Century of the middle class



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WOMEN IN THE MIDDLE CLASS IN 19TH C.
00000000I. INTRODUCTION TO THE MIDDLE CLASS IN 19TH C.

A. NEW OCCURRENCE -GROWTH OF MIDDLE CLASS & ITS INFLUENCE

1. GROWTH IN POWER & PRESTIGE OF MIDDLE CLASS PERHAPS MOST NB SINGLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOCIAL HISTORY OF 19TH C.

a. "CENTURY OF THE MIDDLE CLASS"

2.0 NOT A HOMOGENEOUS UNIT IN TERMS OF OCCUPATION OR INCOME

3. BUT HAD TO HAVE A MINIMUM INCOME TO BE CONSIDERED MIDDLE CLASS

4. & DRAW SALARY RATHER THAN HOURLY WAGES

a. TODAY CALL WHITE COLLAR

5.0 AS WELL AS MAINTAIN A CERTAIN STYLE OF FAMILY LIFE

6. & BE IN CERTAIN FORMS OF EMPLOYMENT

7. THESE RANGED FROM SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS TYCOON TO SMALL TRADERS & SHOP KEEPERS

8. INCLUDED IN THIS GROUP WERE

a. MINISTERS, LAWYERS, TEACHERS, DOCTORS, BUREAUCRATS

9.0 ENGLISH URBAN MIDDLE CLASS HARBINGERS OF

a. MORALS,

b. WORK ETHIC,

c. & NUMEROUS OTHER CHARACTERISTICS THAT BECAME PART OF SOCIETY IN EUROPE

10.0 FOR MARRIED WOMEN

a. IDEA OF ANGEL IN HOUSE

b. LEISURE NOT WORK FOR MONEY

c. BUT TO DO CHARITY WORK

(1) NOT JUST TO GIVE MONEY

d.0 OPPORTUNITIES FOR SINGLE WOMEN LIMITED TO

(1) GOVERNESSES

(2) WRITERS

e.0 & EVENTUALLY TEACHERS

11.0 THESE VALUES, IDEAS & TRADITIONS, & CUSTOMS OF MIDDLE CLASS

12. HAVE PERCOLATED DOWN TO OUR OWN SOCIETY


II.00 WOMEN IN THE MIDDLE CLASS

A. HOW IDEAL STRUCTURE OF MIDDLE CLASS FAMILY AFFECTED WOMEN

1. MIDDLE CLASS DEVOTED TO IDEAL OF FAMILY & HOME

2. & HOME DISPLACED THE CHURCH ITSELF AS A REFUGE AND SPIRITUAL HAVEN

3. W/GROWTH IN MIDDLE-CLASS WEALTH & NUMBERS,

4. HOME BECAME A STATUS SYMBOL &

a. EMOTIONAL BULWARK AGAINST A RUDE COMMERCIAL WORLD

5.0 FATHER WAS THE MASTER OF HOUSEHOLD

6. MIDDLE CLASS FAMILY RITUALS HELPED TO SUSTAIN THIS HIERARCHY WHERE FATHER HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD

a. EG. DAILY MEALS W/FATHER AT HEAD OF TABLE

7.0 POPULAR ADAGE OF DAY

a. CHILDREN TO BE SEEN NOT HEARD

8.0 WIFE TO BE SUBJECT TO HUSBAND AS WELL

9. & SHE WAS TREATED BY HER SPOUSE AS A KIND OF SUPERIOR SERVANT

10. HER TASK WAS TO KEEP HOUSEHOLD FUNCTIONING SMOOTHLY & HARMONIOUSLY

11. MAN FOR THE FIELD, WOMAN FOR THE HEARTH, MAN FOR THE SWORD AND FOR THE NEEDLE SHE; MAN WITH THE HEAD AND WOMAN WITH THE HEART, MAN TO COMMAND AND WOMAN TO OBEY; ALL ELSE CONFUSION. ALFRED LORD TENNYSON

B.0 SPECIFIC ROLE OF MARRIED WOMEN WITHIN THE FAMILY

1. 19TH CENTURY SAW A CHANGE FROM BEFORE

2. WHEN FOR GENERATIONS WIFE AIDED HER HUSBAND IN HIS BUSINESS

a. THINGS LIKE HANDLED ACCOUNTS, CORRESPONDENCE

b. & REARING OF CHILDREN LEFT TO NURSES &

GOVERNESSES

3.0 HOME BECAME CENTER OF VIRTUE & PROPER LIFE FOR WOMEN

a. NOT OUTSIDE WORK FOR MIDDLE CLASS WOMEN

4.0 HISTORIANS NOT CERTAIN WHY THIS HAPPENED

5. BUT HYPOTHESIZED MEN BEGAN TO INSIST ON DOING BUSINESS W/OTHER MEN

6. VALUE NOW PLACED ON FAMILY & HOME DEFINITELY LED TO LESSENING OF WOMEN'S STATUS WITHIN SOCIETY

7. MIDDLE CLASS WOMEN ENCOURAGED TO BE ONLY DABBLERS IN EDUCATION

a. LITTLE READING, WRITING, ARITHMETIC, GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY

8.0 BUT TO PURSUE CULTURAL ENDEAVORS SUCH AS

a. LEARNING TO DRAW,PAINT, SING OR PLAY THE PIANO

9.0 FINISHING SCHOOLS WILL EVENTUALLY BE ESTABLISHED TO FOSTER THESE IDEAS

C.0 MARRIAGE CUSTOMS OF MIDDLE CLASS WOMEN

1. WOMEN TO BE MARRIED BY 21

2. EXPECTED IMMEDIATELY TO HAVE CHILDREN

3. IN FACT, MARRIAGE ALMOST SOLE VOCATION OPEN TO MIDDLE-CLASS WOMEN

4. BECAUSE OF THEIR SUPPOSED INNATE SPIRITUALITY

5. "ANGEL OF THE HOUSE" EPITAPH FOR VICTORIAN WOMEN

6. PHRASE ANGEL IN HOUSE NOW MUCH MORE FAMOUS THAN POEM IT DERIVES FROM

7. BUT IN VICTORIAN ENGLAND & AMERICA

8. ANGEL IN HOUSE BY COVENTRY PATMORE SOLD BETTER THAN ANY OTHER POETIC WORK EXCEPT FOR

a. TENNYSON'S IDYLLS OF THE KING

b. PLOT COVENTRY'S INTENSE LOVE FOR HIS WIFE EMILY DESCRIBES COURTSHIP & MARRIAGE OF YOUNG COUPLE

9.0 NOT ONLY WERE THEY TO BE RESPONSIBLE FOR MORAL EDUCATION OF THEIR CHILDREN

10. WIFE'S SUPPOSED TO ELEVATE HER HUSBAND'S MORALITY

11. TO BE SPIRITUAL ADVISOR TO HER HUSBAND

12. WIFE EXPECTED TO WOO HER HUSBAND TO BENEFITS OF HOME & FAMILY

13. & AWAY FROM HIS NATURAL INSTINCTS NATURE HAD ENDOWED MALE SPECIES WITH

14. VICTORIAN WOMEN ACQUIRED NEW ROLE AS SPIRITUAL ADVISORS TO THEIR HUSBANDS

15. SARA ELLIS, WHOSE GUIDE TO CONDUCT FOR VICTORIAN LADIES WAS WIDELY READ

a. WIFE'S PRINCIPAL DUTY WAS TO RAISE THE TONE OF HER HUSBAND'S MIND AND TO LEAD HIS THOUGHTS TO REPOSE ON THOSE SUBJECTS WHICH CONVEY A FEELING OF IDENTITY W/A HIGHER STATE OF EXISTENCE BEYOND THIS PRESENT LIFE.

16.0 WHILE WOMEN VENERATED WITH THE HOME & EXPECTED TO SET GOOD EXAMPLE FOR THEIR CHILDREN & HUSBAND

17. THIS TIME WHEN WORD "LADY" NO LONGER RESERVED FOR ARISTOCRATIC LADIES

a. BUT NOW APPLIED TO MIDDLE CLASS WOMAN TOO

b. EQUIVALENT OF GENTLEMAN

c. LORD STILL RESERVED FOR ARISTOCRATIC TITLE

D.00 WAYS THESE IDEAS IN SOCIETY INCULCATED

1. MAGAZINES & BOOKS DIRECTED TOWARD WOMEN

2. BEGAN TO PRAISE MOTHERHOOD, DOMESTICITY, RELIGION & CHARITY AS THE PROPER WORK OF WOMEN

3. NOT EDIFICATION OF THEIR MINDS & INTELLECT

4. BEGINNINGS OF TYPE OF MAGAZINES WE HAVE TODAY

a. LADY'S HOME JOURNAL

5.0 BEGAN WIDESPREAD USE OF ADVICE MANUALS REGARDING HOUSEKEEPING

6. THESE BOOKS WRITTEN BY WOMEN FOR WOMEN

a. ENGLAND, FRANCE, U.S.

7.0 ATTEMPTS MADE TO PROFESSIONALIZE HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT

8. WOMEN WRITERS EARNED MONEY BY CONVERTING THEIR SISTERS TO RATIONALIZATION OF HOUSEWORK

9. IN FRANCE THE LADY'S RUSTIC HOUSEHOLD

a. CORA-ELIZABETH MILLET-ROBINET 1798-1890

(1) APPEARED IN 21 EDITIONS BETWEEN 1844-1920

10.00 IN CONTRAST MRS. BEETON'S BOOK OF HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT

a. UNDERSCORES FAR MORE URBAN CHARACTER OF ENGLISH HOUSEWIFERY

b. BY EMPHASIZING KNOWLEDGE OF DOMESTIC SERVANTS, PREPARATION OF SIMPLE MEALS TO DINNER PARTIES

c. & SPECIFIC DIRECTIONS FOR THE PERFORMANCE OF ALL HOUSEHOLD CHORES

11.0 BEETON ONLY 24 WHEN HER HUSBAND PRINTED THIS BOOK

12. BUT WOMEN IN ENGLISH MIDDLE CLASSES ACCEPTED HER AS ORACLE OF HOUSEHOLD WISDOM

13. SALES SECOND ONLY TO VICTORIAN BEST-SELLER

a. KING JAMES BIBLE

14.0 COOK BOOK, HELOISE, ETC. ALL IN ONE

E.0 IDEAS ON WOMEN'S FRAILTY IN 19TH C.

1. MIDDLE CLASS ENGLISH WOMEN (FRENCH TOO) SEEN AS FEEBLE CREATURES WHO BECAME INVALIDS FOR A FEW DAYS EACH MONTH

2. MENSTRUATION THROUGHOUT 19TH C & EVEN UP TO TODAY

3. SEEN BY DOCTORS & WOMEN ALIKE AS DISABILITY

4. AS LATE AS 1878 BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL

a. RAN SIX-MONTHS' CORRESPONDENCE ON WHETHER HAMS COULD BE TURNED RANCID BY TOUCH OF MENSTRUATING WOMEN

5.0 SOME WOMEN CONSIDERED TOO FRAIL TO WALK ALONE IN STREET,

6. WHILE OTHERS WORKING UNDERGROUND IN COAL MINES

F.0 IDEAS ON SEXUALITY REGARDING MIDDLE CLASS WOMEN

1. WIFE BETTER HALF BECAUSE SHE WAS PURE, INNOCENT, CHILDLIKE & ASEXUAL

2. SHE TO BE CHASTE BEFORE MARRIAGE & MODEST AFTER

3. HER SEXUALITY TO BE DENIED

4. SHE MUST NEVER RESPOND TO HIS SEXUAL ADVANCES W/EQUAL PASSION

5. IF SHE WAS PASSIONATE SHE WOULD FIND IT HARD NOT TO FEEL GUILTY ABOUT PLEASURES SHE PRESUMED TOO PURE TO TASTE

a. & PRIVATE DIARIES SUGGEST THIS

6.0 BUT SOME NEW RESEARCH ON SEXUAL MORES 19TH C

a. SHOWS DIFFERENT PICTURE

b. BUT THIS ISSUE STILL BIG DEBATE AMONG HISTORIANS

7.0 MIDDLE CLASS ENJOYED SEXUAL RELATIONS WITHIN MARRIAGE FAR MORE FULLY THAN WAS ONCE THOUGHT

8. DIARIES, LETTERS & EVEN EARLY MEDICAL & SOCIOLOGICAL SEX SURVEYS

9. INDICATE SEXUAL ENJOYMENT RATHER THAN SEXUAL REPRESSION FUNDAMENTAL TO MIDDLE CLASS MARRIAGES

10. MUCH OF INHIBITION ABOUT SEXUALITY STEMMED FROM ACTUAL DANGERS OF CHILDBIRTH

11. RATHER THAN ANY DISLIKE OR DISAPPROVAL OF SEXUAL

12. SO IGNORANCE MEANS OF PRESERVING INNOCENCE OF GIRLS BEFORE MARRIAGE

13. PARENTS SUPPOSE TO INSULATE THEIR DAUGHTERS FROM ALL SUGGESTIVE SIGHTS & SOUNDS

14. HENCE EUPHEMISMS USED TO EXPLAIN WHAT THEY CONSIDERED DELICATE SUBJECTS

a. BOSOM & BUST FOR BREAST

b. LIMB FOR LEG

c. SECOND JOIN OF CHICKEN FOR THIGH

d. PRIVATE PARTS AND DOWN THERE FOR VULVA & VAGINA

e. BREAST FEEDING = MATERNAL NUTRIMENT

f. PREGNANCY = AN UNHAPPY CONDITION

15.0 WRITING TO ONE OF HER DAUGHTERS TO PREPARE HER FOR THE BIRTH OF HER FIRST CHILD QUEEN VICTORIA SPOKE OF CHILDBIRTH AS

a. A COMPLETE VIOLENCE TO ALL ONE'S FEELINGS OF PROPRIETY- WHICH GOD KNOWS RECEIVES A SHOCK ENOUGH IN MARRIAGE ALONE

16.0 MANY MEDICAL TEXTS & SEX MANUALS IN ENGLAND & U.S.

17. DISCUSSED VIEWS OF FEMALE SEXUAL PASSIVITY

a. GENERALLY OF ENGLISH PHYSICIAN LORD WILLIAM ACTON

b. THERE CAN BE NO DOUBT THAT SEXUAL FEELING IN THE FEMALE IS IN THE MAJORITY OF CASES IN ABEYANCE; AND THAT IT REQUIRES POSITIVE AND CONSIDERABLE EXCITEMENT TO BE ROUSED AT ALL; AND EVEN IF ROUSED WHICH IN MANY INSTANCES IT NEVER CAN BE IT IS VERY MODERATE COMPARED WITH THAT OF THE MALE

18.0 AGE OF CONSENT CHANGED IN 19TH C.

a. WOMEN INVOLVED IN REFORMING PROSTITUTION ARGUED THAT BEST WAY TO CHANGE LEGAL AGE OF CONSENT FOR WOMEN

b. E.G. FROM 12 TO 16 IN ENGLAND

G.00 DOUBLE STANDARD REGARDING MARRIAGE LAWS & DIVORCE

1. BLATANT DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN LANGUAGE OF TRADITIONAL MARRIAGE CEREMONY OF ANGLICAN CHURCH

2. & ACTUALITY OF WOMEN'S POSITION IN CIVIL LAW

3. BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER

a. HUSBAND PLEDGED ALL HIS WORLDLY GOODS TO HIS NEW WIFE

4.0 BUT AS BARBARA LEIGH SMITH BODICHON 1827-91 REPORTED

5. AT MARRIAGE WOMAN'S BELONGINGS

a. NOT ONLY HER CLOTHES & JEWELS

b. BUT HER BODY AS WELL

c. BECAME HER HUSBAND'S PROPERTY

6.0 MARRIED WOMEN BARRED FROM

a. MAKING CONTRACTS

b. BEARING WITNESS IN COURT

c. INITIATING LAWSUITS

d. BUT COULD BE PROSECUTED FOR MOST CRIMINAL OFFENSES

7.0 RELIGIOUS & PUBLIC PRONOUNCEMENTS ON PROPER ROLE OF WIVES

8. OFTEN TOTALLY AT ODDS

9. RELIGION, NOTABLY CATHOLICISM

a. COUNSELED THEM TO PLACE GOD & CHILDREN BEFORE THEIR HUSBANDS

b. BUT SECULAR ADVICE LITERATURE UNRELENTING IN DEMAND THAT CONJUGAL LOVE COME FIRST

10.0 DOUBLE STANDARD PREVAILED FOR DIVORCE THROUGHOUT EUROPE TOO

11. IN ENGLAND, MATRIMONIAL CAUSES ACT OF 1857

a. SET UP SECULAR DIVORCE COURTS

b. PRIOR TO THAT EACH DIVORCE IN ENGLAND REQUIRED A SEPARATE ACT OF PARLIAMENT

c. DOUBLE STANDARD AS DIFFERENT TERMS FOR DIVORCE

d. MAN NEEDED ONLY TO SHOW EVIDENCE OF HIS WIFE'S ADULTERY

e. LAW MADE QUICK WORK OF AN UNFAITHFUL WIFE

f. HUSBAND GOT HER PROPERTY AS WELL AS HIS & CUSTODY OF CHILDREN

(1) THIS WAS TO ATONE FOR THE WRONGS HIS WIFE HAD DONE TO HIM FOR TAKING A LOVER

(2) THE EMBARRASSMENT HE HAD TO SUFFER BECAUSE HIS WIFE WAS UNNATURAL

g.0 WIFE HAD TO SHOW EVIDENCE OF OTHER MARITAL FAILINGS IN ORDER TO GET DIVORCE

(1) LIKE CRUELTY, INCEST, RAPE OR DESERTION

12.00 DIVORCE REMAINED LOW

a. ONLY 2% OF ALL MARRIAGES ENDED IN DIVORCE THROUGH 19TH C

H.00 PLIGHT OF UNMARRIED MIDDLE CLASS WOMEN

1. BECAUSE MARRIAGE NORMAL AVENUE FOR MIDDLE CLASS WOMEN

2. POOR GENTEEL SINGLE GIRLS WHO HAD TO WORK FOR THEIR LIVING FOUND THEMSELVES IN UNTENABLE POSITIONS

3. THEY PREVENTED BY LAW & TRADITION FROM ENTERING PROFESSIONS GIVING THEM ADEQUATE INCOME

4. ONLY LATE IN CENTURY AFTER MUCH AGITATION

5. THAT LEGISLATION OPENED DOOR TO

a. MEDICINE,

b. THE LAW,

c. THE UNIVERSITIES,

d. THE CIVIL SERVICE TO WOMEN

6.0 BEFORE THAT, ALL A RESPECTABLE MIDDLE CLASS WOMAN COULD DO WAS BE A GOVERNESS OR WRITE

a. LATER ON TEACH

7.0 THIS IS WHY SO MANY NOVELS OF THE PERIOD HAVE GOVERNESSES AS THEIR HEROINES

a. IT WAS A MUCH FEARED FATE

b. BECOMING A GOVERNESS LAST RESORT OF IMPOVERISHED WOMAN OF PRIVILEGED CLASSES

c. BEING GOVERNESS OBJECT OF PITY & SCORN

8.0 GOVERNESS SOMEWHERE BETWEEN SERVANT & LADY

9. THROUGHOUT MEMOIRS OR NOVELS RELATING TO GOVERNESSES

a. CONTINUAL SIGNS OF FRUSTRATION & DISSATISFACTION

10.0 BRONTE SISTERS ILLUSTRATE THIS:

a. EMILY, THE MOST INDEPENDENT, HATED TEACHING SO MUCH SHE ABANDONED IT,

b. BUT CHARLOTTE & ANNE, ALMOST AS MISERABLE, STUCK IT OUT FOR YEARS

c. FAMOUS JANE EYRE NOVEL EPITOMIZES THIS

d. BUT CHARLOTTE SEVERELY CRITICIZED WHEN HER NOVEL FIRST APPEARED IN 1847

(1) IT SHOWED HER INGRATITUDE TO HER EMPLOYERS

11.00 BESIDES WRITING ABOUT PLIGHT OF GOVERNESS

12. OTHERS ATTEMPTED TO AID THEM BY FORMING SUCH ORGANIZATIONS AS

a. "ENGLISH GOVERNESSES" BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION

(1) JOB REGISTER

(2) PENSIONS FOR GOVERNESSES

(3) HELPED TO FOUND FIRST COLLEGE FOR WOMEN IN ENGLAND

(a) QUEEN'S COLLEGE 1848

(b) TEACHERS' TRAINING SCHOOL

(c) HOPEFULLY TO OBTAIN BETTER WAGES FOR GOVERNESSES

I.0000 WOMEN WRITERS & THEIR INFLUENCE ON WOMEN & SOCIETY

1. BY 19TH C THOUSANDS OF EUROPEAN WOMEN WRITING FOR LIVING

2. PRIMARILY NOVELS

a. READ BY OTHER WOMEN

3.0 MOST OF WRITERS UPHELD TRADITIONAL VALUES OF SOCIETY

4. BUT SOME WOMEN WRITERS BEGAN TO ASSERT THEMSELVES AGAINST ACCEPTED NORMS

5. CHARLOTTE BRONTE'S JANE EYRE

6. ELIZABETH GASKELL'S RUTH

a. UNWED MOTHER IS PORTRAYED AS MORAL SUPERIOR OF HER SEDUCER

7.0 GEORGE ELIOT'S MIDDLEMARCH

a. WHEN DOROTHEA BROOKE REALIZES SHE IS WISER & MORE HUMANE THAN HER OLDER, CLERGYMAN HUSBAND

8.0 THUS NOVELS WRITTEN BY ICONOCLASTIC WOMEN WRITERS IN 19TH C

a. WHERE ORIGINATED NEW IDEAS ABOUT EXPANSION & CHANGE OF WOMEN'S ROLES IN SOCIETY
III.000 CHARITY & REFORM WORK FOR WOMEN

A. GENERAL REMARKS

1. FIRST HALF OF 19TH C. WOMEN IN ENGLAND, FRANCE & GERMANY TO BE ANGELS OF HOUSE

a. CULT OF DOMESTICITY AT ITS HEIGHT

2.0 BUT BY MID-CENTURY WOMEN FINDING THIS ROLE TOO NARROW

3. SOUGHT TO EXPAND THEIR MORAL INFLUENCE OUTSIDE FAMILY CIRCLE

4. THEY TOOK THEIR ROLE AS ANGELS QUITE SERIOUSLY

5. KINDERGARTEN FOUNDER

a. GERMAN WOMAN - HENRIETTE SCHRADER-BREYMANN

b. HER AIM

(1) TO EXALT WOMEN TO SPIRITUAL MOTHERHOOD AS MOTHERS TO SOCIETY AND NOT JUST TO THEIR OWN HOUSEHOLDS

6.00 PUBLIC SERVICE BECAME ACTIVE FORCE FOR MIDDLE CLASS WOMEN

7. NOT ENTIRELY ABSENT IN EARLIER GENERATIONS,

8. BUT MANY OF ITS FEATURES NEW

9. MARRIED WOMEN SET EXAMPLE BY VOLUNTEERING TO HELP THOSE LESS FORTUNATE THAN THEMSELVES

10. WOMEN IN ENGLAND FOR INSTANCE BECAME IN CHARGE OF

a. CLUBS FOR POOR YOUTH

b. SOCIETIES TO PROTECT POOR YOUNG WOMEN

c. RESCUE ORGANIZATIONS FOR FALLEN WOMEN

d. MOTHERS' CLUBS IN SLUMS

e. FRESH AIR CAMPS FOR POOR CITY CHILDREN

f. HOMES FOR

(1) BLIND, DEAF & DUB, AGED, UNEMPLOYED GOVERNESSES, ORPHANS

g.0 SCHOOLS FOR INFANTS

h. SOCIETIES FOR VISITING POOR

i. EVEN HOME OF REST FOR HORSES

11.0 BY USING TRADITIONAL VALUES

12. ABLE TO ENTER INTO CHARITY WORK & REFORM WORK

13. IN AREAS NOT USUALLY OPEN TO WOMEN

a. PRISONS

b. SCHOOLS

c. HOMES OF POOR

d. STREETS OF NEW CITIES

14.0 IN CATHOLIC COUNTRIES YOUNG MIDDLE CLASS & ABOVE WOMEN ENTERED

a. INCLUDING NEW NURSING & CHARITY ORGANIZATIONS

b. IN GREAT NUMBERS

c. SISTERS OF MERCY

d. FRANCISCAN SISTERS OF THE POOR

e. SISTERS OF ST. CHARLES

f. DAUGHTERS OF DIVINE PROVIDENCE

g. JUST A FEW OF NE UNCLOISTERED 19TH C. WOMEN'S ORDERS

15.0 CONVENTS STILL RESTRICTED TO RELATIVELY WEALTHY

a. MOST ORDERS STILL HAD TO BRING DOWRY FOR SUPPORT

b. & WOMEN WHO HAD BEEN SERVANTS NOT ALLOWED

16.0 PROTESTANTS & CATHOLICS

a. FOUNDED ORPHANAGES

b. ASSISTED NEW MISSIONS IN ASIA & AFRICA & AMERICA

17.0 BUT PRIMARILY THESE CHARITIES TO AID OTHER WOMEN & CHILDREN

18. THOUSANDS OF WOMEN IN THESE ENDEAVORS ATTACHED TO SOME RELIGIOUS GROUP IN EUROPE

a. IN 19TH C. LOTS MORE WOMEN THAN MEN IN RELIGIOUS ORDERS

B.00 NEW CONTRIBUTIONS OF WOMEN REGARDING CHARITY & REFORM

1. MOST INNOVATIVE & ENDURING ASPECT OF FEMALE CHARITY WORK IN FRANCE

a. FOUNDATION OF CRECHE

(1) NURSERY FOR INFANTS & PRESCHOOL CHILDREN OF WORKING MOTHERS

b.0 BY END OF 19TH C THOUSANDS OF CRECHES EXISTED

2.0 TYPICALLY HALF STAFFED WITH CATHOLIC NUNS

3. WOMEN INVENTED NEW WAYS TO RAISE MONEY FOR THEIR CHARITIES

a. VISITING SICK & POOR

b. MAKING CLOTHING & OTHER USEFUL ITEMS

c. ORGANIZING COLLECTION & DISTRIBUTION DRIVES

d. THRIFT SHOP

e. CHARITY BAZAAR

f. FUNDRAISING DINNER OR DANCE

4.0 ALL THESE CREATED BY WOMEN WHO DIDN'T HAVE FINANCIAL RESOURCES OF OWN TO GIVE

5. EG OF CHARITABLE ACTIVITY

a. OBITUARY OF MME. EMILE DELESALLE FROM A 19TH CATHOLIC PAPER IN FRANCE



THE POOR WERE THE OBJECT OF HER AFFECTIONATE INTEREST, ESPECIALLY THE SHAMEFUL POOR, THE FALLEN PEOPLE. SHE SOUGHT THEM OUT AND HELPED THEM W/PERFECT DISCRETION WHICH DOUBLED THE VALUE OF HER BENEVOLENT INTEREST. TO THOSE WHOM SHE COULD APPROACH W/O FEAR OF BRUISING THEIR DIGNITY, SHE BROUGHT, ALONG WITH ALMS TO ASSURE THEIR EXISTENCE, CONSOLATION OF THE MOST SERIOUS SORT - SHE RAISED THEIR COURAGE AND THEIR HOPES. TO OTHERS, EACH SUNDAY, SHE OPENED ALL THE DOORS OF HER HOME, ABOVE ALL WHEN HER CHILDREN WERE STILL YOUNG. IN MAKING THEM DISTRIBUTE THESE ALMS WITH HER, SHE HOPED TO INITIATE THEM EARLY INTO PRACTICES OF CHARITY.
IV.000 EXAMPLES OF WOMEN INVOLVED IN CHARITY & REFORM

A. HANNAH MORE 1745-1833

1. FORERUNNER OF TYPE OF WOMEN WHO WILLING TO REMAIN PART OF TRADITIONAL ROLE FOR WOMEN

2. WHILE MOVING OUTSIDE HOME IN ACCEPTABLE CHARITABLE PRACTICES FOR WOMEN

3. LIVING AT SAME TIME AS MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT

4. SHE AGAINST FRENCH REVOLUTION IDEAS

5. SHE IN VANGUARD FOR EVANGELICAL MOVEMENT

6. & ESTABLISHMENT OF SUNDAY SCHOOLS IN ENGLAND

7. TO IMPROVE RELIGIOUS EDUCATION OF POOR

8. WOMEN HAD MORAL DUTY TO BE BENEVOLENT

a. CARE OF POOR IS HER PROFESSION

9.0 FOR HANNAH IT WAS TEACHING POOR CHILDREN TO READY IN SUNDAY SCHOOLS

10. THUS A MORAL WOMAN SHOULD PRACTICE HER MORALITY OUTSIDE AS WELL AS INSIDE HOME

B.0 ELIZABETH FRY 1780-1845

1. QUAKER

2. MADE MAJOR STRIDES IN REFORMING CONDITIONS FOR WOMEN PRISONERS

3. WOMEN AT NEWGATE PRISON IN LONDON

a. OVERLY CROWDED CONDITIONS

(1) NO BEDDING, NO ADEQUATE CLOTHING, NO DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

4.00 SHE SET ABOUT IMPROVING THEIR LIVING CONDITIONS WHILE IN PRISON

5. PLUS GIVING THEM WAYS TO EARN LIVELIHOOD ON THEIR RELEASE

6. GARMENTS THEY MADE SOLD IN PRISON SHOP

a. PART OF PROFITS FOR PRISONERS UPON THEIR RELEASE

7.0 FRY SO IMPRESSED AUTHORITIES SHE FIRST WOMAN TO BE CALLED TO TESTIFY BEFORE BRITISH PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE

8. SHE FOUNDED BRITISH SOCIETY OF LADIES FOR PROMOTING THE REFORMATION OF FEMALE PRISONERS

9. HER IDEAS SPREAD ABROAD

10. I REJOICE TO SEE THE DAY IN WHICH SO MANY WOMEN OF EVERY RANK, INSTEAD OF SPENDING THEIR TIME IN TRIFLING AND UNPROFITABLE PURSUITS ARE ENGAGED IN WORKS OF USEFULNESS AND CHARITY

C.0 FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE 1820-1910

1. WITH EXCEPTION OF QUEEN VICTORIA

2. FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE MOST FAMOUS WOMAN OF HER CENTURY

3. PRAISE & LEGEND STEM FROM SINGLE INCIDENT IN HER LONG LIFE OF SERVICE TO ENGLAND & HEALTH CARE

a. HER NURSING WORK AT FRONT DURING CRIMEAN WAR

4.0 BEFORE FLORENCE MADE NURSING REAL PROFESSION

a. WITH SET OF PREREQUISITE QUALIFICATIONS

b. & ETHICAL STANDARDS

5.0 HOSPITALS EMPLOYED & RECEIVED ONLY VERY POOR

6. WHO USUALLY WENT THERE TO DIE

7. SINCE ABOLITION OF RELIGIOUS ORDERS DURING REFORMATION IN ENGLAND

8. NURSING HAD BECOME AN OCCUPATION FOR DRUNKEN & FALLEN WOMEN

9. BECAUSE NO ONE ELSE WOULD TAKE UP SUCH DANGEROUS, DISTASTEFUL & FILTHY WORK

10. BY CONTRAST IN CATHOLIC FRANCE SISTERS OF CHARITY

a. NURSING ORDER

b. SERVED HOSPITALIZED

11.0 FLORENCE LED CORPS OF NURSES THAT SHE HERSELF HAD TRAINED TO FRONT IN 1854

12. AFTER RETURNING TO ENGLAND SHE SPENT HALF-CENTURY

13. MUCH OF IT AS SEMI-INVALID

14. BECAME FOUNDER OF MODERN ENGLISH NURSING

15. THEN THIS LED HER TO DO PUBLIC HEALTH WORK

16. & SANITATION REFORM FOR LONDON POOR

17. WRITING & RESEARCHING IN ORDER TO IMPROVE HOSPITAL & HEALTH CONDITIONS IN ENGLAND, IN ARMY & IN EMPIRE

18. SHE TRIED TO INFLUENCE GOVT POLICY, THROUGH A CABINET MEMBER

19. TO STUDY NURSING SHE HAD TO GO UP AGAINST HER FAMILY & SOCIETY

a. HER MOTHER & SISTER ESPECIALLY ANTI HER WISHES

b. FOR SHE WAS UNMARRIED DAUGHTER OF UPPER-CLASS BRITISH FAMILY

c. IN TRADITION OF GENTLEWOMAN SHE HAD CARED FOR POOR NEAR HER FAMILY'S ESTATE

d. SHE GREW TO HATE THIS "LADY BOUNTIFUL" ROLE

e. SHE BECAME AWARE SHE DID NOT KNOW HOW TO HELP POOR & SICK

f. AT AGE 25 SHE ANNOUNCED HER PLAN TO BECOME NURSE

g. THIS SO HORRIFIED HER MOTHER & ELDER SISTER THAT THEY CRIED, CAJOLED & OBSTRUCTED FLORENCE FROM TRAINING & PRACTICING HER VOCATION FOR 9 YRS

20.0 FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE DISCOVERED SUPREME IRONY OF BEING LEISURED WOMAN

21. SHE HAD NO TIME TO DEVELOP HERSELF

22. THEME OF ESSAY SHE WROTE IN 1852

a. CASSANDRA

23.0 BUT HER REFORMS ALWAYS SEEN AS HER ACTING AS MAN

a. IN FACT SHE SAW HERSELF IN THIS ROLE

D.00 FRANCES POWER COBBE 1822-1904

1. ONLY DAUGHTER OF UPPER-CLASS ANGLO-IRISH FAMILY

2. SPENT FIRST PART OF HER LIFE ON LARGE ESTATE NEAR DUBLIN

3. AFTER HAVING BEEN EDUCATED AT HOME

4. FIRST BY HER MOTHER &

5. LATER BY SEVERAL GOVERNESSES

6. SHE SENT AT AGE OF 14 TO FASHIONABLE & EXPENSIVE FINISHING SCHOOL IN ENGLISH RESORT OF BRIGHTON

7. LATER ON WILL BE WRITER, REFORMER & ADVOCATE OF FEMINIST CAUSE

8. SHE AGAINST THIS CATEGORIZING OF WOMEN INTO THE DOMESTIC SPHERE

9. BUT MOST FAMOUS FOR HER STANCE AGAINST HUSBANDS BEATING THEIR WIVES

a. IN 1878 IN ARTICLE ENTITLED

(1) "WIFE-TORTURE IN ENGLAND"

b.0 SHE DOCUMENTED HORRORS TO WHICH WOMEN, PARTICULARLY WORKING CLASS WIVES SUBJECTED

c. SHE HOPED TO BRING ABOUT CHANGE IN ATTITUDE THAT WOULD ALLOW THESE WOMEN TO LIVE WITH DIGNITY

d. ALTHOUGH COBBE OBSERVED THAT WIFE-BEATING WAS EXACERBATED BY

(1) DRINK, PROSTITUTION & APPALLING LIVING CONDITIONS

(2) SHE CLEARLY RECOGNIZED THAT FUNDAMENTAL CAUSE OF WIFE-ABUSE DUE TO CONVENTIONAL ATTITUDES TOWARD FEMALE SEX

(3) WIDELY-ACCEPTED NOTION OF WOMAN'S INFERIORITY,

(4) AT HEART OF WIFE-BEATING PROBLEM

(5) AS NECESSARY FIRST STEP

(6) SHE PROPOSED PASSAGE OF BILL THAT WOULD PROTECT WIVES FROM HUSBANDS CONVICTED OF BRUTAL ASSAULTS

(7) & PARLIAMENT RESPONDED BY ENACTING BILL TO AMEND MATRIMONIAL CAUSES ACT -1878

(a) WIVES COULD BECOME LEGALLY SEPARATED FROM THEIR HUSBANDS FOR AGGRAVATED ASSAULT

E.0000 CATHERINE BOOTH 1829-189-

1. CO-FOUNDER WITH HUSBAND WILLIAM OF SALVATION ARMY

2. ENGLISH

3. DEVOTED THEIR LIVES TO SERVING INDUSTRIAL POOR OF LONDON

4. BOTH CHURCH & SOCIAL SERVICES OFFERED

5. AVOWED FEMINIST

6. AFTER 5 YEARS BEGAN TO PREACH TOO

a. POWERFUL PUBLIC SPEAKER

b. ALTHOUGH MANY CHRISTIANS AGAINST THIS

c. HUSBAND WILLIAM'S RETORT

(1) BEST MEN IN MY ARMY ARE THE WOMEN

d.0 MALES & FEMALES HELD EQUAL RANK IN SALVATION ARMY

e. MORE WORSHIPPING WITH SALVATION ARMY THAN WITH ORDINARY CHURCHES

7.0 STARTED FOOD FOR POOR

a. COULD BUY HOT SOUP & DINNER

b. ON SPECIAL OCCAISONS GAVE IT AWAY

8.0 CATHERINE ESPECIALLY INTERESTED IN PLIGHT OF POOR WORKING WOMEN

9. LED CAMPAIGN AGAINST YELLOW PHOSPHORUS USED IN MAKING MATCHES

10. SHE WROTE TEMPERANCE TRACTS UNDER ASSUMED NAME

a. BUT WIDELY DISTRIBUTED THROUGHOUT EUROPE

11.0 BY TIME OF HER DEATH IN 1890 ALMOST 13,000 IN MISSIONS ON 3 CONTINENTS

12. IN UNITED STATES MINISTRY ENTRUSTED TO SEVERAL OF THEIR CHILDREN

a. THEY HAD 8 CHILDREN

13.0 TODAY SALVATION ARMY STILL GOING STRONG


V.00 OPPOSITION TO MIDDLE CLASS WOMEN DOING CHARITY & REFORM

A. GENERAL REMARKS (FROM BARBARA POPE -1ST ED OF BRIDENTHAL & SHE'S FROM UNIV OF OREGON

1. WOMEN'S PHILANTHROPY HARSHLY CRITICIZED BY SOME

2. CHARLES DICKENS & MRS. SARAH ELLIS

a. MRS. ELLIS MAJOR WRITER FOR WOMEN & CULT OF DOMESTICITY

(1) THE MOTHERS OF ENGLAND, THE WOMEN OF ENGLAND, THE DAUGHTERS OF ENGLAND, THE WIVES OF ENGLAND

3.00 PREACHED THAT CHARITY BEGAN AT HOME & SHOULD STAY THERE

4. BOTH BALZAC & FLAUBERT DEPICTED FEMALE HYPOCRITES WHO DISPLAYED THEIR GOODNESS BY VISITING THE POOR

5. THESE 4 AUTHORS CHARGED THAT SOME MIDDLE-CLASS WOMEN DID PHILANTHROPIC WORK

a. BECAUSE IT TENDED TO PUT THEM IN RIGHT CIRCLES

b. & PRESENTED EXCUSE TO LEAVE HOME

c. & DEMONSTRATE THEIR GENTEEL SENSIBILITIES TO LARGE AUDIENCE

6.0 BUT CRITICS JUDGED CHARITABLE WOMEN TOO HARSHLY

7. & PROBABLY WRONGLY

8. MUCH CHARITY WORK TOOK REAL COURAGE & DEVOTION & CANNOT BE CATEGORIZED AS EITHER FASHIONABLE OR FRIVOLOUS
VI.00 WAYS WOMEN GOT AROUND OPPOSITION TO THEIR ACTIONS

A. GENERAL REMARKS

1. WOMEN WHO WANTED TO OPERATE BEYOND ACCEPTED NORMS

2. HAD TO DO IT ANONYMOUSLY OR WITHOUT SUPPORT

3. FOR WRITERS THEY HAD SEVERAL OPTIONS

a. ANONYMITY

b. MALE PSEUDONYMS

4.0 JANE AUSTEN PUBLISHED ALL HER NOVELS ANONYMOUSLY

5. OTHERS USED NONDESCRIPT WORDS SUCH AS

a. PUBLISHED BY "LADY "

b. OR BY AUTHOR OF PREVIOUS BOOK

6.0 GEORGE ELIOT

a. PSEUDONYM OF MARIAN EVANS

7.0 GEORGE SAND 1804-1876

a. PSEUDONYM OF AURORA DUDEVANT

8.0 BRONTE SISTERS PUBLISHED AS

a. ELLIS, CURRER & ACTON BELL

(1) E FOR EMILY

(2) C FOR CHARLOTTE

(3) A FOR ANNE

9.00 SO WHAT WE FIND HAPPENING THAT CONTINUES EVEN TOADY

10. EXCEPTIONAL WOMEN TENDED TO IDENTIFY WITH LIKE-MINDED MEN

11. RATHER THAN OTHER WOMEN

12. & WOMEN DID NOT SUPPORT UNUSUAL OR EXCEPTIONAL WOMEN

13. UNLESS THEY ACTED WITHIN TRADITIONAL ROLES

14. MANY WAYS EXCEPTIONAL WOMEN MADE IT SO TO SPEAK ON THEIR OWN

15. & THUS WERE IN UNIQUE POSITIONS

16. & LIKE THE ATTENTION & NOTORIETY OF THIS

17. CHARITY WORK RARELY ERADICATED CLASS BARRIERS

18. MANY PRIVILEGED WOMEN RESISTED ANY REFORM FOR THEIR DOMESTIC SERVANTS

19. WOMEN SHARED VIEWS OF THEIR CLASS

20. POVERTY SIGN OF INFERIORITY

21. MISFORTUNE SIGNALED MORAL LAPSES

22. & GOD'S DISPLEASURE

23. JUST LIKE TODAY WHEN UNTIL RECENTLY WOMEN HAVE NOT BANDED TOGETHER AS CLASS TO CHANGE LEGAL & ECONOMIC INEQUITIES

24. THIS LAST ELECTION FIRST TIME EVER IT SEEMS WOMEN AS GENDER BANDED TOGETHER TO VOTE


VII.00 MIDDLE CLASS REFORMERS ASSERTING POLITICAL ROLE FOR WOMEN

A. JEANNE DEROIN 1802-1894

1. FOUNDED NEWSPAPER L'OPINION DES FEMMES

2. SHE ATTEMPTED TO RUN FOR OFFICE IN FRANCE

B.0 HARRIET TAYLOR & JOHN STUART MILL

1. WHEN MET IN EARLY 20'S

2. HARRIET AT TIME YOUNG MARRIED WOMAN WITH 2 YOUNG CHILDREN

3. BUT WITHIN YEAR MILL & TAYLOR HAD RELATIONSHIP

a. SAID TO BE INTELLECTUAL & SPIRITUAL INTIMACY

4.0 FOR NEXT 20 YRS MILL CONTINUED TO LIVE AT HOME WITH HIS MOTHER & YOUNGER SIBLINGS

5. WHILE MRS. TAYLOR REMAINED IN HER HUSBAND'S HOUSEHOLD

6. YET IS CLEAR UNCONVENTIONAL RELATIONSHIP THEY ENJOYED WITH EACH OTHER CORE OF THEIR LIVES

7. WHEN THEY BOTH IN THEIR 40'S & IN POOR HEALTH

8. HARRIET'S HUSBAND DIED

9. & HARRIET & JOHN MARRIED

10. JUST 7 YRS LATER HARRIET DIED AT AVIGNON

11. & MILL BOUGHT A HOME NEAR CEMETERY WHERE SHE BURIED

12. NATURE OF THEIR RELATIONSHIP

13. & EXACT CONTRIBUTION OF HARRIET TAYLOR TO MILLS THOUGHT & WRITING

14. HAS BEEN SUBJECT OF CONTROVERSY FOR OVER 100 YRS

15. BOTH ACTIVE SOCIAL REFORMERS

16. WHO WORKED FOR ALL GOOD CAUSES OF DAY

17. THEY WROTE TOGETHER ESSAYS ON SEX EQUALITY

a. THEY STATED LAW WHICH IS TO BE OBSERVED BY BOTH SHOULD SURELY BE MADE BY BOTH

b. MILLS ESPOUSED VERY ADVANCED & RADICAL IDEAS ABOUT

(1) STATUS OF WOMEN

(2) MARRIAGE & DIVORCE LAWS

(3) RIGHT OF WOMEN TO EDUCATION

(4) & RIGHT FOR WOMEN TO VOTE

(a) ATTEMPTED TO GET THROUGH PARLIAMENT WOMAN SUFFRAGE

18.000 THE SUBJECTION OF WOMEN

19. CO-AUTHORED WITH HIS STEP-DAUGHTER

20. YET IT IS AGREED THAT IS DOUBTFUL THAT SUBJECTION OF WOMEN WOULD EVER HAD BEEN WRITTEN IF IT WERE NOT FOR MILL'S 28 YEAR RELATIONSHIP WITH HARRIET

a. MILL ARGUED THAT MALE DOMINANCE OF WOMEN CONSTITUTED FLAGRANT ABUSE OF POWER

b. HE MAINTAINED THAT FEMALE INEQUALITY

(1) SINGLE RELIC OF OLD WORLD OF THOUGHT & PRACTICE EXPLODED IN EVERYTHING ELSE, VIOLATED THE PRINCIPLE OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & HINDERED THE PROGRESS OF HUMANITY

21.00 ENFRANCHISEMENT OF WOMEN

a. HARRIET TAYLOR MILL

b. IT IS AN AXIOM OF ENGLISH FREEDOM THAT TAXATION AND REPRESENTATION SHOULD BE CO-EXTENSIVE. EVEN UNDER THE LAWS WHICH GIVE THE WIFE'S PROPERTY TO THE HUSBAND, THERE ARE MANY UNMARRIED WOMEN WHO PAY TAXES. IT IS ONE OF THE FUNDAMENTAL DOCTRINES OF THE BRITISH CONSTITUTION, THAT ALL PERSONS SHOULD BE TRIED BY THEIR PEERS; YET WOMEN, WHENEVER TRIED, ARE TRIED BY MALE JUDGES & A MALE JURY. TO FOREIGNERS THE LAW ACCORDS THE PRIVILEGE OF CLAIMING THAT HALF THE JURY SHOULD BE COMPOSED OF THEMSELVES; NO SO TO WOMEN

22.0 HER REMARKS ON EMPLOYMENT & WAGES

a. LETS GIVE BOTH MALES & FEMALES LOWER WAGES

b. THUS WOMEN WOULD BE A PARTNER NOT A SERVANT

23.0 IT IS AGREEABLE TO THEM THAT MEN SHOULD LIVE FOR THEIR OWN SAKE, WOMEN FOR THE SAKE OF MEN

24. SELFISHNESS IS PROMOTED BY INEQUALITY

25. FOR IF PREFERENCE BE NATURAL. THERE CAN BE NO NECESSITY FOR ENFORCING IT BY LAW

a. RE WOMEN'S SUBJECTION





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