Ch. 11 Lesson 4 Sparta and Athens main ideas



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Ch. 11 Lesson 4 Sparta and Athens

MAIN IDEAS

Government Sparta built a state in which every part of life was organized

around the need to have a strong army.

Government Athenian citizens were expected to participate actively in

government.

Government A Persian invasion endangered Greece, so some city-states

united to fight their enemy.
Sparta’s Military State

Spartan Society Changes

Athens’ main rival was ___________—city-state in Peloponnesus

• Sparta changed after conquering neighboring area around 715 B.C.

- forced defeated people to become slaves called _________

- helots were forced to farm and give Sparta half their crops

• Helots outnumbered Spartans; often ___________ but were defeated

- fear of helot revolts led Spartan state to build __________ army
Government and Society

• _______ kings ruled Sparta; five elected supervisors ran government

- Council of Elders proposed laws

- assembly of __________ elected officials, voted on Council’s laws

• Three social groups: citizens lived in city, trained to be soldiers

- __________ noncitizens lived in nearby villages, had no political rights

- lowest group—helots—grew food so citizens could be full-time soldiers
Education

• Boys lived in _________—military houses—from age seven

- were taught discipline, duty, strength, military skill; little reading

• All ______ citizens entered army at age 20, served until 60



Women

Emotionally, physically _________; were taught strength, athletics



  • Mothers told their sons, “Bring back this shield yourself or be brought back on it” …this means come home victorious or ______ fighting

• Family life _______ important in Sparta; husbands, wives usually apart

• Women had more freedom than elsewhere, allowed to own ____________



Athens’ Democratic Way of Life
Government and Society

• Athens developed a ________ democracy.



  • Athens had two governing bodies

- Council of _______________ ran daily life; Assembly voted on policies

Citizens had to serve in army, on juries when needed

- ________ had several hundred people; in courts, all citizens were equal

• Slaves—noncitizens, a third of population, worked in homes, on farms

- some earned money, were able to _______ freedom

Education

• Boys of ___________ families started school at age six or seven

- prepared for citizenship; learned logic, debate for future in Assembly

- also studied reading, writing, poetry, arithmetic, music



Women

• ____________ to be good wives, mothers; some were priestesses

• Had ______ freedom than in Sparta—did not attend school

- only inherited _________ if father had no sons


The Persian Wars
The _________ Persian Invasion

• Persia conquered ___________ in 500s B.C.—area had many Greek colonies

- Athens supported failed Greek revolt in Anatolia in 499 B.C.

• Persia wanted to ________ Athens, so arrived near Athens in 490 B.C.

• Athenians met Persians at plain of ____________; had no Spartan help

- Athenians were outnumbered but ______ battle by clever military tactics

- legend says solider ran ______ miles to Athens to deliver victory message
Greek Victory

• Persians invaded again in 480 B.C.; Greek city-states __________ against them

• ________ Spartans fought to last man at narrow Thermopylae pass

- gave Athens time to prepare for battle

• Athenians left city, fought nearby naval battle against Persians

- narrow body of water helped more mobile Greek ships _______ battle

- this victory ended the ________

Chapter 11: Ancient Greece World History: Ancient Civilizations 1



Lesson 4 Sparta and Athens

MAIN IDEAS

Government Sparta built a state in which every part of life was organized

around the need to have a strong army.

Government Athenian citizens were expected to participate actively in

government.

Government A Persian invasion endangered Greece, so some city-states

united to fi ght their enemy.

Sparta’s Military State

Spartan Society Changes

Athens’ main rival was Sparta—city-state in Peloponnesus

• Sparta changed after conquering neighboring area around 715 B.C.

- forced defeated people to become slaves called helots

- helots were forced to farm and give Sparta half their crops

• Helots outnumbered Spartans; often rebelled but were defeated

- fear of helot revolts led Spartan state to build strong army

Government and Society

• Two kings ruled Sparta; five elected supervisors ran government

- Council of Elders proposed laws

- assembly of citizens elected officials, voted on Council’s laws

• Three social groups: citizens lived in city, trained to be soldiers

- free noncitizens lived in nearby villages, had no political rights

- lowest group—helots—grew food so citizens could be full-time soldiers

Education

• Boys lived in barracks—military houses—from age seven

- were taught discipline, duty, strength, military skill; little reading

• All male citizens entered army at age 20, served until 60



Women

• Emotionally, physically tough; were taught strength, athletics



  • Mothers told their sons, “Bring back this shield yourself or be brought back on it” …this means come home victorious or __die____ fighting

• Family life less important in Sparta; husbands, wives usually apart

• Women had more freedom than elsewhere, allowed to own property


Athens’ Democratic Way of Life

Government and Society

• Athens developed a __direct______ democracy.



  • Athens had two governing bodies

- Council of Four Hundred ran daily life; Assembly voted on policies

• Citizens had to serve in army, on juries when needed

- juries had several hundred people; in courts, all citizens were equal

• Slaves—noncitizens, a third of population, worked in homes, on farms

- some earned money, were able to buy freedom

Education

• Boys of wealthy families started school at age six or seven

- prepared for citizenship; learned logic, debate for future in Assembly

- also studied reading, writing, poetry, arithmetic, music



Women

Expected to be good wives, mothers; some were priestesses

• Had less freedom than in Sparta—did not attend school

- only inherited property if father had no sons


The Persian Wars

The First Persian Invasion

• Persia conquered Anatolia in 500s B.C.—area had many Greek colonies

- Athens supported failed Greek revolt in Anatolia in 499 B.C.

• Persia wanted to punish Athens, so arrived near Athens in 490 B.C.

• Athenians met Persians at plain of Marathon; had no Spartan help

- Athenians were outnumbered but won battle by clever military tactics

- legend says solider ran 25 miles to Athens to deliver victory message

Greek Victory

• Persians invaded again in 480 B.C.; Greek city-states united against them

• 300 Spartans fought to last man at narrow Thermopylae pass

- gave Athens time to prepare for battle

• Athenians left city, fought nearby naval battle against Persians

- narrow body of water helped more mobile Greek ships win battle



- this victory ended the war


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