Ch. 8 The Enlightenment and Revolutions Name



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Ch. 8 The Enlightenment and Revolutions Name__________ http://www.cliparthut.com/clip-arts/348/light-bulb-idea-clip-art-free-348378.jpg

For hundreds of years most European countries were ruled by kings and queens. The countries' royal rulers, or monarchs, were the sons and daughters of earlier kings and queens. These rulers claimed their powers to be given by God. The monarchs, the leaders of the church, and the wealthiest families had always held all the power and all the advantages.



Background
For hundreds of years most European countries were ruled by kings and queens. The countries' royal rulers, or monarchs, were the sons and daughters of earlier kings and queens. These rulers claimed their powers to be given by God. The monarchs, the leaders of the church, and the wealthiest families had always held all the power and all the advantages.
But in the 1500s, during a period known as the Renaissance, the number of educated people in Europe began to grow. Many of these scholars adopted the ideas of the ancient Greeks and Romans. These ideas focused on the importance of all people and on their ability to reason. Scholars encouraged the study of science. The Renaissance led to important discoveries in the 1600s. Galileo proved that Earth moved around the sun. Isaac Newton explained the laws of gravity.

Ideas of the Enlightenment
The ideas that blossomed during the 1500s and 1600s influenced many thinkers during the 1700s—the time of the Enlightenment. Some of the most famous Enlightenment thinkers were Denis Diderot, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Adam Smith, and Voltaire.

These thinkers, called philosophers, wrote many books, including a 35-volume encyclopedia. Some wrote books questioning religion. They objected to the church having power over everyone. The philosophers criticized the monarchs' laws. They also questioned the idea that God had given the monarchs their power.



Enlightenment thinkers applied science and reason to society's problems. They believed that all people were created equal. They also saw education as something that divided people. If education were available to all, they reasoned, then everyone would have a fair chance in life.

Results
Enlightenment ideas were popular and spread quickly. The Roman Catholic Church and the monarchs tried to censor, or ban, the books and other works of the philosophers. The rulers were right to be alarmed. The Enlightenment led many people to think about their government and to think that they should change the government. They wanted to take power away from the kings and queens and give it to the ordinary people. This led to the American and French revolutions, when the monarchs lost their power.

Men of the Scientific Revolution Name_________________________________

Scientist

Nationality/Place of Birth

Field/Area of Science

Discoveries/Theories/

Laws/ Beliefs?

Impact on Science/

Society

Copernicus

http://media-3.web.britannica.com/eb-media/00/79300-004-93dde5eb.jpg














Galileo

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Kepler

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Bacon

http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/sir-francis-bacon-st-viscount-st-alban-peltonen-english-philosopher-statesman-engraving-selections-journal-35675853.jpg














Newton

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/hw-newton.jpg














Name The Ideas of the Enlightenment Date

Philosopher

Beliefs/Ideas

Impact

John Locke

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Voltairehttp://amazingpeopleeducation.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/voltaire.jpg?w=294&h=300







Montesquieuhttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/montesquieu_1.jpg







Diderothttp://media.finedictionary.com/pictures/112/27/7024.jpg








Adam Smithhttp://images.bwbx.io/cms/2014-02-28/0228_adam_smith_970-630x420.jpg







Rousseauhttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/aduc_004_j.-.j._rousseau_(1712-1778).jpg







Wollstonecrafthttps://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:and9gcsbjscxefmr5d7yn3zjf1gmlqkp2iestvty8ol5pw0j8hrz-s2a








Name Date

Complete a graphic organizer categorizing the actions and policies of the three major enlightened absolutists of the period: Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great, and Joseph II.
enlightened absolutism- a system in which rulers tried to govern by Enlightenment principles while maintaining their full royal powers


Enlightened Rulers

Enlightened actions/policies

Unenlightened actions/policies

Frederick the Great of Prussia

1740-1786http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/guardian/pix/pictures/2010/11/29/1291049021535/frederick-the-great-tv-hi-007.jpg






Joseph II of Austria

1765-1790

http://www.nndb.com/people/636/000101333/joseph-ii-2-sized.jpg








Catherine the Great Russia

1762-1796http://images.wisegeek.com/catherine-the-great-of-russia.jpg








Enlightenment Meets Independence”

Where did our Founders get the idea that they had the right to cut off all ties from England? Our Founders were very learned men. They read the ideas of the current political thinkers of their day known as the Enlightenment Thinkers/Philosophers. Some of the most influential thinkers: Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Charles de Montesquieu had the largest influence on our founders.http://electfrankwilliams.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/220px-writing_the_declaration_of_independence_1776_cph.3g09904.jpg

The Enlightenment Philosophers applied a scientific/reasoned approach to government. They questioned where the authority to govern came from. Is the right to govern a hereditary right or is it a contract between the rulers and the people? They also questioned what rights citizens had in a country and what rights the citizens had if they were unhappy with the government.
In addition to reading the Enlightenment Thinkers many of our Founders were members of congregational churches. Congregational churches differed from the Church of England/Roman Catholic Church in government. In the Church of England/Roman Catholic Church there was one supreme leader who was ultimately responsible for all decisions either the king or the pope. In congregational churches the ultimate authority rested in the individual congregations. Each congregation was accountable to no one but God; therefore, the congregation had a voice in the decisions of their local church/congregation. The increased voice in religious life led to increased participation in the government.
The problem? King George of England did not agree with the ideas of the Enlightenment Philosophers or of the congregational churches. He believed he was the ultimate authority and that his decisions, with Parliaments approval, were the law. The colonists should be grateful for living under the benevolent authority of England. England had fought a series of wars, which were quite costly. Since the French and Indian Wars were fought in the colonies it was only reasonable that the colonists should pay for the expense of the war and the resulting cost of maintaining troops in the colonies. The colonists believed they had a right to vote on all tax increases and should have a voice in the governing of their particular colonies.
Colonists, believing they had the right to question the king’s decisions, organized resistance against the king’s taxes. King George responded with increasingly more restricting laws and imposing on property rights (quartering troops).
The Continental Congress met to decide how they would respond to the king’s increasing restrictions on their liberty. The debate boiled down to sending a list of grievances to the king or to break ties to Britain and create a whole new nation. If they were to be successful it would be the first time in history that a colony was able to cut ties with their sovereign. Many of the delegates believed the social contract between the colonies and England had been broken therefore they had the right to break the contract.
The final decision was for a committee to compose a declaration to the king to inform him of the violations to the social contract. Thomas Jefferson composed the Declaration of Independence.

Effects of the Enlightenment on American Government Name_________________________

Directions: Examine the primary source documents that you have been given. Answer the questions in the chart for each document.



Enlightenment Philosophers
Thomas Hobbes Jean Jacques Rousseau

John Locke Voltaire

Baron de Montesquieu

image result for enlightenment philosophers clipart


Enlightenment Ideas

Natural Rights Checks and Balances

Social Contract Separation of Powers

Civil Liberties (Individual Liberties) General Willhttp://www.clipartbest.com/cliparts/9ir/rle/9irrlejpt.jpeg






What is the name of the document?

In your own words, what is the purpose of the document?

Which Enlightenment philosopher influenced the document?

What specific ideas of the Enlightenment philosopher are contained in the document? Cite the text of the document to support your claim.

Declaration of Independence

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government …http://www.clipart-box.com/zoom/bow-hand-01.jpg










What is the name of the document?

In your own words, what is the purpose of the document?

Which Enlightenment philosopher influenced the document?

What specific ideas of the Enlightenment philosopher are contained in the document? Cite the text of the document to support your claim.

Preamble to the U.S. Constitution

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.http://www.clipart-box.com/zoom/bow-hand-01.jpg











Articles of the U.S. Constitution

All legislative powers…shall be vested in a Congress…the executive power…in a President…the judicial power of the United States in one Supreme Court and in such inferior Courts as the Congress…may establish.”



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Bill of Rights

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievanceshttp://www.clipart-box.com/zoom/bow-hand-01.jpg











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