Ch 20 True/False



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ch 20

True/False

Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.

____ 1. During World War II, American workers were more productive than German workers or Japanese workers.

____ 2. President Truman fully integrated the military after World War II was over.

____ 3. In World War II, the United States suffered more casualties in combat than any of its allies.

____ 4. In the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese sank or badly damaged most of the U.S. Navy's aircraft carriers.

____ 5. The Doolittle Raid convinced Japanese leaders to attack Midway Island.

____ 6. Joseph Stalin wanted the Americans to send troops to the eastern front to help defend the Soviet Union.

____ 7. World War II put an end to the Great Depression.

____ 8. The Allies' massive bombing campaign against Germany destroyed so many aircraft factories that the Allies gained total control of the air.

____ 9. Adolf Hitler committed suicide.

____ 10. In the trials for war crimes after World War II, the Japanese emperor was sentenced to death.

____ 11. Roosevelt agreed with Churchill to attack the periphery of the German Empire and in July 1942 ordered the invasion of Morocco and Algeria.

____ 12. Hitler was convinced that the only way to defeat the Soviet Union was with naval attacks.

____ 13. Although the troops in the Bataan Peninsula surrendered in April 1942, a small force held out on the island of Corregidor in Manila Bay until May of that year.

____ 14. American naval attacks forced the Japanese to limit their attack on New Guinea and kept the American supply lines to Australia open.

____ 15. On May 13, 1943, the last German forces in France surrendered.

____ 16. The American landing at Omaha Beach went very well, unlike the landing at Gold Beach.

____ 17. A problem encountered in the island-hopping campaign in the central Pacific was that many of the islands were coral reef atolls.

____ 18. In order to stop the American invasion, the Japanese sent four aircraft carriers from the north to the Philippines while secretly dispatching another fleet to the west.

____ 19. After Italy's surrender, German troops seized control of northern Italy, attacked the Americans at Salerno, and put Lenin back in power.

____ 20. The invasion of Normandy had to begin at night to hide the ships crossing the English Channel.

Multiple Choice

Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 21. The cost-plus system sped up war production by



a.

imposing penalties on companies that did not meet their production quotas.

b.

providing larger profits for companies that worked fast and produced a lot.

c.

allowing previously competing companies to work together.

d.

providing bonuses for superior workmanship in war production.

____ 22. Most Liberty ships were hard to sink because they were



a.

made of steel rather than iron.

b.

made with thick hulls.

c.

faster than other ships.

d.

welded rather than riveted.

____ 23. During World War II, women were recruited into the military to



a.

serve in light combat.

b.

serve as cooks and nurses.

c.

release men for combat.

d.

entertain the troops.

____ 24. Japan’s goal in attacking Midway Island was to



a.

gain a base from which to attack Hawaii.

b.

cut American supply lines to Australia.

c.

destroy the American fleet.

d.

gain control of resources on Midway.

____ 25. Roosevelt created the Fair Employment Practices Commission to



a.

mediate disputes between labor and management to avoid strikes.

b.

enforce nondiscrimination in hiring workers in defense industries.

c.

control wages and prices.

d.

recruit women and minorities to work in defense factories.

____ 26. As a result of a presidential order allowing the military to declare any part of the United States to be a military zone,



a.

many areas of the West became off-limits to civilians.

b.

many Japanese Americans were moved to internment camps.

c.

much of the Nevada desert became a weapons testing ground.

d.

many military installations sprang up along the West Coast.

____ 27. Blue points and red points were a system for



a.

rewarding American civilians.

b.

rationing goods.

c.

prioritizing targets for attack.

d.

mapping opposing forces.

____ 28. The Allies placed inflated rubber tanks, empty tents, and dummy landing craft along the coast of Britain to convince the Germans that



a.

the Allies had more troops than they really had.

b.

an invasion of Britain would be futile.

c.

the Allies planned to invade the coast of Germany rather than France.

d.

the Allies planned to land their invasion forces in Pas-de-Calais.

____ 29. Iwo Jima was an important objective for the American military because



a.

the Japanese were using it as a base to attack the U.S. fleet.

b.

the main Japanese naval force was stationed there.

c.

U.S. planes could bomb Japan from there.

d.

the islands were an important link in the Japanese supply lines.

____ 30. The United States caused massive fires in Tokyo by dropping bombs filled with



a.

amphtrac.

b.

dynamite.

c.

DUKW.

d.

napalm.

____ 31. Over a third of all military equipment made during the war was manufactured by the



a.

steel industry.

b.

ship-building industry.

c.

automobile industry.

d.

aircraft industry.

____ 32. The “Double V” campaign meant



a.

victory in Europe and victory in the Pacific.

b.

victory over Hitler’s racism abroad and victory over racism at home.

c.

victory over the Nazis and victory over the Fascists.

d.

victory on land and victory on the seas.

____ 33. The Bataan Death March occurred in



a.

the Philippines.

b.

North Africa.

c.

Corregidor.

d.

the Soviet Union.

____ 34. A key to the American success at Midway was



a.

the use of new sonar and radar technology.

b.

breaking the Japanese Navy’s secret code.

c.

the use of long-range B-25 bombers launched from aircraft carriers.

d.

American submarines.

____ 35. The capture of Stalingrad was key to the success of Hitler’s strategy to



a.

destroy the Soviet army.

b.

destroy Soviet morale.

c.

draw China into the war.

d.

destroy the Soviet economy.

____ 36. Migrant farmworkers became an important part of the Southwest’s agricultural system as a result of



a.

the planting of victory gardens.

b.

a relaxation of immigration quotas.

c.

the Bracero Program.

d.

the Great Migration.

____ 37. In the case Korematsu v. the United States, the Supreme Court ruled that relocation of Japanese Americans was



a.

constitutional, but the government had to pay them for property losses.

b.

unconstitutional, and they had to be released at once.

c.

constitutional because it was based on military urgency.

d.

unconstitutional because it was based on race.

____ 38. As a result of the Allied attack on Sicily,



a.

the Italian king arrested Mussolini.

b.

Hitler removed Mussolini from power.

c.

Mussolini surrendered Italy.

d.

Mussolini took his own life.

____ 39. The U.S. Marines had severe casualties at Tarawa in part because



a.

they had no air support.

b.

the shallow reef prevented many landing craft from reaching shore.

c.

the Japanese held the high ground of Mount Suribachi.

d.

the Japanese used kamikaze fighters against them.

____ 40. Which of the following choices best completes the diagram?





a.

D-Day

b.

V-G Day

c.

Double-V Day

d.

V-E Day

____ 41. The Pittsburgh Courier argued that African Americans should join the war effort in order to achieve a double victory over Hitler’s racism and racism at home in a campaign called



a.

“Double V.”

b.

“Tuskegee Airmen.”

c.

“Fight for Right.”

d.

“Two V.”

____ 42. The automobile industry was uniquely suited to the mass production of



a.

“Government Issue” clothing.

b.

ships.

c.

military equipment.

d.

buildings to house soldiers.

____ 43. After France surrendered to Germany in June 1940, two members of Congress introduced the



a.

War Production Board.

b.

Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps.

c.

Reconstruction Finance Corporation.

d.

Selective Service and Training Act.

____ 44. During World War II, the Army enlisted women for the first time, although they were barred from



a.

combat.

b.

basic training.

c.

the barracks.

d.

clerical positions.

____ 45. What did Roosevelt establish in 1943 to settle arguments between different agencies concerning production of goods for the war?



a.

War Production Board

b.

Selective Service

c.

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

d.

Office of War Mobilization

____ 46. On April 18, 1942, American bombs fell on Japan for the first time when the carriers’ usual short-ranged bombers were replaced with long-range



a.

paratroopers.

b.

code breakers.

c.

radar.

d.

B-25 bombers.

____ 47. If British and American troops opened a second front by attacking Germany from the west, it would take pressure off the



a.

Pacific war.

b.

Soviet Union.

c.

Italians.

d.

French.

____ 48. On November 8, 1942, the American invasion of North Africa began under the command of General



a.

Dwight D. Eisenhower.

b.

George Patton.

c.

Douglas MacArthur.

d.

Ernest King.

____ 49. In June 1942, decoded Japanese messages alerted the United States to the Japanese attack on



a.

Hawaii.

b.

Midway.

c.

New Guinea.

d.

Manchuria.

____ 50. The Battle of the Atlantic slowly turned in favor of the Allies, in part due to new technology, including depth charges, sonar, and



a.

B-25 bombers.

b.

mass production.

c.

convoy systems.

d.

radar.

____ 51. In order to save fabric for the war, most men wore a



a.

sport coat.

b.

shirt with no jacket.

c.

“victory suit.”

d.

“zoot suit.”

____ 52. The Office of Price Administration began rationing, or limiting the availability of, many consumer products to make sure enough were available for



a.

military use.

b.

the elderly.

c.

children.

d.

schools.

____ 53. To help farmers in the Southwest overcome the labor shortage, the government introduced the



a.

Migrant Worker Program.

b.

Relocation Program.

c.

Rosie the Riveter Program.

d.

Bracero Program.

____ 54. In 1942 Secretary of War Henry Stimson declared most of the West Coast a military zone and ordered all people of Japanese ancestry to evacuate to



a.

Japan.

b.

internment camps.

c.

concentration camps.

d.

the East Coast.

____ 55. Taken together, the growth of southern California and the expansion of cities in the Deep South created a new industrial region—



a.

the Sunbelt.

b.

the Southwest Corridor.

c.

the Southbelt.

d.

Sun City.

____ 56. It took the Allies five months to break through the German lines at Cassino and



a.

Pas-de-Calais.

b.

Anzio.

c.

Salerno.

d.

Guadalcanal.

____ 57. One part of the American plan for the defeat of Japan called for General MacArthur’s troops to advance through the Solomon Islands, capture the north coast of New Guinea, and then retake



a.

the Philippines.

b.

Manchuria.

c.

Indonesia.

d.

Australia.

____ 58. The bombing campaign between January 1943 and May 1945 did not destroy Germany’s economy or undermine German morale, but it did destroy many aircraft factories, wrecked the railroad system, and caused a severe



a.

water shortage.

b.

ecological crisis.

c.

oil shortage.

d.

political scandal.

____ 59. On June 6, 1944, nearly 7,000 ships carrying more than 100,000 soldiers set sail for the coast of



a.

Northern Africa.

b.

the Philippines.

c.

Japan.

d.

Normandy.

____ 60. General MacArthur’s campaign in the southwest Pacific began with the invasion of



a.

Australia.

b.

Vietnam.

c.

Guadalcanal.

d.

Normandy.

____ 61. In 1944, at the Dumbarton Oaks Estate in Washington, D.C., delegates from 39 countries met to discuss a new international organization, which was to be called the



a.

League of Nations.

b.

United Nations.

c.

Allies.

d.

International Military Tribunal.

____ 62. The German’s goal for the Battle of the Bulge was to cut off Allied supplies coming through the port of



a.

Antwerp, Belgium.

b.

Odense, Denmark.

c.

Helsinki, Finland.

d.

Nice, France.

____ 63. Where did American military planners choose to invade in order to stockpile supplies and build up troops for an invasion of Japan?



a.

Hiroshima

b.

Nagasaki

c.

Iwo Jima

d.

Okinawa

____ 64. Faced with the massive destruction caused by atomic bombs and the shock of the Soviets joining the war, the Japanese emperor ordered his government to surrender on August 15, 1945—



a.

Armistice Day.

b.

V-E Day.

c.

V-J Day.

d.

Veterans Day.

____ 65. Where did American military planners decide to invade so B-29s could be refueled?



a.

Iwo Jima

b.

Okinawa

c.

Tokyo

d.

the Mariana Islands


Completion

Complete each sentence or statement.

66. The enormous B-24 bomber was called "the ____________________."

67. World War II soldiers were called "GIs" because their clothing bore the label "G.I.," meaning "_________________________."

68. The 99th Pursuit Squadron, an African American unit of fighter pilots who played an important role during the Battle of Anzio, became known as the _________________________.

69. The loss of many ships in the Atlantic convinced the U.S. Navy to set up a ____________________ system, in which navy warships would escort groups of cargo ships.

70. By putting the Germans on the defensive, the Soviet forces created a turning point in the war in Europe at the Battle of ____________________.

71. The growth of southern California and the expansion of cities in the Deep South during World War II created a new industrial region called the ____________________.

72. The code name for the Allied invasion of France was __________________________.

73. The Allies landed their invasion forces in the area of France called ____________________.

74. The American program to build an atomic bomb was code-named the _________________________.

75. The atomic bomb was first dropped on the Japanese city of ____________________.

76. American war production turned the tide in favor of the ____________________.

77. Benjamin O. ____________________, the highest-ranking African American officer in the U.S. Army, was appointed to brigadier-general by President Roosevelt.

78. Damaged Liberty ships could often get back to port, make repairs, and return to service because they were ____________________ instead of riveted.

79. By the summer of 1942, almost all major industries and some 200,000 companies had converted to ____________________ production.

80. Colonel Oveta Culp ____________________ was in command of the Women's Army Corps.

81. A. Philip ____________________, the head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters—a major union for African American railroad workers—was frustrated that factories still resisted hiring African Americans even with the labor shortage.

82. The War Labor Board tried to prevent ____________________ that might endanger the war effort.

83. The worst racial violence between African Americans and whites during wartime erupted in ____________________ on Sunday, June 20, 1943.

84. Certain materials such as spare rubber, tin, aluminum, and steel were so vital to the war effort that the government organized ____________________ drives.

85. Shortly after the Supreme Court ruling in Korematsu v. the United States, which stated that the relocation of Japanese Americans was constitutional, the Court ruled in Ex Parte Endo that loyal American ____________________ could not be held against their will.

86. On April 24, 1945, representatives from 50 countries came to San Francisco to officially organize the United Nations and design its ____________________, or constitution.

87. The use of firebombs filled with ____________________, a kind of jellied gasoline, was very controversial because the fires would also kill civilians.

88. The United States dropped an atomic bomb code-named "Fat Man" on the city of ____________________.

89. Many Japanese leaders were willing to surrender after the capture of Okinawa, but they would not accept the American demand for unconditional surrender, which included the ____________________ losing power.

90. General Leslie R. Groves organized a team of engineers and scientists to build an atomic bomb at a secret laboratory in ____________________, New Mexico.



Matching

Match each item with the correct statement below.

a.

Philip Randolph

b.

Benjamin O. Davis

c.

Chester Nimitz

d.

Robert Oppenheimer

e.

George Patton

f.

Harry S Truman

g.

Oveta Culp Hobby

h.

Albert Einstein

i.

Douglas MacArthur

j.

Dwight D. Eisenhower

____ 91. in overall command of the invasion of France

____ 92. “I felt like the moon, the stars, and all the planets had fallen on me.”

____ 93. commander of the United States Navy in the Pacific

____ 94. head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters who pressured Roosevelt to provide jobs for African Americans in defense factories

____ 95. led the American team of engineers and scientists building the atomic bomb

____ 96. highest-ranking African American officer in the U.S. Army

____ 97. signed a letter to Roosevelt, warning that powerful bombs may be constructed using uranium

____ 98. director of the WAC

____ 99. upon evacuating the Philippines, said “I shall return”

____ 100. led the troops that rescued the Americans trapped at Bastogne

Match each item with the correct statement below.

a.

Tuskegee Airmen

b.

E bonds

c.

Leyte Gulf

d.

442nd Regimental Combat Team

e.

Selective Service and Training Act

f.

Omaha

g.

Kasserine Pass

h.

Enola Gay

i.

ration

j.

D-Day

____ 101. first time the Japanese used kamikaze attacks

____ 102. beginning of Operation Overlord

____ 103. first time American troops had to fight the German army in North Africa

____ 104. name for French beach stormed by American invasion forces

____ 105. Japanese American military unit

____ 106. limit availability of consumer products

____ 107. bomber that dropped the first atomic bomb

____ 108. first peacetime draft in American history

____ 109. African American military unit

____ 110. used to raise money for the war

Match each item with the correct statement below.

a.

Women’s Army Corps

b.

cost-plus contracts

c.

GIs

d.

Liberty ship

e.

Tuskegee Airmen

____ 111. government agreed to pay a company whatever it cost to make a product plus a guaranteed percentage of the costs as profit

____ 112. an African American unit, the 99th Pursuit Squadron, that played an important role during the Battle of Anzio

____ 113. nickname for American soldiers because their clothing was labeled “Government Issue”

____ 114. first regular army corps for women

____ 115. basic cargo ship used during the war



Match each item with the correct statement below.

a.

Battle of Midway

b.

Battle of Stalingrad

c.

Bataan Death March

d.

convoy system

e.

periphery

____ 116. cargo ships traveled in groups and were escorted by navy warships

____ 117. turning point in the war that put the Germans on the offensive

____ 118. edges

____ 119. turning point in the war that stopped the Japanese advance in the Pacific

____ 120. when 78,000 prisoners of war were forced to march 65 miles to a Japanese prison camp



Match each item with the correct statement below.

a.

Japanese American Citizens League

b.

victory gardens

c.

“Rosie the Riveter”

d.

Office of Price Administration

e.

Fair Employment Practices Commission

____ 121. first civil rights agency established by the federal government since the Reconstruction era

____ 122. gardens planted to produce more food for the war effort

____ 123. tried to help Japanese Americans who had lost property during the relocation

____ 124. created to stabilize both wages and prices

____ 125. symbol of the campaign to hire women during the wartime labor shortage



Match each item with the correct statement below.

a.

D-Day

b.

amphtrac

c.

kamikaze attacks

d.

DUKW

e.

Operation Overlord

____ 126. an amphibious tractor invented in the late 1930s to rescue people in Florida swamps

____ 127. when Japanese pilots would deliberately crash their planes into American ships, killing themselves but also inflicting severe damage

____ 128. an amphibious truck

____ 129. code name for the invasion of France

____ 130. the day of the invasion of France



Match each item with the correct statement below.

a.

V-E Day

b.

hedgerows

c.

Manhattan Project

d.

“Little Boy”

e.

Nuremburg

____ 131. code-name for the American program to build an atomic bomb

____ 132. where the International Military Tribunal tried German leaders suspected of committing war crimes

____ 133. dirt walls, several feet thick, that were covered in shrubbery and surrounded many fields in Normandy

____ 134. the day after the unconditional surrender by Germany on May 7, 1945

____ 135. code-name for the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima



Essay

136. Explain the purpose of the Doolittle Raid and the problems military planners had to solve to make it successful.

137. Complete the diagram by filling in the names of the branches of the United Nations. Then describe the makeup of each branch and its responsibilities.

138. Describe zoot suiters and explain why they became the target of anger from many Americans.



139. Describe the different points of view in the debate over the use of the atomic bomb and explain why Truman finally decided to use it.


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