Causes of the civil war *Causes of the Civil War



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CAUSES

OF THE

CIVIL WAR
*Causes of the Civil War

NORTHERN

VIEWPOINT

SOUTHERN

VIEWPOINT

1. Strong National Government needed 1. State’s Rights must be protected

2. Opposed Slavery because they 2. Slavery essential to Plantation

feared job competition Economy

3. High tariffs are needed to 3. High tariffs hurt ability to

protect industry trade agricultural goods (cotton)

4. Business and Industrial Economy 4. Agricultural economy

5. Culturally the North was more 5. Culturally the South was more

urban, education was more rural, few public school made

available, easier to meet people education a privilege for the

from different backgrounds wealthy, very family-centered

but very classist society



::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

*Northern and Southern Advantages and Disadvantages Leading Up to the Civil War

Northern Advantages

  1. Superior leadership of A. Lincoln

  2. Larger population - 23 million

  3. Military power

Army – 2+ million soldiers

Navy – 671 ships



  1. Industrial power

  2. Greater wealth

  3. 75% more Railroads than South

  4. 66% more farm acreage

  5. Controlled shipping in North America

Southern Advantages

  1. Outstanding Generals (66% of U.S.

Army officers fought on the side of

the South)



  1. Strong military tradition in Southern Culture

  2. Fighting to preserve way of life

  3. Fighting on home ground

  4. Very skilled with guns and horses

Northern Disadvantages

  1. Weak motivation/Far from home

  2. Unagressive officers

  3. Long supply line

  4. 3,500 mile long enemy coastline

  5. Large amount of land to conquer

  6. European aide to the Confederacy




Southern Disadvantages

  1. Weak leadership of J. Davis

  2. Severe inflation, not enough money

  3. Small population – only 9 mil including slaves

  4. Fewer factories and supplies

  5. State’s Rights philosophy created lack of unity needed for war effort

  6. Military lacked enough soldiers and there was no real navy


*Civil War, 1861- 1865 – The war between the Union (North) and the Confederacy (South). Slavery was ended in the United States when the Union won.

*Ulysses S. Grant – Union general during the Civil War who forced the surrender of Robert E. Lee and his Confederate forces at Appomattox Courthouse in 1865, ending the Civil War.

*Battle of Vicksburg – Battle fought in Vicksburg, MS. The Union, led by Grant, defeated the Confederate forces, and gained control of the Mississippi R. winning Grant a promotion from President Lincoln to lead the Union Army.

*Battle of Gettysburg – battle in southern Pennsylvania between Union forces and Confederates, led by Robert E. Lee. Lee hoped that a Confederate victory in the North would help the South receive aide from Europe, but after a bloody battle in which many soldiers on both sides died, Lee lost and was forced to retreat back into Virginia.

*Gettysburg Address – speech made by President Abraham Lincoln in 1863 to dedicate Gettysburg Cemetery, where many soldiers had died in the Battle of Gettysburg.

*Fort Sumter – federal fort in South Carolina that was the site of the first shot in the Civil War.

*Robert E. Lee – Confederate general in the Civil War, he surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in 1865.

*Confederate States of America – government formed by the states that had seceded from the Union during the Civil War.

*Jefferson Davis – President of the Confederate States of America.

*Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address – 1865 speech by Lincoln in which he expressed hope for a speedy end to the war saying, “With malice towards none; with charity for all;…let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds; to do all which may achieve and cherish a just, and a lasting peace.”

John Wilkes Booth – actor who shot Abraham Lincoln at Ford’s Theater

*Abraham Lincoln – 16th president of the United States, he is considered by some to be the greatest president of the United States. He was assassinated in Ford’s Theater on April 14, 1865, five days after the end of the Civil War.

*13th Amendment – Constitutional amendment that banned slavery throughout the nation.

*14th Amendment – Constitutional amendment that gave citizenship to all people born in the United States (except Native Americans).

*15th Amendment – forbade any state from denying African-American males the right to vote.


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