CH. 19 The Vietnam War



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CH. 19 The Vietnam Warhttp://designyoutrust.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/v1d.jpg

What do you imagine when you think of "The Sixties"? Music festivals, "free love," and various recreational drugs, perhaps? Maybe sit-in demonstrations, marches, and picket signs with bold messages? Definitely tie-dye. We tend to remember this notorious decade in terms of cultural changes at home: innovative music, new perspectives on life and love, glorious causes, and, of course, colorful—very colorful—fashion.

This period in American history is certainly characterized by all of these things, and more often than not it is with these images that Americans today prefer to remember it. And why not? Nostalgia for "The Sixties" gave us Lollapalooza, poetry slams, retro Volkswagen Beetles, the film Across the Universe, big hoop earrings, fabulous Halloween costumes, and Austin Powers. But the event, more than any other, that dominated this decade is the Vietnam War.

The Vietnam War—commonly referred to as "America's longest war"—grew out of the American commitment to the containment of communism during the Cold War. For approximately fifteen years, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) fought against an American-supported Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). The war for the U.S. ended in 1973 with the withdrawal of American combat troops, and two years later, South Vietnamese forces surrendered to the North.

The Vietnam War had a tremendous impact on American society and culture, in large part because it was the first American war to be televised. As a result, the American press played a significant, unforeseen role in the war, especially in the arena of public opinion. The photographs, videos, and opinions of American journalists, coupled with the simple fact that young Americans were dying on foreign soil against an enemy that did not threaten the United States directly, turned some in America against the war. This enormous power of the media and public distrust of the government have been a mainstay of American society ever since. Decades later, the war still figures prominently in American film and literature, and the black granite wall of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C., remains one of the most potent symbols of American loss.http://www.dreamstime.com/vietnam-war-memorial-rose-thumb13895988.jpg

The Vietnam War: An Overview Mr. Judd



  1. In 1940, the Japanese invaded Vietnam. The Japanese occupation of Vietnam was only the latest example of foreigners ruling the Vietnamese people. What other countries had controlled the region and when? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



  1. Explain the Domino Theory first proclaimed by President Eisenhower in the 1950s.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________http://www1.free-clipart.net/gallery2/clipart/travel_and_leisure/games/dominoes.jpg

  1. What were the Geneva Accords? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



  1. Who was the leader of North Vietnam? What type of government did he endorse? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



  1. Who were the Vietcong? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________http://www.clipartlab.com/clipart_preview/art_zoom/cl4-vietnam_war.png



  1. What happened at the Gulf of Tonkin in 1964? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



  1. What is the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



  1. What is napalm? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



  1. What is agent orange? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



  1. What role did the Ho Chi Minh Trail play in the war? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



  1. Who was the U.S. commander in Vietnam? ____________________________________________________



  1. How did the draft split the nation? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



  1. What led to the ratification of the 26th Amendment? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________________________



  1. Who were doves? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________http://www.twoheartsdesign.com/images/clipart/catholic/holyspirit/images/dove1.jpg



  1. Who were hawks? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________http://www.clipartpal.com/_thumbs/001/arts/mascots/00100001400_tnb.png



  1. What was the Tet Offensive? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



  1. What was the military result of the Tet Offensive? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



  1. What were the political consequences of the Tet Offensive? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



  1. Who was elected U.S. president in 1968? ______________________________________________________



  1. What was the name of his policy to end the war? What did it mean? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



  1. What tragedy occurred in Ohio after the American invasion of Cambodia in April, 1970? Explain. E_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________http://www.pophistorydig.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/1970-plaindealer-5may-300.jpg



  1. When did the last American combat troops withdraw from Vietnam? ________________________________



  1. When did the South Vietnamese surrender to the North Vietnamese? _______________________________



  1. What is PTSD? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



  1. One important legacy of the Vietnam War is the War Powers Act. What limits does this law place on executive powers? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Map Skills: The Vietnam War 1954-1975 Mr. Judd

Use the maps on pages 655-56, 660, 662, 678 to locate the following countries, cities, bodies of water, sites of conflict, etc. Then label them on the outline map.





Countries

Laos


China

Thailand


Cambodia

North Vietnam

South Vietnam

Bodies of Water

South China Sea

Gulf of Tonkin

Mekong River

Gulf of Thailand
Capital Cities

Hanoi


Saigon
Major Battles

Ia Drang


Khe Sanh
Other

Ho Chi Minh Trail

My Lai Massacre

Dien Bien Phu




Selective Service System Mr. Judd

Go to the Selective Service System home page (https://www.sss.gov/) to answer the following questions.




  1. Who must register with the Selective Service System? http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/31/selective_service_system_seal.svg/140px-selective_service_system_seal.svg.png



  1. What is the mission of the Selective Service System?




  1. What is the purpose of the Selective Service System Local Board?



  1. When must a person register with the Selective Service System?




  1. How can a person register?




  1. How many men were inducted (drafted) during World War II? Vietnam?




  1. In what year was the most men inducted?




  1. What system did the Selective Service use to draft men during the Vietnam War?




  1. What would have been your draft number in the Dec. 1, 1969 drawing?




  1. In the first Vietnam draft (1969), anyone who got a number up to ______ was called to report for possible induction.




  1. When was the last military draft? (What year?)




  1. After studying the draft classification page, who can be:

Deferred-

Exempted-

Postponed-




  1. What is a conscientious objector?



  1. Can “only sons,” “the last son to carry the family name,” and “sole surviving sons” be drafted? Explain.



  1. If there was a military draft today, who would be the first men drafted?




  1. How has the draft changed since the Vietnam War?




Lyrics to Fortunate Son by Creedence Clearwater Revival

Some folks are born to wave the flag


Ooh they're red white and blue.
And when the band plays "Hail to the chief"
Ooh they point the cannon at you Lord

It ain't me, it ain't me I ain't no senator's son son


It ain't me, it ain't me; I ain't no fortunate one no

Some folks are born silver spoon in hand


Lord don't they help themselves oh
But when the tax man comes to the door
Lord, the house looks like a rummage sale, yes

It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no millionaire's son, no


It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate one, no

Some folks inherit star spangled eyes


Ooh, they send you down to war, Lord
And when you ask them, "How much should we give?"
Ooh, they only answer more! more! more!

It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no military son, son


It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate one, one
It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate one, no no no
It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate son, no no no


Lyrics to Ballad of the Green Beret by SSgt Barry Sadler

Fighting soldiers from the sky


Fearless men who jump and die
Men who mean just what they say
The brave men of the Green Beret

Silver wings upon their chest


These are men, America's best
One hundred men will test today
But only three win the Green Beret

Trained to live off nature's land


Trained in combat, hand-to-hand
Men who fight by night and day
Courage peak from the Green Berets

Silver wings upon their chest


These are men, America's best
One hundred men will test today
But only three win the Green Beret

Back at home a young wife waits


Her Green Beret has met his fate
He has died for those oppressed
Leaving her his last request

Put silver wings on my son's chest


Make him one of America's best
He'll be a man they'll test one day
Have him win the Green Beret.


Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young Four Dead In Ohio Lyrics

Translation in progress. Please wait...



http://www.lyricsfreak.com/i/loader.gif

Tin soldiers and Nixon's comin'.


We're finally on our own.
This summer I hear the drummin'.
Four dead in Ohio.

Gotta get down to it.


Soldiers are gunning us down.
Should have been done long ago.
What if you knew her and
Found her dead on the ground?
How can you run when you know?

Na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na.


Na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na.
Na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na.
Na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na.

Gotta get down to it.


Soldiers are cutting us down.
Should have been done long ago.
What if you knew her and
Found her dead on the ground?
How can you run when you know?

Tin soldiers and Nixon's comin'.


We're finally on our own.
This summer I hear the drummin'.
Four dead in Ohio.
Four dead in Ohio.
Four dead in Ohio.
Four dead in Ohio.
Four dead in Ohio.


Country Joe And The Fish - I Feel Like I'm Fixin' To Die

Well come on all of you big strong men, Uncle Sam needs your help again,


he got himself in a terrible jam, way down yonder in Vietnam,
put down your books and pick up a gun, we're gunna have a whole lotta fun.

CHORUS
and its 1,2,3 what are we fightin for?


don't ask me i don't give a dam, the next stop is Vietnam, and its 5,6,7 open up the pearly gates. Well there aint no time to wonder why...WHOPEE we're all gunna die.

Now come on wall street don't be slow, why man this's war a-go-go, there's plenty good money to be made, supplyin' the army with the tools of the trade, just hope and pray that when they drop the bomb, they drop it on the Vietcong.

CHORUS

Now come on generals lets move fast, your big chance is here at last.


Nite you go out and get those reds cuz the only good commie is one thats dead,
you know that peace can only be won, when you blow em all to kingdom come.
CHORUS
Now come on mothers throughout the land, pack your boys off to vietnam,
come on fathers don't hesitate, send your sons off before its too late,
be the first one on your block, to have your boy come home in a box

CHORUS


Vietnam War Music Mr. Judd
Ballad of the Green Berets:


  1. How does this song make you feel?



  1. How does the song portray soldiers?

3. Does this song support or condemn American Involvement of the Vietnam War?

How do you know (give two specific examples from the song)?

Ohio:
1. Who are the soldiers Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young are referring to? What

do you think the artists mean by “tin soldiers”? (Hint: Tin is a cheap metal.)

2. What event is this song written for? How do you know? (Use specific examples

from the lyrics.)



Fortunate Son:

  1. What does this popular song tell the reader about those who advocated the war vs. those who fought the war?



  1. Why would this be a problem for young men facing the draft?

I Feel Like I’m Fixin’ To Die:

  1. What issues are raised in the song?



  1. To whom does the song appeal?



  1. What reactions or emotions does the song elicit?


The Television War Mr. Judd

The war in Vietnam has been described as the war America watched from their living rooms. Images of combat and American GIs were projected through our TV screens and across our newspapers daily. During the war in Vietnam, the American military gave the press unprecedented freedom of access to combat zones. This allowed newspaper reporters and photographers and television crews to document a war involving American sons and daughters on the other side of the world. This willingness to allow documentation of the war was also extended to the military's own photographers. Between 1962 and 1975, military photographers for the United States Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force took millions of photographs of the American conflict in Vietnam. Almost a quarter of a million of these images are now located at the National Archives. These photographs serve publishers, historians, and students who want to learn more about Vietnam. They include images of almost every aspect of the war.



Task: Study each photo and answer the following questions.

1. What can you infer from the photograph?http://a1.ec-images.myspacecdn.com/images01/75/e7c553702a2913354d54a3e76528f8cf/l.jpg

2. What questions does this photograph raise in your mind?

3. What is the real story behind this photo?

4. Create a caption for the photograph.

nick ut vietnam

1. What can you infer from the photograph?

2. What questions does this photograph raise in your mind?

3. What is the real story behind this photo?

4. Create a caption for the photograph.

1. What can you infer from the photograph?http://andrewstevenharris.files.wordpress.com/2009/03/saigon-execution.jpg

2. What questions does this photograph raise in your mind?

3. What is the real story behind this photo?

4. Create a caption for the photograph.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/6/65/kent_state_massacre.jpg/220px-kent_state_massacre.jpg

1. What can you infer from the photograph?

2. What questions does this photograph raise in your mind?

3. What is the real story behind this photo?

4. Create a caption for the photograph.

http://photos.travellerspoint.com/158034/saigon.jpg

1. What can you infer from the photograph?

2. What questions does this photograph raise in your mind?

3. What is the real story behind this photo?

4. Create a caption for the photograph.

On the Rainy River” Mr. Judd

In “On the Rainy River,” the character of Tim O’Brien leaves home with the intention of fleeing to Canada in order to avoid the draft. He says, “For more than twenty years I’ve had to live with it, feeling the shame, trying to push it away, and so by this act of remembrance, by putting the facts down on paper, I’m hoping to relieve the pressure on my dreams” (37).

Later on, he describes his conflict:

It was a kind of schizophrenia. A moral split. I couldn't make up my mind. I feared the war, yes, but I also feared exile. I was afraid of walking away from my own life, my friends and my family, my whole history, everything that mattered to me. I feared losing the respect of my parents. I feared the law. I feared ridicule and censure. …it was easy to imagine people sitting around a table down at the old Gobbler Cafe on Main Street, coffee cups poised, the conversation slowly zeroing in on the young O'Brien kid, how the damned sissy had taken off for Canada. At night, when I couldn't sleep, I'd sometimes carry on fierce arguments with those people. I'd be screaming at them, telling them how much I detested their blind, thoughtless, automatic acquiescence to it all, their simple-minded patriotism, their prideful ignorance, their love-it-or-leave-it platitudes, how they were sending me off to fight a war they didn't understand and didn't want to understand. I held them responsible (42–43).

He concludes with: “I was a coward. I went to war” (58).



Please respond to the following questions, writing at least six sentences for each.

  1. If you were Tim O’Brien, would you have made the same choice? Why or why not?


2. How do you feel about O’Brien’s final statement? Do you agree he was a coward? Why or why not?


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