U-Boats (709): German submarines; Germany had a many of them which they used to block Britain
11-11-1918 (722) 11:00am: World War I ended
Frans Ferdinand (707): Archduke (in line to the Austro-Hungarian throne), he & his pregnant wife were killed on June 28, 1914 by a Serbian nationalist. The next day Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
Woodrow Wilson (723-724): President during WWI, wanted the world safe for democracy. He came up with Fourteen Points peace plan, went overseas (which was rarely done by Presidents at this time) to present at the Peace Conference in Paris in January 1919.
Imperialism (681): building empires by imposing political and economic control over peoples around the world (gaining control over other countries or areas around the world)
Lusitania (709-710): a British passenger liner (ship built to transport people) was sunk by a U-boat on May 7, 1915. 1,200 people died, 128 were American. This angered America; Germany didn’t want us to enter the war so they agreed to not target passenger liners.
Zimmermann Telegram (710-711): German’s foreign minister (someone who helps a country out with other countries) Arthur Zimmermann asked Mexico to join the war on the German side & in return Germany would help Mexico re-claim New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The telegram was intercepted (discovered) by the British, shown to the US, and released to the public. U-boats sank 3 American ships carrying goods during this time. Americans grew very angry.
Central Powers (707) - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire. Fought together in WWI
Allied Powers (707) - France, Great Britain, Russia. Fought together in WWI. Eventually Russia would drop out and the United States would take their place.
The Big Four (724): Woodrow Wilson from the U.S., Georges Clemenceau of France, David Lloyd George of Britain, and Vittorio Orlando of Italy. All four met at the Peace Conference in Paris in January 1919.
New Nations (725): 9 nations formed at the end of WWI- Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Turkey, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Romania.
The Spark that started WWI: the spark was the spark coming off of the gun, which killed Frans Ferdinand & his pregnant wife on June 28, 1914.
Treaty of Versailles (724): treaty that ended WWI. Made Germany take full responsibility for WWI & pay the Allies for damage done during the war. Germany also lost their colonies; limits were placed on the size of their military. A League of Nations was formed that allows for countries to meet, settle disputes (arguments), and punish any country that broke the peace. The United States never accepted the Treaty; we rejected it. Wilson was not happy with the Treaty of Versailles- he wanted a peace treaty. The other countries did not want the same thing. They wanted Germany to pay reparations (pay other countries for the damages they caused during the war).
Trench Warfare (707): soldiers fire on one another from opposing lines of dugout trenches. Soldiers dug holes in the ground to help provide protection, then shoot at each other while in the holes (trenches).
Stalemate (707): deadlock, unable to come to an agreement, unable for one country to have a victory over another in a battle.
Selective Service Act (712): men between the ages of 21-30 must register for the military draft.
Victory gardens (714): people grew their own food since the food supply was limited during the war. To help, we had “wheatless Mondays” and “meatless Tuesdays.”
Reparations (724): payments to cover war damages; some countries have to pay this at the end of a war.
Treaty of Brest-Litosvk (719): secret deal between Russia and Germany; it allowed Russia to withdraw from the war, Germany was allowed to have about 30% of Russia’s land, and use their own German troops to help fight France
League of Nations (726): part of the 14 points President Wilson had, an international group made of countries from around the world, to meet to help solve disputes throughout the world. It did not pass the Senate because it didn’t allow the US to have enough power, and Wilson did not want to compromise.
Flu Epidemic (727): over 10 million people died worldwide from the flu; it killed more people than the war had.
Factors that lead to the war: MAIN- Militarism, Alliance System, Imperialism, Nationalism. Spark that started war- assassination of Franz Ferdinand.
Fourteen Points (723): Wilson’s peace plan, presented to at the Big Four conference. The first five dealt with the factors leading to the war (-isms), 6-13 dealt with territorial issues (countries having territories around the world); point 14 was setting up an international organization for peace.
Labor situation after the war (727): soldiers returned from war, people were unhappy, high unemployment; factories were no longer making items for the war. People were afraid of the red scare (communism in Russia had planned to take over the world, fear of this happening).
The most feared weapon- poison gas. It burned your lungs, and blinded you for the rest of your life. You can’t see it, so you normally didn’t know it was there until after you had taken a breath in and then it was already hurting your lungs.
US Food Administration (714): Herbert Hoover was in charge of this, he was in charge of organizing food production for overseas and in America. Their job was to get food to the military and civilians- they had “wheatless” Mondays, “meatless” Tuesdays… you couldn’t use various food items on certain days to help food scarcity.
Peace offensive (719): Germany decided for one last push to try to defeat the Allies, but it didn’t work because Americans showed up to help the Allies. Germany was defeated.
Central Powers- Battle of Argonne Forest (720): Germany realized they were losing their will to fight and ability to fight. In the fall of 1918, Allied forces pushed forward. Americans had more troops coming over to help fight. Germany asked for an armistice- which asks for the fighting to stop in order to allow for peace talks. There was fighting right up until 11am on 11-11-1918.
War Industry Board (714): government controlling the industries so enough supplies were made to help support the war (items needed in order to fight in the war). The government controlled what to produce, how much to produce, the price.
Red Scare (727): fear of communism; Americans believed communists were behind the labor unrest.
Communism: economic & political system based on the idea that social classes (everyone would have the same amount of $) and the right to private property should be eliminated (taken away, not exist)
Uncle Sam (714): a name given for our government/military; used on a poster with Uncle Sam pointing saying “Uncle Sam wants YOU!” trying to recruit men to join the military. Uncle Sam= United States
“Four-Minute Men” (714): army men who volunteered to give brief speeches at movie theaters & ball parks, in order to spread/create patriotism (pride in our country)
Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy (pre-World War 1)
Triple Entente- France, Russia, Great Britain (pre-World War 1)
Western Front: the line where Germany was fighting France (the West side of Germany)
Eastern Front: the line where Germany was fighting Russia (the East side of Germany)