Ch 14 the Influence of Islam on West Africa ch 14 preview



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Mr. Dunn’s World History Class Ch 14 notes May 25, 2016

Pinole Middle School



CH 14 the Influence of Islam on West Africa

CH 14 PREVIEW


  • Preview 14 page 89 in Grey W/B
  • After you have completed the assignment, share your ideas with a partner, or have several volunteers briefly share their work with the class.


  • Explain that just as other cultures have influenced their own community, Islam has influenced the culture of West Africa.

OUTLINE OF CH 14 WITH STANDARDS
  • INTRODUCTION:

THESE ARE THE TOPICS FOR YOUR STUDENT WORKBOOK ASSIGNMENT PP 90-91



  1. 14.3: NEW RELIGIOUS PRACTICES P.158

  2. 14.4: NEW IDEAS ABOUT GOVERNMENT + LAW P.159

  3. 14.5 A NEW EMPHASIS ON EDUCATION P.160

  4. 14.6 A NEW LANGUAGE P.161

  5. 14.7 NEW ARCHITECTURAL STYLES P.162

  6. 14.8 NEW STYLES IN DECORATIVE ARTS P.163

14.2 SPREAD OF ISLAM IN W. AFRICA P.156

  • In 8th Century Trans-Saharan trade brought Islam to West Africa

  • At 1st Muslims lived side by side with non-Muslims.

  • Over time, however Islam played a growing role in West African society

  1. TRADE BROUGHT ISLAM TO WEST AFRICA

    1. 639-708 CE Muslims conquered N. Africa, but Ghana was protected by the Sahara desert.

    2. Islam 1st arrived in Ghana thru Muslim traders and missionaries.

    3. King of Ghana was not converted, but he allowed Muslims to co-exist.

    4. So many settled in Kumbi, that they had 12 mosques and own imam

    5. 1076 Almoravids waged jihad in West Africa, capturing Kumbi starting the decline of Ghana

  1. ISLAM IN MALI

    1. Religious tolerance helped the spread of Islam in West Africa

    2. In 1240 the Made tribe (Muslim converts) took Kumbi, and built new empire of Mali

    3. Their greatest ruler was Mansa Musa who took over in 1312

      1. In 1324 he went on a Hajj to Mecca

        1. It covered 3,000 miles

        2. Over 80,000 people went

        3. Took 8 months to reach Cairo

        4. His caravan was described as “a lavish display of power, wealth and unprecedented by its size and pageantry.” He paid for everything with gold.

        5. Brought back Al-Saheli

      2. They followed most, but not all Muslim practices

  1. ISLAM IN SONGHAI

    1. 1460’s the great warrior Sunni Ali became the ruler of Songhai

    2. He built a powerful army that conquered Mali

    3. Early leaders did not seriously practice Islam, so in 1490s Muslims rebelled placing Askia Mohammed Toure as ruler

    4. This was the largest of the West African empires, getting as big as Western Europe.

14.3: NEW RELIGIOUS PRACTICES P.158


    1. ISLAM

      1. W. Africans embraced Islam

      2. Celebrated most of the festivals

        1. Eid al-Fitr – end of Ramadan

        2. Eid al-Adha – Abraham’s sacrifice

      3. Kept some of their old ones

        1. Respect for spirits of dead ancestors

        2. Belief in spirits – praying or sacrificing

        3. Amulets – protect from harm

      4. Some practices were not understood by Arab Muslims

14.4 NEW IDEAS ABOUT GOV + LAW P159

    1. Changed the line on succession

      1. PATRILINEAL – father to son

    2. Structure of government

      1. Change to highly centralized government

      2. Adoption of shari’ah (Islamic law)

        1. It replaced the traditional customary law

          1. Which was not written but understood

          2. Trial by wood was one type of punishment

        2. Judged by qadis

          1. They heard cases, listened to witnesses, + ruled on law



14.5 A NEW EMPHASIS ON EDUCATION P 160



    1. TIMBUKTU a major trading city and educational center

      1. University of Sankore – one of world’s greatest universities

        1. Run by an imam or scholar

        2. Qur'an, Islamic studies, Law, + Lit.

        3. Medicine and surgery

        4. Highest degree – 10 yrs. of study

        5. Turban – symbol of divine light, wisdom, knowledge, + excellence

      2. Books copied by hand



14.6 A NEW LANGUAGE P 161



    1. With Islam, Arabic became the language of West Africa

    2. Arabic is the language of the Muslim religion

    3. Arabic is the language of learning

    4. Islamic law was written in Arabic

    5. Arabic is the Language of trade and government

14.7 NEW ARCHITECTURAL STYLES P.162



    1. Change from shrines that worshiped the forces of nature to mosques => Allah

    2. Al-Saheli => Djingareyber – the most famous mosque in Timbuktu

      1. Limestone

      2. Earth mixed with straw and wood

      3. Beams are projected out from the wall where scaffolding was hung to make repairs to the buildings

    3. New designs in home building change from circular to rectangular


14.8 NEW STYLES IN DECORATIVE ARTS P.163



    1. Calligraphy (artistic writing) and geometric patterns used in both Muslim and w. African art

    2. Textiles very important to w. Africans

    3. Dress changed with Muslim influence









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