. (p. 44) In an individualist society, the welfare of society is best served by letting people pursue their own economic self-interest.
5. (p. 45) The central message of collectivism is that individual economic and political freedoms are the ground rules on which a society should be based.
6. (p. 45) There is a global trend of societies shifting from individualism toward collectivism.
7. (p. 45) It is possible to have a democratic state where collective values predominate.
8. (p. 45) It is possible to have a totalitarian state that is hostile to collectivism and where some degree of individualism is encouraged.
9. (p. 45) The most practical form of democracy is direct democracy.
10. (p. 45) A representative democracy is the most common form of democracy.
11. (p. 47) In a market economy if demand for a product exceeds supply, prices will rise, signaling to producers to produce more.
12. (p. 47) The number of command economies has fallen dramatically since the demise of communism in the late 1980s.
13. (p. 48) Because international businesses are headquartered in different countries, a nation's legal system is usually of very little interest to international business managers.
14. (p. 48) A country's legal system can affect the attractiveness of a country as an investment site and/or market.
15. (p. 48) Collectivist inclined totalitarian states tend to be pro-private enterprise and pro-consumer.
16. (p. 48) In democratic states where individualism is the dominant political philosophy, states tend to enact laws that severely restrict private enterprise.
17. (p. 49) Judges under a civil law system have less flexibility than those under a common law system.
18. (p. 49) In a common law system, judges have the power to interpret the law.
19. (p. 49) A civil law system tends to be more adversarial than a common law system.
20. (p. 50) Contracts under a civil law system tend to be very detailed with all contingencies spelled out.
21. (p. 50) The United Nations CIGS establishes a uniform set of rules governing certain aspects of the making and performance of everyday commercial contracts between sellers and buyers who have their places of business in different nations.
22. (p. 50) All of the world's larger trading nations have ratified CIGS.
23. (p. 50) The United Kingdom is a strong supporter of CIGS.
24. (p. 50) To facilitate international business, property rights are defined in a consistent way across countries.
25. (p. 51) High levels of corruption significantly reduce the foreign direct investment, level of international trade and economic growth rate in a country.
26. (p. 52) The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act allows for grease payments.
27. (p. 54) Thanks to the World Intellectual Property Organization enforcement of intellectual property rights is strong across the globe.
28. (p. 60) GNI and PPP data are useful because they provide a dynamic analysis of economic development.
29. (p. 60) The HDI is based on life expectancy at birth, educational attainment and whether average incomes are sufficient to meet the basic needs of life in a country.
30. (p. 63) In a planned economy, the state owns all means of production.
31. (p. 63) There is a strong relationship between economic freedom and economic growth.
32. (p. 64) A democracy is essential for economic growth.
33. (p. 66) Since the 1980's the political economy of many nations has seen a shift away from centrally planned and mixed economies toward more free market economic models.
34. (p. 68) One of the reasons for the spread of democracy is the emergence of increasingly prosperous middle and working classes who have pushed for democratic reforms.
35. (p. 69) According to political scientist Samuel Huntington's thesis, global terrorism is a product of the tension between civilizations and the clash of value systems and ideology.
36. (p. 70) Transformation from centrally planned command economies to market-based economies can be attributed to the fact that command and mixed economies failed to deliver the sustained economic performance achieved by countries adopting market-based systems.
37. (p. 70) Economic freedom necessarily equates with political freedom.
38. (p. 70) Deregulation involves removing legal restrictions to the free play of markets, the establishment of private enterprises and the manner in which private enterprises operate.
39. (p. 74) Today, global changes in political the political economy are characterized by free markets and democracy with command economies and totalitarian dictatorships having completely disappeared.
40. (p. 80) The costs of doing business in a country tend to be greater where political payoffs are required to gain market access.
Multiple Choice Questions
41. (p. 42) Interdependent political, economic and legal systems of a country make up its
A. Administrative agenda
B. Socioeconomic fabric
C. Economic environment
D. Political economy
42. (p. 42) Identify the incorrect statement pertaining to a country's political economy.
A. It is independent of the culture of a nation
B. It is a combination of interdependent political, economic and legal systems
C. Its various systems interact and influence each other
D. Its interacting systems affect the level of economic well-being
43. (p. 42) Which of the following statements about political systems and their interrelated dimensions is not ?
A. Systems that emphasize collectivism tend toward totalitarianism
B. Systems that place a high value on individualism tend to be democratic
C. Democratic societies can emphasize a mix of collectivism and individualism
D. It is impossible to have totalitarian societies that are not collectivist
44. (p. 43) When a political system stresses the primacy of collective goals over individual goals the system is referred to as being
A. An entrepreneurship
C. A democracy
45. (p. 43) _____ is consistent with the notion that an individual's right to do something may be restricted because it runs counter to "the good of society" or "the common good."
C. Free enterprise
46. (p. 43) Karl Marx was an advocate of
47. (p. 43) Identify the incorrect statement pertaining to socialism.
A. Modern socialists' intellectual roots can be traced to Karl Marx
B. Elements of socialist thought can be traced to Plato
C. Socialist ideology split into two camps—communists and individualists
D. Socialism advocates for state ownership of the means of production
48. (p. 43) According to the _____, socialism can only be achieved through violent revolution.
C. Social democrats
49. (p. 43) Identify the incorrect statement regarding China's political system.
A. It is nominally a communist state
B. It has substantial limits to individual political freedom
C. In the economic sphere it strictly adheres to communist ideology
D. It was under Communist Party rule in the late 1970s when communism was at its high point
50. (p. 43) Social democracy
A. As an ideology may prove to be less enduring than communism
B. Has had an important influence in countries like India and Brazil
C. Has had no influence in any democratic Western nation
D. Had greatest influence in Eastern European nations like Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary
51. (p. 44) Individualism can best be described by which of the following statements?
A. It is a philosophy suggests that an individual should have freedom over his or her economic and political pursuits
B. It is a political system in which government control over all factors of production is in entirety
C. It is a political system that stresses the primacy of collective goals over individual goals
D. It is a form of government in which one person or political party exercises absolute control over all spheres of human life
52. (p. 45) Identify the incorrect statement regarding individualism.
A. It advocates for a socialist political system
B. It promotes free market economics
C. It creates a pro-business environment
D. It propagates pro–free trade values
53. (p. 44) The importance of guaranteeing individual freedom and self-expression is a central tenet of
54. (p. 44) Philosophers David Hume, Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill all supported
55. (p. 44) Individualism is built on two central tenets:
A. Socialism is the preferred political philosophy and an emphasis on the importance of collective interests over individual interests
B. An emphasis on the importance of collective interests over individual interests and the belief that the welfare of society is best served by giving precedence to its needs over individual needs
C. The needs of society as a whole are more important than individual freedoms and social welfare is to be achieved even if at the cost of individual freedom
D. An emphasis on the importance of guaranteeing individual freedom and self expression and the belief that the welfare of society is best served by letting people pursue their own economic self-interest
56. (p. 45) The Cold War was essentially a war between _____, championed by the now-defunct Soviet Union and _____, championed by the United States.
A. Collectivism, individualism
B. Democracy, socialism
C. Totalitarianism, socialism
D. Individualism, collectivism
57. (p. 45) Democratic ideals and free market economies are consistent with
58. (p. 45) This refers to a political system in which government is by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representatives.
59. (p. 45) Totalitarianism
A. Is a form of government in which one person or political party exercises absolute control over all spheres of human life
B. Refers to a political system in which government is by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representatives
C. Is based on a belief that citizens should be directly involved in decision making
D. Is based on the idea that the welfare of society is best served by letting people pursue their own economic self-interests
60. (p. 45) Identify the country that is ruled by a totalitarian dictatorship that constrains political freedom but has moved toward greater individual freedom in the economic sphere.
D. United States
61. (p. 45) Originally the pure form of democracy was practiced in which of the following states?
D. Great Britain
62. (p. 46) A state where political power is monopolized by a party, group or individual that governs according to religious principles is best described as following
A. Theocratic totalitarianism
B. Tribal totalitarianism
C. Right-wing totalitarianism
D. Communist totalitarianism
63. (p. 46) The most common form of theocratic totalitarianism is based on
C. A secular philosophy
64. (p. 46) This system of government generally permits some individual economic freedom but restricts individual political freedom, frequently on the grounds that it would lead to the rise of communism.
A. Tribal totalitarianism
B. Right-wing totalitarianism
C. Left wing totalitarianism
D. Theocratic totalitarianism
65. (p. 46) Until the 1980s, many Latin American countries practiced
A. Right-wing totalitarianism
B. Tribal totalitarianism
C. Communist totalitarianism
D. Theocratic totalitarianism
66. (p. 46) Which of the following countries can be best described as a communist totalitarian regime?
C. North Korea
67. (p. 47) Antitrust laws in the U.S. are designed to
A. Encourage business practices designed to monopolize a market
B. Discourage private ownership
C. Restrict privatization
D. Outlaw monopolies
68. (p. 47) In a pure market economy
A. All productive activities are owned by the state
B. All productive activities are privately owned
C. The government plans the goods and services that a country produces
D. Resources are allocated for "the good of society."
69. (p. 47) In a pure command economy
A. All productive activities are owned by the state
B. All productive activities are privately owned
C. The goods and services that a country produces are not planned by anyone
D. Production is determined by the interaction of supply and demand
70. (p. 48) In a _____ economy certain sectors of the economy are left to private ownership and free market mechanisms while other sectors have significant state ownership and government planning.
71. (p. 48) Identify the incorrect statement pertaining to the legal systems of countries.
A. They can affect the attractiveness of a country as an investment site or market
B. They are influenced by the prevailing political system of the country
C. They are almost the same for all countries
D. They are of immense importance to international business
72. (p. 49) The U.S. practices which of the following law system?
A. Common law
B. Civil law
C. Theocratic law
D. Democratic law
73. (p. 49) The common law system
A. Lacks the flexibility that other systems have
B. Is based on tradition, precedent and custom
C. Gives judges the power only to apply the law
D. Is based on a detailed set of laws organized into codes
74. (p. 49) A _____ system is based on a very detailed set of laws organized into codes.
A. Democratic law
B. Theocratic law
C. Civil law
D. Common law
75. (p. 49) A theocratic law system is
A. One in which the law is based on religious teachings
B. Based on tradition, precedent and custom
C. Based on a detailed set of laws organized into codes
D. The body of law that governs contract enforcement
76. (p. 50) A document that specifies the conditions under which an exchange is to occur and details the rights and obligations of the parties involved is BEST known as
A. A contract
B. A business letter
C. A memorandum
D. Civil code
77. (p. 50) Identify the United Nations body that establishes a uniform set of rules governing certain aspects of the making and performance of everyday commercial contracts between sellers and buyers who have their places of business in different nations.
78. (p. 50) Which of the following refers to the legal rights over the use to which a resource is put and over the use made of any income that may be derived from that resource?
A. Theocratic right
B. Property right
C. Trade right
D. Financial right
79. (p. 52) According to studies by Transparency International which of the following countries has higher levels of corruption?
C. New Zealand
D. United Kingdom
80. (p. 52) This law Passed by the United States in 1970 makes it illegal to bribe a foreign government official in order to maintain business over which that foreign official has authority and requires all publicly traded companies to keep detailed records that would allow determining whether a violation of the act has occurred is known as the
B. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
C. Economic Cooperation Anti Corruption Act
D. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Officials in International Transactions
81. (p. 54) A _____ grants the inventor of a new product or process exclusive rights for a defined period of time to the manufacture, use or sale of that invention.
82. (p. 54) Design and names by which merchants or manufacturers designate and differentiate their products are known as
83. (p. 54) Which of the following provides exclusive legal rights to authors, composers, playwrights, artists and publishers to publish and disperse their work as they see fit?
84. (p. 54) Identify the incorrect statement pertaining to intellectual property rights.
A. Its violation cost personal computer software firms revenues equal to $40 billion in 2006
B. The protection of intellectual property rights is more or less the same in all countries
C. The enforcement of its regulations has often been lax
D. Its violation has been greatest in China, where the piracy rate in 2006 ran at 82 percent
85. (p. 55) The TRIPS agreement was designed to
A. Exclude China from all intellectual property agreements
B. Oversee a much stricter enforcement of intellectual property regulations
C. Lobby for more lax intellectual property rights for poor countries
D. Support traded software and recorded property among developed markets
86. (p. 55) Which of the following statement about the trade related aspects of intellectual property rights agreement is not ?
A. It was designed to oversee enforcement of much stricter intellectual property regulations, beginning in 1995
B. It obliged WTO members to grant and enforce patents lasting at least 20 years and copyrights lasting 50 years
C. It directed rich countries to comply with its rules of intellectual property protection within 5 years
D. It provided the very poorest countries 10 years to comply with its rules of intellectual property protection
87. (p. 55) Safety standards to which a product must adhere are set by
A. Safety certifications
B. Government standards department
C. Product safety laws
D. Product liability laws
88. (p. 63) Identify the incorrect statement pertaining to innovation and entrepreneurship.
A. They are the engines of growth
B. They require state ownership of all means of production
C. They require a market economy
D. They require strong property rights
89. (p. 66) The political economy of many of the world's nation-states has changed radically since the late 1980s. All of the following are trends that have been evident except
A. A wave of democratic revolutions has swept the world
B. Totalitarian governments collapsed and have been replaced by democratically elected governments
C. There has been a strong move away from centrally planned economies toward free market economic models
D. Mixed economies are fast replacing market economies
90. (p. 68) Which of the following is not a reason that would account for the spread of democracy?
A. Totalitarian regimes failing to deliver economic progress to the vast bulk of their populations
B. The unchallenged pressure of entrepreneurs and other business leaders for less accountable and closed governments
C. The economic advances of the past quarter century leading to the emergence of increasingly prosperous middle and working classes pushing for democratic reforms
D. New information and communication technologies reducing the state's ability to control access to uncensored information
91. (p. 70) _____ involves removing legal restrictions to the free play of markets, the establishment of private enterprises and the manner in which private enterprises operate.
A. A product law
B. Trade certification
D. A liability law
92. (p. 76) The benefits of doing business in a country are a function of all of the following, except
A. The size of the market
B. Its past growth
C. Its present wealth
D. Its future growth prospects
93. (p. 77) In all of the following scenarios, the costs of doing business in a country tend to be greater, except where
A. Political payoffs are required to gain market access
B. Supporting infrastructure is lacking
C. Adhering to local laws and regulations is costly
D. There is a highly developed infrastructural support
94. (p. 78) The likelihood that economic mismanagement will cause drastic changes in a country's business environment that hurt the profit and other goals of a particular business enterprise is known as
A. Legal risk
B. Economic risk
C. Product risk
D. Environment risk
95. (p. 78-79) This can be defined as the likelihood that a trading partner will opportunistically break a contract or expropriate property rights.
A. Legal risk
B. Economic risk
C. Product risk
D. Environment risk
96. (p. 43-44) What are state-owned companies? Why do they exist? Why do they usually perform poorly?
A state-owned company is a company that is owned by a nation's government. After World War II, many social democratic governments nationalized private companies that were to be run for the public good rather than private profit. Great Britain, for example, nationalized so many companies that by the end of the 1970s, state-owned monopolies existed in telecommunications, electricity, gas, coal and several other industries. However, because state-run companies such as the ones that existed in Great Britain are protected from competition by their monopoly position and guaranteed financial support, they become inefficient.
97. (p. 43-44) Discuss collectivism. What ideals does the philosophy support? Where did the philosophy start? How does collectivism exist in the modern world?
A collectivist political system is one that stresses the primacy of collective goals over individual goals. In that sense, the needs of the society as a whole are viewed as being more important than individual freedoms. Collectivism can trace its roots to the ancient Greek philosopher Plato who suggested that individual rights be sacrificed for the good of the majority. Today, collectivism is reflected in the socialist movement started by Karl Marx who argued that the few benefit at the expense of the many in a capitalist society where individual freedoms are not restricted. Marx advocated state ownership of the basic means of production, distribution and exchange. Supporters of Marx's ideals divided into two camps in the early 20th century: communists, who believed that socialism could only be achieved through violent revolution and totalitarian dictatorship and social democrats, who committed themselves to achieving socialism by democratic means. Today, both versions of socialism are losing followers.
98. (p. 44-45) Discuss individualism. Explain the key positions of the philosophy, it roots and its role in the modern economy.
Individualism refers to a philosophy that an individual should have freedom in his or her economic and political pursuits. Accordingly, the philosophy stresses that the interests of the individual should take precedence over the interests of the state. Individualism can be traced to the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle who argued that individual diversity and private ownership are desirable. Aristotle's philosophy was refined by David Hume, Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill in the 1700s and 1800s and more recently by Milton Friedman, Frederich von Hayek and James Buchanan. Today, individualism translates into an advocacy for democratic political systems and free market economies.
99. (p. 45-46) Compare and contrast a pure democracy and a representative democracy. Which type of democracy is more common today? Why?
The pure form of democracy is based on a belief that citizens should be directly involved in decision making. In contrast, in a representative democracy, citizens periodically elect individuals to represent them. The elected individuals form a government and make decisions on the behalf of the electorate. Because a pure democracy is impractical in advanced societies with tens or hundreds of millions of people, representative democracies are far more common in today's world.
100. (p. 46) How do countries with representative democracies ensure that their elected officials are held responsible for their actions?
To guarantee that elected representatives are being held accountable for their actions by the electorate, an ideal representative democracy incorporates safeguards that are enshrined in constitutional law. These safeguards include an individual's right to freedom of expression, opinion and organization; a free media; regular elections in which all eligible citizens are allowed to vote; universal adult suffrage; limited terms for elected representatives; a fair court system that is separate for the political system; nonpolitical state bureaucracy; a nonpolitical police force and armed service and relatively free access to state information.
101. (p. 46) Compare and contrast the four forms of totalitarianism.
In a totalitarian country, an individual's right to freedom of expression and organization, a free media and regular elections are denies. There are four forms of totalitarianism. Communist totalitarianism was until recently the most wide spread form of totalitarianism. This form of totalitarianism advocates that socialism can only be achieved through totalitarian dictatorship. Theocratic totalitarianism is found in states where political power is monopolized by a party, group or individual that governs according to religious principles. Tribal totalitarianism occurs when a political party that represents the interests of a particular tribe monopolizes power. Right-wing totalitarianism permits some individual economic freedoms but restricts individual political freedom.
102. (p. 47-48) Identify the tree types of economic systems. How do the three types of economic systems differ from each? How are they the same?
In a pure market economy, all productive activities are privately owned. Production is determined by supply and demand and signaled to producers through the price system. The role of government in a pure market economy is to encourage vigorous free and fair competition between private producers. In a command economy, the goods and services that a country produces, the quantity in which they are produced and the prices at which they are sold are all planned by the government. The government's role is to allocate resources for the good of the society. In addition, all businesses are state owned. A mixed economy is a combination of the other economic systems in which certain sectors of the economy are left to private ownership and free market mechanisms, while other sectors have significant state ownership and government planning.
103. (p. 47) Discuss why there is inefficiency in a monopoly situation.
In a monopoly situation, a firm has no competitors and therefore it has no incentive to search for ways to lower production costs. Rather, cost increases are simply passed on to consumers in the form of higher prices. The net result is that the monopolist is likely to become increasingly inefficient, producing high-priced, low-quality goods.
104. (p. 48) What is a country's legal system? Why is it important to international businesses?
The legal system of a country refers to the rules or laws, that regulate behavior along with the processes by which laws are enforced through which redress for grievances are obtained. It is critical that international companies understand a country's legal system because the legal system regulates business practice, defines the manner in which business transactions are to be executed and sets down the rights and obligations of those involved in business transactions.
105. (p. 49) What are the three main types of legal systems in use around the world?
The three types of legal systems in use around the world are common law, civil law and theocratic law. Common law is based on tradition, precedent and custom. Civil law is based on a very detailed set of laws organized into codes. Theocratic law is based on religious teachings.
106. (p. 50) Explain the differences between common law and civil law systems by the approach of each to contract law.
Contracts drafted under a common law framework tend to be very detailed with all contingencies spelled out. In contrast, contracts in a civil law system tend to be much shorter and less specific because many of the issues typically covered in a common law contract are already covered in civil law.
107. (p. 50) What is the United Nations convention on contracts for the international sale of goods (CIGS)?
CIGS establishes a uniform set of rules governing certain aspects of the making and performance of everyday commercial contracts between buyers and sellers who have their places of business in different nations. By adopting CIGS, a nation signals to other adopters that it will treat the convention's rules as part of its law.
108. (p. 52-53) Discuss the foreign corrupt practices act.
The foreign corrupt practices act was passed during the 1970s by the U.S. making illegal for American companies to bribe a foreign government official in order to obtain or maintain business over which that foreign official has authority and requires all publicly trade companies to keep detailed records that would allow determining whether a violation of the act has occurred.
109. (p. 54) Discuss the different ways to protect intellectual property.
Ownership rights over intellectual property are established through patents, copyrights and trademarks. A patent grants the inventor of a new product or process exclusive rights for a defined period to the manufacture, use or sale of that invention. Copyrights are the exclusive legal rights of authors, composers, playwrights, artists and publishers to publish and disperse their work as they see fit. Trademarks are designs and names by which merchants or manufacturers designate and differentiate their products.
110. (p. 60) What is the philosophy of Amartya Sen?
Amartya Sen is a Nobel-prize winning economist who has argued that economic development should be assessed less by material output measures such as GNI per capita and more by the capabilities and opportunities that people enjoy. According to Sen, development should be seen as a process of expanding the real freedoms that people experience.
111. (p. 68) Discuss the three main reasons for the spread of democracy.
There are three main reasons for the spread of democracy. First, many totalitarian regimes failed to deliver economic progress to the vast bulk of their populations. Second, new information and communication technologies have broken down the ability of the state to control access to uncensored information. Third, in many countries the economic advances of the past quarter century have led to the emergence of increasingly prosperous middle and working classes who have pushed for democratic reforms.
112. (p. 70) What is deregulation?
Deregulation is one step in the shift toward a market-based economy. Deregulation involves removing legal restrictions to the free play of markets, the establishment of private enterprises and the manner in which private enterprises operate.
113. (p. 72-74) Discuss privatization. Why is it important?
Privatization transfers the ownership of state property into the hands of private individuals. It is seen as a way to unlock gains in economic efficiency by giving new private owners a powerful incentive, greater profit potential, to enter new markets and to exit losing ones.
114. (p. 76) What are first-mover advantages? What are late-mover advantages? Why are they important to international businesses?
First-mover advantages are the advantages that accrue to early entrants into a market. Late-mover advantages are the handicap that late entrants might suffer from. For companies, early entrants into potential future economic stars may be able to reap substantial first-mover advantages, while late entrants may fall victim to late-mover advantages.
115. (p. 76-77) How are the long-run benefits of doing business in a country measured?
The long-run monetary benefits of doing business in a country are a function of the size of the market, the present wealth of consumers in that market and the likely future wealth of consumers.