Causes of the French Revolution



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Causes of the French Revolution

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By the late 1700’s in France, the monarchy was bankrupt. This was due to several reasons:


  1. King Louis XIV of France, grandfather of Louis the XVI, spent large amounts of money on palaces and other things, and that was catching up to France now.




  1. France had fought and paid for a series of wars with nothing to show for it such as the American Revolution and the French and Indian War.




  1. Only the poor paid taxes, the rich and the Catholic clergy did not.




The Three Estate System
France was ruled by an absolute monarchy which means that the king has complete, or, absolute power over the people. The rest of the people were split into 3 different classes, or, estates.


  1. The Aristocracy or Nobility (1.5% of population)

  2. Clergy (.5% of population)

  3. Peasants (98 % of population)

The only way a king could call for new taxes was to call the “Estates General”, which was representatives from the three different estates. When he called them together in 1789, it was the first time a king had called it together since 1614. Louis XVI (pronounced: Looh-ee the 16th) asked for the aristocracy and clergy to begin paying taxes and wanted to increase the taxes on the peasants. The nobility and clergy refused and the peasants began to challenge the king and the other two estates for more power. The third estate was also angry that all three estates got one vote in the Estates General even though the third estate far outnumbered the first two in population…




The Taking of the Bastille
The peasant class of France also had also been going through famine. Poor growing seasons and high taxes made it very hard to find food. The price of food went up because there was so little. Bread was almost unaffordable. People began to hate the king and his family because of their life of luxury. There was a rumor that someone had told the Queen (Marie-Antoinette) that the people were unable to get bread, her reply was “Let them eat cake”, she never made this statement, but rumors of the King and Queen’s carelessness for their people spread all over.

The poor of the third estate began to reject the Estates system and formed their own government called the “General Assembly”. The nobles and clergy joined as well because they feared the power (and numbers) of the peasant class. The King said he would allow it, but again, there were rumors that the King was going to arrest the members and attack the General Assembly.

The peasants were influenced by the enlightenment thinkers, and the American Revolution.

Once these rumors spread far enough, people stormed a large jail in Paris run and protected by the King’s forces, they thought it was filled with people who had been thrown in prison for disagreeing with the King. They took the guns from the Bastille and began an armed Revolution of France, however, when they got inside the Bastille they only found a couple of real criminals inside. NEVERTHELESS, this event sparked the peasant class throughout France to rebel against the King, the Catholic Church, and the Aristocracy.


1.) What reasons did the 3rd Estate have for beginning an armed revolution?
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2.) Do you think that if it wasn’t for the rumors the French Revolution would have never happened, or do you think it would have happened anyways?


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After the storming of the Bastille…
THE DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AND CITIZEN
After the storming of the Bastille in July in 1789, the bourgeois leaders of the Revolution knew that they needed to create a constitution like the Americans had- a constitution that would guarantee the powers and laws of the government, and rights that belonged to every person in France.

In August, the National Assembly agreed to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. This document, very similar to the US Constitution, guaranteed the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press- although it somewhat discouraged religion all together. Also, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen was very clear that every person had an equal opportunity in life- that no one was guaranteed anything because of who their parents were.






THE WOMEN’S MARCH ON THE PALACE OF VERSAILLES




In October of 1789, the women of Paris met in the markets. They were upset about the economy. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen had given more freedoms- - but this meant nothing to them since they had no food or money. The women first marched to Paris’ city hall- here they were listened to, but it was clear that the city officials could do nothing. Next the women decided to march to the Versailles Palace and talk directly to the king….

The women dragged cannon with them and armed themselves. As they approached the gates of Versailles Palace, King Louis XVI’s guards did not know what to do! Louis XVI and his soldiers (led by Marquis de Lafayette) allowed the women to ransack the Palace- Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette and their 2 children were taken under arrest and taken to Paris where they were put under house arrest in a palace in the city of Paris.

The Revolutionary leaders did not know what to do with the Royal Family…

THE ATTEMPTED ESCAPE OF THE ROYAL FAMILY

Although Louis XVI had never been very powerful, he feared for his family when they were under house arrest. The revolutionary leaders were very violent and he was worried that they would kill him and his family. ALSO, there were many people that depended him for their important jobs. These people, and Louis XVI’s own worries made him decide on trying to escape from house arrest…





King Louis XVI Queen Marie Antoinette Princess MarieTherese Prince Louis XVII
The Royal family all put on servant clothes and pretended to be servants and left the palace in Paris at night. They made good time throughout the night- every few miles there was a new set of horses waiting for them. However, Louis XVI got hungry about 20 miles from their destination in northern France. When the royal family stopped for food… a person in the store recognized Louis XVI’s face… how? Because Louis XVI’s face was on a coin he was holding!



THE EXECUTION OF LOUIS XVI & MARIE ANTOINETTE

Once caught, the revolutionary army brought the Royal family back to Paris. They forced the royal family to wear the servant clothes all the way back and paraded them through the streets of Paris.

Soon it was found out that Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette had been trying to escape so that they could get other countries to invade France and restore them as absolute monarchs. Louis XVI was guillotined in January of 1790 and Marie Antoinette was guillotined a few months later.



Beheading of Louis XVI Beheading of Marie Antoinette
Their oldest child, Marie Therese (age 12) was sent to live in an orphanage and with remaining nuns in France. Eventually she was sent to Austria where her mother was from. Their son, Louis XVII (age 5) was not so lucky. He was forced to live as a servant for punishment. The revolutionaries that were in control of him liked watching him suffer. They beat him badly and forced him to drink paint and turpentine. It is assumed that he eventually died sometime in the late 1790’s.
1.) Do you think that the revolutionaries were right in killing the king and queen of France? Explain.
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2.) Where do you think the French revolution will go from here?


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3.) If the goal of the French Revolution is to make all people equal- right now, do you think the French Revolution will achieve its goals?
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A Brief History of the Guillotine
The first guillotine was built in Europe as early as 1066. It was used mostly in Ireland and Scotland. It was an all wood structure that had an axe blade dangling from several feet up. These early models went by the names of “Halifax Gibbet” and “The Maiden”. The early models were not used that much and they did not always work too well. Sometimes if the blade did not cut the person’s head completely off, the executioner would have to strike the blade with a hammer to finish the job. They were also not used that much because they were messy - - a large spurt of blood would pour out when the blade came down, but probably the largest reason was because the crowds that gathered to see the executions preferred hangings. All over Europe, since Roman times, executions were public. They were often accompanied with fairs and marketplaces in city centers.

Early in the French Revolution, the Assembly met in 1789 to discuss how to handle crime and punishment. A man named Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotine proposed that all executions for all people should be the same in France. Many in the assembly wanted to get rid of the death penalty altogether, but Dr. Guillotine proposed a new way of executing people - - a machine that would be very humane, a machine that would cut off someone’s head instantly. Guillotine did not invent the Guillotine!! The Assembly agreed that this was much more humane than hanging people, and they hired people to develop a machine that people now call the Guillotine.

The French Guillotine held a slanted 88 pound blade 14 feet above a persons neck. When a pin was removed the blade would fall instantly cutting off the person’s head and killing them. It remained France’s official form of execution until 1981.

The Jacobins


By 1793, the Royal Family had been executed and there began a struggle for power in the new French Republic. The Assemblies were very disorganized and a lot of different interests made their voices heard. Many members just argued and little was accomplished.

There were many different political parties, but the Jacobins were the most powerful. The Jacobins were led by Maximillien Robespierre and Georges Danton. At the Assembly, when all of the different little factions argued, the Jacobins were able to get things done because they were organized. They hated royalty and were against Federalism.

The only other party that had power was called the Girondists. The Girondists believed in a strong central government, where the Jacobins feared a strong central government would take people’s rights away. The Girondists were not as powerful or organized as the Jacobins. Both sides struggled for power in politics.
The Reign of Terror

(A meeting of the National Convention)


In 1793 the newly reformed National Convention was to run the country. It was a legislative body that had 749 members in it. Little was able to be accomplished because it was almost impossible to hear 749 different opinions on every proposed topic. The only two parties that had any organization and power were the Jacobins and the Girondists.

The Jacobins hated royalty and feared that a strong central government would take people’s rights away… The Girondists were less radical, they believed that a strong central government was necessary for stability in Revolutionary France.

Queen Marie Antoinette was guillotined in October of 1793, 9 months after King Louis XVI, their son Louis XVII, was in prison where he would die. With the royal family completely eliminated, power over France was up for grabs. Maximillien Robespierre and Georges Danton, leaders of the Jacobins, created something called the “Committee of Public Safety” within the National Convention. Robespierre and Danton convinced the Convention that the Committee was created to protect France from being taken over by people within France that wanted to take their rights away.

The Committee of Public Safety was given great power by the National convention. Soon, Robespierre and Danton were like dictators controlling France. Their first order of business was to protect France from other European countries that wanted to crush the Revolution. They raised an 800,000 man army, the largest in Europe.

Next, Robespierre and Danton went after the Girondists - - their political enemies. Robespierre and Danton set up an unfair trial system: People found “suspicious of being an enemy of liberty” went in front of judges, THEY WERE NOT ALLOWED TO DEFEND THEMSELVES OR PRESENT EVIDENCE OF BEING NOT GUILTY. One by one the Girondists were accused, tried and Guillotined. The executions were public. The Jacobins used them to entertain and frighten the people of France: With so many executions, the people thought that there was a real threat.

After Robespierre and Danton had eliminated the Girondists, they moved on to the former aristocrats and Catholic clergy. They were accused and executed the same way the Girondists were. Robespierre and Danton told the French people that they could never have a real free nation until all of the ancien regime (former leaders) were dead and gone.





"Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible justice." - Maximillien Robespierre
Next, Robespierre made new laws that said someone could be executed simply for criticizing his Committee of Public Safety. He said he did this because there were a lot of people who wanted the Revolution to stop - - they were not Revolutionary enough. Also, anyone who was too Revolutionary was also executed. This began the largest portion of the Reign of Terror, now ordinary people began to tell on each other out of fear.

Thousands of people in Paris and all over France were arrested because someone had told on them. These people were sometimes accused, tried and guillotined in the same day. Robespierre encouraged the people of France to accuse all people who were either not Revolutionary enough, or too Revolutionary…. According to what he believed.

After 10 months of this, it was clear that Robespierre had become a dictator of the country through fear. Even Georges Danton, his former partner spoke against him. Danton, famous for his speaking ability, said to Robespierre in front of the National Convention that Robespierre had gone too far and that the country was safe. He also said that Robespierre had violated the Declaration of the Right’s of Man. Robespierre had Danton arrested, tried and was beheaded three days later.

After 11 months Robespierre called for a new round of people to be arrested and Guillotined. At this point, the members of the National Convention were afraid that they might be next. They had Robespierre arrested, tried and guillotined three days later. This ended the Reign of Terror.



1.) Evaluate the French Revolution at this point. Is it making progress towards fulfilling the ideas of Enlightenment thinkers? If yes how, if not why?


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2.) Some call the French Revolution “The Revolution that ate it’s own children”. Do you agree or disagree? Explain.

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3.) How did Robespierre violate the Declaration of the Rights of Man?

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4.) Make an educated guess as to what you think will happen next in course of the French Revolution using the information you have learned.
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The Directory: 1795-1799
After the Reign of Terror, many in France began to wish for a new monarchy and a return to the way things were. The Government reformed and created something called the Directory. The Directory had two legislative houses and one executive branch. One house had 250 members, and the other had 500. Out if the 750 members of government, they chose 5 of their own people to control the Directory, or executive branch.

Almost nothing was accomplished because rival political parties remembered the Reign of Terror and would not go along with any other party’s suggestions. All of the different parties feared a new party like the Jacobins that would take control over the whole country and begin a new Reign of Terror.

During the time of the Directory, France failed economically. Many of the poor still faced the real fear of starvation. The only bright spot was the French Army. Since the Directory was all but bankrupt, they had to send out the massive French Armies to take the riches of other countries. The French Army had success after success and defeated a great coalition of countries (almost all of the countries in Europe ganged up on France and France was able to defeat them easily.) A general named Napoleon Bonaparte was the reason for many of these victories, his army, and the people of France loved him very much.

The Consulate: 1799- 1804
The army kept fighting and winning - - it had to. Since France was so divided politically, the only thing giving them money were the things they conquered. Also, they had built such a large army they had to use it - - If France decided to get rid of it’s army, or not allow them to attack other countries, they would not know what to do with the millions of soldiers - - there was no work or food for them in France.

The ineffective government was finally dissolved by Napoleon and his followers in 1799. They created a government called the Consulate. There were Legislature and Judicial houses, but the real power belonged to the Consulate, a three person executive branch.

Napoleon saw a chance to take power. Napoleon promised the people of France stability, military strength and many of the simple things they had lost throughout the Revolution. The people of France elected him for life. The rest of the government, full of his supporters, gave him totalitarian powers.

There were several plots to have him killed by members of parties that still believed in the Revolution. However, Napoleon was kept safe. He made good on many of his promises and in 1804 the Republic of France was ended, the Revolutionary Constitution was ripped up, and Napoleon was made Emperor or dictator of France: His new name was Napoleon I (the first).



The French Revolution so far…


1789

  • Realizing that the French Monarchy is bankrupt, Absolute King Louis XVI calls the Estates General for the first time in 175 years to raise taxes.




  • The Third Estate rejects their powerlessness and creates the National Assembly, a government body dominated by the Third Estate that wants a combination Constitutional Monarchy/Republic, much like the British have. This means that they will let the king stay, but he will not have all of the power, other people that have been elected will share power with him.




  • A mob of the Third Estate storms the Bastille (in Paris). From this point on the Third Estate shows that it has the most power – using a large amount of force and population.




  • The First (Aristocracy), Second (Clergy) and Third Estates sign the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. This Declaration’s first article reads: “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Differences may only be judged upon the general good of an action."





  • An armed army of 7,000 women that distrust the king and queen drag cannon from Paris and bring him from the Versailles Palace to the city of Paris, the capital of the country and the Revolution.

1791


  • The King and the entire royal family are caught trying to leave France while all of the nations of Europe are trying to take over France to stop the spread of the Revolution.


1793


  • King Louis XVI is executed in front of a large crowd cheering for his death, several months later his wife Marie Antoinette is executed in front of a large crowd.




  • With the execution of the Royal Family, the Revolutionary government of France is leaderless, and a new very Left and organized group, the Jacobins are beginning to rise to power.

1794



  • The National Convention creates the Committee of Public Safety and gives it great power it is supposed to protect the French people from the threat of the Revolution of being stopped from inside or out.





  • The Reign of Terror ends with the execution of Robespierre and his closest associates. The new Republic of France is now leaderless and seeks a new group to lead them.

1796



  • The nations of Europe form the 1st Coalition to defeat Revolutionary France to stop the spread of anti-Monarchy movements against the remaining monarchies of Europe. These nations include: England, Austria, Prussia(modern day Germany and Czechoslovakia), Spain, Portugal, the Kingdoms of Italy, the Netherlands, French Royalists, the Ottoman Empire.



  • These nations combined efforts are all defeated by France, who recently had a levee-en-mass, which means they made every man of military age go into the army. The General that crushed all of these nations was from Corsica (a Mediterranean colony of France). His name was Napoleon Bonaparte, and he was only 27 years old.

1797



  • France is leaderless, however, a new group of people have filled in the leadership hole left by the Jacobins. This new group is corrupt and takes bribes, which means that they will do things for money… slowly the aristocracy begins to take power, and those that have risen to power (3rd Estate people) begin to act like aristocrats.




  • To hold their power, this new group of leaders (The Directory) is afraid of the young Corsican General Napoleon Bonaparte and so they let him use one of his many plans.

1798



  • Napoleon and 30,000 French troops left to take over Egypt




  • The French Government sent him to:

    1. To cut off the British from India.

    2. To bring back the riches of India.

    3. To bring back new historical knowledge from Egypt.

4. Because Napoleon is so wildly popular- to get him out of the country so that he does not seize power.


  • Napoleon agreed to leave to:

    1. To make himself a national hero and seize power when he returned.

1799



  • Napoleon takes over Egypt quite easily but is constantly attacked by locals, the Ottoman Empire and the British Navy. One day he secretly abandons his army in Egypt and heads back to France where he hailed as a national hero and conqueror.




  • On his return, more popular than ever, he overthrows the Directory and creates the Consulship, a three man executive team of which he is the leader. He essentially becomes dictator of France, being able to make laws himself, without anyone else having a say, and he does not have to worry about getting elected.

1804



  • Napoleon declares himself “Emperor Napoleon I of France”. The pope takes part in this ceremony.



1.) At the beginning of the Revolution, the 3rd Estate’s goals were to get rid of the monarchy, get rid of the 1st and 2nd Estates, and have a democracy, by 1804 had any of these things held up?
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2.) In your mind, should France have overthrown Louis XVI? Explain why or why not.


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The Napoleonic Era of Europe
Beginnings

Napoleon had gained his fame as a fearless leader and a man beloved by the people in his Austro-Italian Campaign. In a few short years (1792-1797) he had gone from a low ranked soldier to a General. He was most famous for brilliantly defeating armies that were as large as 5 times the size of his. He was an expert at training his troops - - they would do anything for him. Also, he always outsmarted his opponents on the battlefield. His instincts in battle were always correct and he was relentless, he never allowed an opposing army to escape and fight another day, he would follow them until they were crushed. In the Austro-Italian campaign he showed his genius and leadership. Even though there was political chaos in France, he had built a stable empire in central Europe which had not been done since the time of Charlemagne 1000 years earlier.

In 1798 with the beginning of the Consulate government, Napoleon set out again. Also, France’s large army needed to be put to work to get the riches of other lands, and to help with the unemployment problem. Napoleon knew that with the new Consulate government, he could become lead Consul and control the country. He set out on a glorious new campaign to Egypt. This why:


  1. France was still in a race with Great Britain for control of wealthy colonies and control of regions around the world.




  1. He was given all the men and supplies he needed because the rest of the politicians in France just wanted him to leave because he was becoming so popular… He knew that this would just increase his popularity.




  1. He brought along scientists and historians on the journey so it truly looked to the French people as if he were going on a new crusade.




  1. Any victories in such a far away place would be glorious to France.

The Egyptian campaign lasted 3 years. Napoleon and his army of 45,000 troops defeated an army of 115,000 on the Nile River to take the city of Cairo. He then moved his army into Israel and began taking land there. His army faced many hardships in this foreign land. They were always outnumbered. They were being exposed to a new and harsh climate. At one point his troops began coming down with the Plague. Napoleon visited and comforted these soldiers, even when they were so contagious the doctors would not even visit them. His soldiers would never forget that.

In 1801, his army had dwindled down and he left Egypt and returned to France as it’s greatest hero since Charlemagne. On his journey he had defeated Egyptians, the British, the Ottomans and countless others against all odds.

Trafalgar

By 1805 Napoleon had defeated Prussia, Austria, Italy, Sweden and Russia. He had crushed “Coalition Armies” again and again. The only real threat were the British, who laid just off the coast of France across the thin English Channel. The British did not have a strong enough army to attack France, but they used their superior Navy to quickly strike French ports all over the world. They disrupted France all the time. When his soldiers were off fighting, the British Navy would cut off the supply lines to stop the advance of the French Troops.

Napoleon knew that his empire would never be safe as long as Great Britain was able to be free and strike him when ever they wanted to. He became friends with Spain, who had a great number of navy ships, and he built up his own navy. By 1805 he had a grand plan. He would draw the British Navy out of the English Channel and defeat them. Then he would very quickly sail a massive invasion force (army) into Great Britain and take over Britain.

The French and Spanish had 33 ships, and the British had 27. The Spanish and French ships were larger and had more guns. It looked like the French and Spanish would easily defeat the British. However, the British admiral in charge, Lord Nelson, knew his ships were faster and that his sailors were much more experienced.

In a daring plan Nelson sailed right into the middle of the French and Spanish forces cutting them in half, then he crushed them boat by boat. He did not lose a single ship. It was the greatest naval victory in the world since the Battle of Salamis. Napoleon’s crushed fleet meant that he would no longer control the seas and that his army would never invade Britain. This is known as the Battle of Trafalgar. Napoleon and France controlled the continent of Europe, but Britain owned the seas.




Spain and Russia
In 1808 Napoleon and France had complete control of the continent in Europe. Since he already had troops in Spain, he decided to take it over. This was a great mistake. The Spanish responded by fighting in a guerilla style. Their armies hid in the mountains. They became allies with the British, and they would not give up. Napoleon said later in his life that decision to conquer Spain was one of his worst and that it slowly bled his empire of men and money. This is known as the Peninsular War - - the geographic name for Spain is the “Iberian Peninsula”.

In 1812 he decided to finish off Russia. He had defeated them all over Europe, but he had not yet invaded them. He gathered an army of over 600,000 men and headed east. He again conquered Prussian and Austrian armies as he rolled through Europe. When he reached Russia he kept pushing back their army, but the Russians did not mind. As the Russians kept falling back they would get rid of all food and supplies the French could use. Also, they were sucking them further and further in as a trap. The French took the Russian capital city of Moscow…. But winter was soon coming.

The French army was decimated by the Russian winter. Their supply lines were cut and most starved or died from disease. Napoleon’s great army had fallen to pieces. The Russians pushed west until they took Paris, France in 1814. The combination of the failure of the Russian Campaign and the slow defeat in Spain had finally brought an end to the French empire.

Napoleon was forced to live on an island in the Mediterranean never to return…

1.) Why did Napoleon feel he had to use his troops?
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2.) What did the Egyptian campaign do for Napoleon’s popularity?
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3.) How devastating do you think the loss at the battle of Trafalgar was to Napoleon’s Empire?
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4.) What were Napoleon’s two biggest mistakes? Why?
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The Return of Napoleon
After Napoleon’s defeat in 1814, the nations allied against him sent him to live on the Italian island of Elba. The allies allowed him to bring 1000 of his closest followers and they also gave him the island making him its emperor. The monarchs of Europe thought that this would make Napoleon happy. The allies did not kill Napoleon because they feared that it would throw all of France into more violent chaos, like that seen during the Revolution.

When Napoleon left for Elba, Louis XVIII, Louis XVI’s brother, was restored as king of France. Napoleon waited in Elba for any news about France. He heard that the new king was weak and disliked by the French people. He began to plot a comeback, but he was closely guarded at all times by the nations that had defeated him.

After 9 months on the island he could wait no longer and he, and 600 of his closest followers waited for the guards to change shifts, and he slipped away. His small army landed their boats in France a short time later. As they were making their way to land in France, a part of the French army was there waiting to arrest him… For a few tense moments Napoleon’s followers and the French Army aimed their guns at one another, then Napoleon walked out in between them. He called out to them, “Soldiers, you can shoot your emperor if you dare.” The soldiers did not shoot, in fact, they joined Napoleon. As his army made their way to Paris, more and more of his old soldiers joined him, and all of the troops sent by King Louis XVIII did not fight Napoleon, they joined him as well. Eventually Napoleon sent this letter to King Louis XVIII: “From Napoleon to Louis XVIII. My good brother - there is no need to send any more troops - I have enough!” Louis XVIII fled the country and Napoleon once again took control.

Napoleon knew that the rest of Europe would quickly attack him. He himself raised an army of 300,000 men. When he discovered that the coalition nations (Britain, Prussia and Austria) had raised an army of one million men, he knew he could not sit back and let them attack France - - so he attacked them! He made a plan to quickly destroy each one separately. If he let them all join together, he would not be able to defeat them, but if he caught each one off guard and destroyed them, he would have a chance.

Britain and Prussia’s armies were just north of France, and Austria’s army was to the east. He defeated Austria, and then tried to divide the British and Prussian armies so he could defeat them one at a time. He successfully divided them and began to go after the British at a place called Waterloo in Belgium, a small nation north of France. He sent attack wave after attack wave to crush the British. Meanwhile a different part of his army was to hold off the Prussian army so that he did not have to fight both at once. This part of his plan failed - - just as the British were about to give up because of his relentless attacks by his disciplined soldiers, the Prussian army arrived bringing in several hundred thousand fresh troops. These new troops were enough to overrun Napoleon’s tired and outnumbered forces.

His comeback had only lasted 100 days. The June 1815 Battle of Waterloo meant the end of the French empire. This time Napoleon was done for good. He was imprisoned on a new island called St. Helena where he died in 1821, and Louis XVIII was made king again.

1789- Storming of the Bastille
1791-1793 Escape Attempt/ Execution of the Royal Family
1794- Robespierre and the Reign of Terror
1795- 1799 - Corrupt Government
1799-1815- Napoleon takes over as Emperor, conquers Europe but is then defeated twice.
1815-1830 King Louis XVIII is restored as king of France and he and his brother rule as weak absolute monarchs until the French people revolt in 1830 and create a constitutional monarchy.
1870- Napoleon III (nephew of Napoleon) loses his power as emperor, France becomes a democracy

1.) What do you think was accomplished by the French Revolution, what was learned? Why?


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2.) Was the French Revolution a failure or not? Why?

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3.) Can all countries have a democracy, or does government depend on history, culture and geopolitics?


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4.) Would you have changed the French Revolution? What parts? Why?


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