Causes and effects of specific events between 8000 bc and 500 bc



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CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SPECIFIC EVENTS BETWEEN 8000 BC AND 500 BC

  • Development of agriculture

    • Known as Neolithic or Agricultural Revolution

    • Jarmo in Iraq established as an agricultural settlement about 9000 years ago

    • Other early sites of agricultural development –

      • Nile River Valley (wheat and barley)

      • Huang He and Chang Jiang Rivers in China (millet and rice)

      • Mexico and Central America (corn, beans, squash)

      • Peru (tomatoes, potatoes, sweet potatoes)

  • Causes

    • Hunter-gathering bands scattered seeds near campsites that resulted in growth of new crops (10,000 years ago)

    • Climate change – rising temperatures lead to longer growing seasons and drier land

    • Growing populations led to discovery of new food resources – steady source of food

  • Effects

    • Shift from food-gathering to food-producing cultures leads to establishment of permanent settlements and eventually the first cities

      • Jarmo (Iraq) – 9000 years ago

      • Catal Huyuk (Turkey) – 8000 years ago

    • Positive effects – Settlement leads to development of culture including art, religion, and specialization of labor; irrigation systems developed as crop production and land use increase

    • Negative effects –  Close proximity of people lead to spread of disease, villages and cities susceptible to attacks, settlements could be destroyed by natural disasters

  • Development of river valley civilizations

    • Four early major river valley civilizations develop along the Tigris and Euphrates, Nile, Indus, and Huang He Rivers

    • Irrigation leads to development of social classes and organized religion

    • Key features of civilization

      • Advanced cities

      • Specialized workers

      • Complex institutions – government, religion, economics

      • Record keeping, (e.g. cuneiform in Sumerian cities)

      • Advanced technology – pottery, metalwork, beginning of Bronze Age in Sumer in 3000 B.C.

  • Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent (3500 B.C. – 1600 B.C.)

    • Settlement on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers around 4500 B.C.

    • Sumerians arrive in 3500 B.C. and begin irrigation

    • Sumerian city-states established around 3000 B.C. (Ur, Kish, Lagash, Umma, Uruk) and initially controlled by temple priests. 

    • Polytheistic religion – ziggurat (temple) center of each city-state

    • Scientific achievements –  wheel, sail, plow, bronze, cuneiform

    • Akkadians under Sargon defeat Sumerians around 2350 B.C. and establish an empire in the Fertile Crescent

    • Amorites establish Babylonian Empire and reach their peak under Hammurabi (1792 B.C.-1750 B.C.) who establishes a written, uniform code of laws (Hammurabi’s Code)

    • Babylonian Empire ends around 1500 B.C. and other civilizations in this area – Assyrians, Phoenicians, and Hebrews – adopt ideas first developed by early Sumerians

  • Egypt (3000 B.C. – 2000 B.C.)

    • Earliest settlement along the Nile River begins in 5000 B.C.

    • Irrigation along the Nile leads to Egypt being known as “The Gift of the Nile”/ Flooding was on a regular yearly cycle

    • Upper Egypt –  From First Cataract of the Nile to just south of Nile Delta

    • Lower Egypt –  Nile Delta to Mediterranean Sea

    • Upper and Lower Egypt united around 3100 B.C. by Menes.  Capital established at Memphis.

    • Old Kingdom (2660 to 2180 B.C.) begins with Third Dynasty

    • Ruled by pharaohs who were considered god-kings; theocracy established as form of government

    • Polytheistic religion –  Ra (sun god), Horus (god of light), Isis (wife of Ra), Osiris (god of death)

    • Religious features – Pyramids built as tombs for pharaohs; belief in the afterlife; mummification of the dead to prevent bodies from decaying; Book of the Dead guided souls in the afterlife.

    • Stratified society –  Royal family followed by upper class followed by middle class (merchants and artisans) and then the lower class (peasant farmers and unskilled laborers).  Slavery later became a source of labor.

    • Writing system –  hieroglyphics; writing done on papyrus

    • Scientific achievements –  written numbers, geometry, stone columns, calendar for flooding cycle, advanced medicine

    • Old Kingdom ends with decline of pharaohs’ power in 2180 B.C.  First Intermediate Period in place until pharaohs regain power in 2080 B.C.

    • Middle Kingdom (2080 B.C. – 1640 B.C.) in place until conquest by the Hyksos, who rule from 1640 B.C. to 1570 B.C. (Second Intermediate Period)

    • New Kingdom (1570 B.C. to 1075 B.C.) characterized by increased trade as well as conquest of new lands.

    • Rulers of the New Kingdom include Hatshepsut (female pharaoh), Thutmose III, Ramses II

    • Empire declines as other civilizations invade Egypt after 1200 B.C.

  • Indus River Valley Civilizations (2500 B.C.- 1700 B.C.)

    • First major cities include Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa that were developed on grid systems and had sophisticated plumbing and sewage systems

    • These early cities decline around 1750 B.C. due to a possible change in course by the Indus River

    • Indo-European people known as Aryans settle in the Indus Valley around 1500 B.C.

    • Aryan religious features –  sacred literature known as Vedas

    • Caste system develops under Aryans

    • Epic literature –  Mahabarata, Upanishads

    • Development of Hinduism as a result of blending between Aryans and non-Aryans

    • Key features of Hinduism –  moksha (state of perfect understanding), reincarnation, karma (good and bad deeds)

    • Development of Buddhism in India by Siddhartha Gautama (530 B.C.)

    • Key features of Buddhism –  Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path, nirvana

    • Buddhism spread by missionaries and traders to South and East Asia

  • Chinese River Valley Civilizations (3950 B.C.-1000 B.C.)

    • Huang He (Yellow) River Valley

    • Shang Dynasty (2000 B.C.) –  division of classes, importance of family

      • Shang religion –  importance of family spirits, Shang Di was supreme god, oracle bones to consult gods

      • Writing system where each symbol represents an idea

      • Technology and science –  bronze working, silk

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SPECIFIC EVENTS BETWEEN 500 BC AND AD 600

THE DEVELOPMENT OF CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS IN GREECE, ROME, PERSIA, INDIA, AND CHINA



THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAJOR WORLD RELIGIONS

  • Greece

    • Pre-500 B.C. –  Early Mycenaean and Minoan civilizations, decline of Greek culture under the Dorians, Trojan War, epics of Homer (The Iliad and The Odyssey), development of Greek mythology, establishment of the early Greek city-state (polis)

    • Greek political structures include monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy, and democracy

    • Military state established in Sparta; daily life centered on military training with little value for art; women played prominent role in Sparta although they could not vote; most powerful army in Greece from 600 to 371 B.C.

    • Limited democracy in Athens –  Free adult males could participate; women mostly dealt with home life; 1/3 of Athenian society were slaves; Draco sets up code of written laws in 621 B.C.; Cleisthenes makes Athens a full democracy in 508 B.C. by reorganizing the assembly and creating the Council of Five Hundred

    • The Persian Wars (490 B.C.-479 B.C.) – Began in Persian-occupied Ionia when Athens assisted Greek rebels.  Darius of Persia, who wanted revenge on Athens, defeated rebels.  Xerxes succeeds Darius and continues the war.

      • Key Battles –  Marathon, Thermopylae (, Salamis, Plataea

      • Effects of the Persian War –  New confidence and freedom for Greek city-states; Athens begins a golden age and becomes leader of the 140 city-state Delian League

    • Pericles and Democracy in Athens leads to a golden age –  Establishment of direct democracy, strengthening of navy and overseas trade, wealth used to create great works including the Parthenon

    • Development of Greek art – classical art that addresses order, balance, and proportion

    • Greek drama – built first western theaters, playwrights like Sophocles, Aeschylus, and Euripides write tragedies and playwright Aristophanes writes comedies

    • The Peloponnesian War (431 B.C. – 404 B.C.) –  fought between Athens and Sparta for control of Greece; Athens defeated largely due to a plague that strikes the city in 415 B.C. and the defeat of the Athenian fleet in 413 B.C.

      • Effects of the Peloponnesian War – Athens loses its empire and glory, confidence in democracy falters as corrupt and weak leaders take over

    • Growth of philosophy –  results when thinkers question uncertain times brought by Peloponnesian War

      • Sophist movement –  question people’s unexamined beliefs

      • Socrates – critical of Sophism; believes that people should question themselves and their moral character to show that people have contradictory opinions

      • Plato –  founder of The Academy; writes The Republic that addresses the perfectly governed society

      • Aristotle –  Founder of The Lyceum; questions the nature of the world and of human thought and beliefs; teacher of Alexander the Great

    • Empire under Alexander the Great (336 B.C.-323 B.C.)

      • Inherits throne of Macedonia; conquers Greece, Babylon, Persia, and Egypt; boundaries extend east to India

      • Conquests bring about end of independent Greek city-states and blend Greek cultures with eastern cultures to establish the Hellenistic Age.

    • Hellenistic Era brings about advancements in trade, astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, and art; Alexandria in Egypt is center of Hellenistic world, which is conquered by Rome in 150 B.C.

  • Rome

    • Established in 750 B.C. along Tiber River

    • Religious and cultural ideas borrowed from Greeks and Etruscans

    • Roman Republic established in 509 B.C.; voting rights extended only to free-born male citizens

    • Roman society divided into patricians (aristocracy) and plebeians (farmers and artisans)

  • Persia

    • Persian empire founded by Cyrus the Great

      • Darius divides the empire into provinces that are parallel to the homelands of the different people within the empire – these people live by their own laws within the Persian empire

    • Royal Road connects the empire for over 1500 miles

    • Use of standardized metal coins promote trade and unify the empire

    • Zoroaster establishes a religion in which people’s own choices determine their fate

    • Zoroastrianism – monotheistic worship of Ahura Mazda and sacred writings known as the Avesta; establishes early beliefs in heaven, hell, and a final judgment

    • Spread of Zoroastrianism to India, where the Parsi sect develops and still exists today

    • Persian Wars against Greece led by Darius and later Xerxes

  • India (Maurya and Gupta)

    • Mauryan Empire under Chandragupta and Asoka (302 B.C. – 232 B.C.) – bureaucracy, improved roads, spread of Buddhism

    • Gupta Empire (300 A.D.) –  Chandra Gupta I, India’s Golden Age through literature, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics

  • China (Zhou, Qin, and Han)

    • Zhou Dynasty (1027 B.C. – 256 B.C.) –  Mandate of Heaven justifies royal authority and establishes dynastic cycles; nobles rule through feudalism

      • Chinese philosophies established under the Zhou

        • Confucianism – reform in society including social order of family and government.

        • Daoism –  Philosophy established by Laozi that addresses order and harmony

        • Legalism –  Stressed punishment over rewards

    • Qin Dynasty (256 B.C.- 202 B.C.);  Ruled by Shi Huangdi, who uses Legalist ideas to unify China through autocracy

      • Centralized system of highway and irrigation networks

      • Mass murder of Confucian scholars

      • Great Wall of China built

    • Han Dynasty (202 B.C. – 9 A.D.); centralized government, complex bureaucracy, civil service jobs, promotion of Confucianism, invention of paper

  • Development of Major World Religions

    • Buddhism

      • Founded by Siddhartha Gautama, born in 6th Century BC to a noble family in Northern India. Buddhism follows many of the beliefs of Hinduism, including non-violence, self-denial, and to seek oneness with the “Great World Soul”; but it rejects the Caste System and numerous gods.

      • Spread from India to China, Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asia

    • Christianity

      • Spread of Christianity throughout the Roman empire

      • Peter, Paul, Pax Romana make the spread of Christianity possible

      • A.D. 70 the Romans storm Jerusalem and destroy the Temple complex (leaving only the Western portion of the wall – the Wailing Wall, today is the holiest Jewish shrine.) Dome of the Rock is now built on top of that location

      • Diaspora – AD 132, dispersal of the Jews from their homeland. As a political state, they ceased to exist until 1948).

      • 312 AD, Edict of Milan declares Christianity to be an approved religion by the emperor. A Church hierarchy is established and Rome is made the official center of the Christian Church.

      • Judea under Roman rule

      • Herod – Jewish king who ruled as a representative of Rome

      • Jesus – rejected by the Jews as messiah, crucified.

      • Through the Middle Ages the Church becomes the centralizing force of the Western culture.

    • Confucianism

      • Based on the ideas of Confucius (the Latin name for Master Kung). His major ideas are recorded in the Analects.

      • Living in a time of great confusion and chaos in China, Confucius sought to restore order through a basic set of ideas. Within Confucianism, there is an assumption that the universe has an order; therefore, mankind should focus on Human Behavior. Additionally, although the following is often associated with being a work ethic, Confucianism believes if we focus on the five Relationships and do what is right, there will be harmony.

      • Believes that a ruler should not necessarily come from noble birth, but the right to rule should be open to all men of talent. This was adopted in the form of a civil service test.

    • Hinduism

      • Polytheistic religion dating back to the Aryan invasion in the 1500 BC.

      • References to the Brahman as the single force in the universe in which the soul seeks to have union with the “Great World Soul”. Some view Hinduism as Trinitarian because Brahman is simultaneously visualized as a triad -- one God with three persons – 1) Brahma the Creator who is continuing to create new realities 2) Vishnu, (Krishna) the Preserver, who preserves these new creations. Whenever dharma (eternal order, righteousness, religion, law and duty) is threatened, Vishnu travels from heaven to earth in one of ten incarnations. 3) Shiva, the Destroyer, is at times compassionate, erotic and destructive. There are more than 33,000 deities in the Hindu Religion.

      • Vedas – collection of hymns and religious ceremonies of the Hindus that were passed down orally and eventually written down.

      • Hinduism is associated primarily with India and has spread little throughout the world.

    • Islam – historical origins, central ideas, and the spread of

      • Muhammad – Born in 570 (?) and is considered the founder of Islam, he is considered the last prophet of God

      • Muslims –  Those who worship Allah and recognize Muhammad as the last Prophet  

      • Mecca – The Holy City of the Islamic faith

      • Allah –  Monotheistic deity; also recognized as the God of Abraham (Yahweh) 

      • Hijrah – Pilgrimage to Mecca that each Muslim is required (health permitting) to take within their lifetime

      • Koran (Qur’an)  – Book or writings of the prophet Muhammad

      • Jihad (Holy Struggle) – The expansion of the Islamic state and control. 

      • The Dome of the Rock

      • Arabian focus – Middle Eastern/ North Africa Location, Spain, Southeast Asia

      • Trade and spread of religion – silk roads, European exploration

    • Judaism – (historical origins and the central ideas of), including –

      • Abraham, Moses, David

      • Ethical monotheism

      • 10 commandments

      • Torah

      • “Promised Land” in Canaan

      • Messiah

    • Sikhism – 

      • Founded in 15th century Punjab

      • Based on teachings of Guru Nanak Dev

      • Sikh teaching emphasizes the principle of equality of all humans and rejects discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, and gender.

      • Monotheistic

      • Migration in the 19th century to different parts of the world

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 600 TO 1450

  • Spread of Christianity –

    • Spread of Christianity throughout the Roman empire

    • Peter, Paul, Pax Romana make the spread of Christianity possible

    • A.D. 70 the Romans storm Jerusalem and destroy the Temple complex (leaving only the Western portion of the wall – the Wailing Wall, today is the holiest Jewish shrine.) Dome of the Rock is now built on top of that location

    • Constantine accepts Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire

    • Council of Nicea –  sets basic tenets of Christianity

    • Eastern Orthodoxy develops after the schism between that church and the Catholic Church

    • Church develops in power during the Middle Ages in Europe

  • Decline of Rome and formation of medieval Europe

    • Invaders overrun the empire (Mongols, Huns, Franks, etc)

    • Inflation

    • Roman army cannot defend the empire

    • People’s loyalty and service to the empire decline

    • Roman politics decay – Empire is split, an additional capital established (Constantinople), but it doesn’t save it.

    • People turn to the Church and lords for security and protection

      • Development of feudalism and strong Church authority in medieval Europe

  • Development of Islamic caliphates

    • Abbasid caliphate –  Baghdad

    • Fatimid caliphate –  Cairo

    • Umayyad caliphate – Damascus

    • Shi’ite movement begins as a reaction to Umayyad rule

    • Expansion of Islam into North Africa and Spain

    • Golden age in mathematics and science, including chemistry, empirical scientific method, and medical care

  • Mongol invasions

    • 13th century –  spread across Eurasia to create one of the world’s largest empires

    • Brutal conquest of Abbasid Empire and Russian principalities

    • “Pax Mongolia” that supported trade along the Silk Road

    • Kublai Khan (Yuan dynasty) kept Chinese political and economic systems in place

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 1450 TO 1750

  • Rise of the Ottoman Empire

    • Capture of Constantinople and renaming to Istanbul

    • Cultural and political achievements under Suleiman I

    • Capture of Mecca, Medina, and Cairo

    • Empire in place until end of World War I

  • Influence of the Ming dynasty on world trade

    • Expeditions to Southeast Asia, India, Arabia, and East Africa

    • Goals –  impress world with the power and splendor of Ming China and expand China’s tribute system

    • Envoys from different countries travel to China with tribute

  • European Exploration and the Columbian Exchange

    • Global trade network during early modern era

    • Columbian Exchange – exchange of new foods, livestock, and diseases between the Old and New Worlds

    • Decimation of indigenous populations in the New World

    • Introduction of African slavery to the New World

    • Beginnings of American Colonization

  • Renaissance and Reformation

    • Humanism

    • Greco Roman classics/ learning

    • Flowering and patronage of the Arts

    • Breakup of the power of the Catholic Church

    • Protestant religions

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 1750 TO 1914

  • Scientific Revolution

    • Challenges how people view the universe.  Scholars began to use observation, experimentation, and scientific reasoning to gather knowledge and draw conclusions about the physical world

    • Causes –  New knowledge gained from translated works of Muslim scholars and classical manuscripts which were spread by the printing press, Age of Exploration and the emphasis on navigation lead to greater research in mathematics and science

    • Key scientists –

    • Copernicus –  heliocentric theory-planets orbit around the sun

    • Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler – planetary motion

    • Galileo –  law of the pendulum, falling objects accelerate at a fixed and predictable rate; telescope –

    • Francis Bacon –  emphasized observation and drawing conclusions – empiricism

    • René Descartes –  analytical geometry

    • Isaac Newton –  Law of Gravity

    • Zacharias Janssen – invents the microscope

    • William Harvey –  smallpox vaccine

    • Scientific method –  logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas

  • Industrial Revolution and impact on modern economic systems

    • Capitalism

      • Laissez-faire economics – free market unregulated by the government.  Free trade leads to prosperity.

      • Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations –  economic liberty leads to economic progress without need of government interference

      • Malthus and Ricardo –  believed that as population grew, most people would be poor.  In a market system, there would be many workers and abundant resources that could be obtained cheaply.  Wages forced down as population grew.

      • Laissez-faire thinkers opposed government efforts to help poor workers.  Creating minimum wage laws and better working conditions upsets the free market system lowers profits, and undermines the production of wealth.

    • Socialism –

      • Governments should intervene so that the wealthy and the government should take action to improve people’s lives

      • Factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all (Fourier and Saint-Simon)

      • Belief in progress and concern for social justice

      • Government should actively plan the economy as to abolish poverty and promote equality

      • Unitarianism –  Jeremy Bentham – government should promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people; John Stuart Mill –  policies that would lead to a more equal division of profits

      • Utopian movements –  improvement of working conditions; Robert Owen -  low-rent housing for workers, children under ten not allowed to work in his mills

      • Marxism –  bourgeoisie (“haves”) and proletariats (‘”have-nots”); conflict resulted because the wealthy controlled factors of production while workers did all the hard labor

        • Marx and Engels in The Communist Manifesto call for the workers to overthrow the owners

        • Capitalism would destroy itself after workers controlled the government and a classless society would develop (communism)

    • Communism – all factors of production would be owned by the people with no private property existing

  • Economic and Social Reforms

    • Union movement with collective bargaining and strikes

    • Reform Laws in Britain that addressed child labor and number of hours that could be worked

    • Abolition of slavery – William Wilberforce in Great Britain (1807); 13th Amendment in the U.S.

    • Women’s Rights movements develop in Great Britain and the United States

  • European imperialism

    • Causes –

      • Political –  Nationalism leads to a desire for overseas colonies.  The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 divides Africa between 14 European nations.

      • Economic –  Industrial Revolution led for a search for new markets and raw materials; rubber, palm oil and cocoa become cash crops in European colonies; mining in diamonds, copper, gold, and tin provide Europeans with great wealth.

      • Social –  Advancements in technology lead Europeans to develop racist attitudes as they see they are superior to others; Social Darwinism promotes the ideas that the fittest for survival enjoy wealth and success and superior to others; Christian missionaries wanted to “civilize” non-westerners.

    • Effects

      • Negative consequences

        • Native people lose control of their lands and independence

        • New diseases like smallpox reduce native populations

        • Resistance movements, famines resulting from shifts to cash crop production, and harsh working conditions also reduce native populations

        • Problems of identity as westerners contemptuously view native cultures

        • Areas stripped of natural resources (The Congo under Belgian rule)

        • Artificial boundaries either combine rival groups or divide kinship groups that continue to create political problems in former colonies

        • Positive consequences

          • European military presence reduces local warfare

          • Humanitarian efforts improve sanitation and education that leads to growth in life expectancy and literacy

          • Colonial lands equipped with infrastructure to aid in economic growth

          • Products from colonies valued in the international market

  • Enlightenment (Age of Reason)

    • People look for laws to govern human behavior; government’s power comes from the consent of the governed

    • Scientific Revolution promotes application of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society including government

    • Hobbes –  social contract theory – people create government and give up their rights to a strong ruler in exchange for law and order – absolute monarchy

    • Locke –  people have the natural ability to govern their own affairs and look after the welfare of society; endowed with the natural rights of life, liberty and property; people can overthrow a government that does not protect these rights

    • Philosophes – apply reason to all aspects of life including truth, nature, happiness, progress, and liberty

    • Montesquieu – separation of powers – three branches of government and checks and balances on these powers

    • Rousseau –  individual freedom

    • Mary Wollstonecraft –  women deserve the same rights as men

    • Impact of the Enlightenment

      • European monarchies make reforms

      • Inspiration for the American and French Revolutions

      • Belief in progress through social equality and improvements in education

      • More secular outlook that questioned religious beliefs and teachings of the church

      • Importance of the individual – as people turned away from the church, they looked towards themselves for guidance

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 1914 TO THE PRESENT

  • World War I

    • Causes

      • Imperialism – European nations compete for colonies in Africa and Asia; France and Germany nearly go to war over Morocco in 1905 and 1911; distrust grows among rivals

      • Nationalism – competition for industrial dominance develops between Great Britain and Germany; territorial disputes over Alsace-Lorraine after the Franco-Prussian War promote rivalry between France and Germany; Austria-Hungary and Russia compete for dominance of the Balkan Peninsula, where independence movements of various Slavic people develop

      • Militarism – increasing nationalism led to a European arms race; all major powers except Great Britain had large standing armies; generals develop various plans that promote quick mobilization of troops in case of war

      • Alliance System – alliances between the great powers of Europe were complicated and shifted constantly during the last half of the 19th century; two major alliances at the outbreak of World War I in 1914:

        • Triple Entente – Great Britain, France, and Russia

        • Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy

    • Political impact

      • Sole responsibility of starting World War I placed on Germany

      • Loss of German territory in Europe – return of Alsace-Lorraine to France; extension of French border to Rhine River

      • German colonies in Africa and the Pacific were declared mandates administered by the League of Nations

      • Creation of the League of Nations including the five allied powers and 32 neutral nations; Germany and Russia excluded

      • Limits on the size of German army

      • Germany forbidden to have an air force or to purchase/build submarines

    • Economic impact

      • Germany prohibited from importing or manufacturing war materials and weapons

      • Article 231 (“War Guilt Clause”) – Germany forced to pay over $30 billion in war reparations over 30 years

      • Severe inflation and economic disaster affect Germany after the war, since large amounts of paper money printed to pay off war debts

      • United States implements the Dawes Plan in 1924 to loan $200 million to strengthen the German economy and implement a more realistic schedule of reparations.

    • Social impact

      • Total war – belligerents use all available resources against their enemies

      • Mobilization of large numbers of soldiers that results in their removal from production jobs

      • Food rationing

      • Use of propaganda to divert attention to the war effort

      • Changes in government policy to address wartime economics

      • Trench warfare – Western Front in France; little gains for each side resulting in high casualties for both sides

      • Modern military technology – airplanes, poison gas, machine guns, armored tanks, larger artillery

      • High casualty rates – 8.5 million soldiers killed, 21 million soldiers wounded; countless civilian deaths due to starvation, disease, and slaughter

  • World War II – causes and effects

    • German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, leads to Great Britain and France’s declarations of war on Germany; the invasion is also the first use of the German blirzkrieg ("lightning war") that incorporates fast-moving airplanes and tanks.

    • German invasion of the Soviet Union (1941-1943) – also known as Operation Barbarossa; results in the unsuccessful German sieges of Leningrad and Moscow. The harsh Russian winter halts further invasion in Russia. Germans besiege Stalingrad in 1942 and are forced to surrender the following year. The Soviet army then begins to push westward into Europe.

    • The Holocaust – genocide of over 6 million Jews and other groups throughout Europe considered by Germany to be inferior; known as “The Final Solution” and resulted in the extermination of these people in death camps

    • Japanese imperialism – plans for a Pacific empire that included China that would allow Japan to solve its economic problems through the provision of raw materials and markets for its goods as well as providing more room for its growing population.  Manchuria and China invaded in the 1930's.  The Phillippines, Malaya, Singapore, the Dutch East Indies, and Burma are all occupied after the start of World War II.

    • Attack on Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941) by Japan leads the United States to declare war on Japan. This results in a declaration of war on the United States by Germany and Italy.

    • Normandy landings (June 6, 1944 “D-Day”) by Allied forces on the coast of France lead to a German retreat. As a result, France and the Low Countries are liberated and Allied troops push eastward into Germany, that leads to German surrender in 1945.

    • Dropping of atomic bombs (August 6 and 9, 1945) by U.S. on Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki leads to Japan’s surrender.

  • Communist revolutions and impact on the Cold War

    • U.S. helps defeat a communist rebellion in Greece (1946-1948) and gives aid to Turkey as part of the Truman Doctrine

    • Mao Zedong’s Red Army overthrows Nationalists in China (1949)

      • Leads to Korean Conflict (1950-1953)

      • Also supports North Vietnam against South Vietnam and the U.S.

    • Fidel Castro overthrows the Batista government in Cuba (1958-1969)

      • Gains Soviet support as U.S. places a trade embargo on Cuba

      • Anti-Castro exiles supported by the U.S. fail to overthrow the Cuban government in the failed Bay of Pigs invasion (1961)

      • Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) almost leads to nuclear war between the U.S. and U.S.S.R.

        • U.S.S.R removes missiles in Cuba in exchange for U.S. promise not to invade that island

        • Castro remains dependent on the U.S.S.R.

        • The collapse of the U.S.S.R. in 1991

    • Nicaragua (1979)

      • Communist Sandinistas under Daniel Ortega overthrow the Somoza dictatorship

      • Sandinistas help socialist rebels in El Salvador

        • U.S. supports Nicaraguan anti- communist rebels known as the Contras in the civil war in El Salvador

        • Iran-Contra scandal under Reagan administration – using funds from the arms sold to the Contras to trade for U.S. hostages in Iran

      • Ortega loses the presidency in free elections called in 1990

  • Independence movements

    • After War II, European colonies in Africa and Asia gain independence from colonial powers.

    • In many cases, violence and/or corruption emerge in newly independent countries due to a lack of stable democracies or ethnic/religious conflicts.

    • Indian independence in 1947 results in the partition between Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan.

      • Today, India is the world’s largest democracy.

    • Israeli independence in 1948 leads to the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict that continues to threaten stability in that region.

    • Independence movements in Southeast Asia lead to both conflict (Vietnam) and rise of new economic powers (Singapore).

    • Numerous African nations become independent between 1957 and 1975.

      • In many cases (Nigeria, Congo, Rwanda), corrupt governments and/or ethnic conflicts result in civil war.

      • Many of these independent countries are in the process of building political and economic stability.

  • Globalization

    • New systems of trade, transportation, and communication have brought larger numbers of people into contact with each other.

    • Advances in technology after World War II have resulted in increased global interaction and improved quality of life.

    • Rapid economic developments have linked the economies of many world nations so that the actions of one nation affect others.

    • Since World War II, nations have used collective security (United Nations, NATO) to solve problems and tie security within and between nations.

    • As technological innovations like television and the mass media reach larger numbers of people, cultures often change and blend many influences.

DEVELOPMENT OF RULE OF LAW

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF RULE OF LAW, RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES



  • Law, rights, and responsibilities in the ancient world, including

    • Code of Hammurabi

      • First uniform law

      • Designates what is a crime and what the punishment will be

      • Punishments determined by social class

      • Provided guidelines for citizens to follow for an orderly society

    • 10 Commandments (Hebrew Code of Law) and Talmud

      • Law code based on responsibilities of the citizens and not the threat of punishment

      • Equality under the law

  • Legal and political concepts beginning in the ancient world and continuing through the Roman republic. Include

    • rights

    • democracy

    • 12 tables

    • Participation in government

  • Rule of law – the idea that government is a rule of law, not a rule of men

    • Originated in early civilizations of the Tigris – Euphrates River valley

    • Exemplified by written codes of law such as the Code of Hammurabi

    • Brought forward by Jewish law recorded in the !0 Commandments, the Torah and other teachings of Judaism

    • Recorded in Greco-Roman law by Solon, Pericles and the 12 Tables of Law in Rome

    • Explained and further organized in Justinian’s Codes of Law

    • English Common law influenced the rule of law in the American colonies

      • Rights of the  Englishman”

      • Magna Carta – Asserts the rights of the nobles and limits the authority of the king

      • England, USA and France create bill of rights documents to limit the government’ control of its citizens.

ROLES OF WOMEN, CHILDREN, FAMILIES IN WORLD HISTORY

  • Life and family in Greece

    • Families – social structure for most societies

    • Women and children – lack of power, influence, and inequality

    • Greece-Women's role centered around the well-being and for the good of the family.

    • Sparta boys sent to military school at young age

  • Life and family in Rome

    • Family at the heart of Rome society. By law and custom, the eldest man, known as the paterfamilias, or “father of the family,” had power to rule the household. He controlled all property and had authority over all family members.

    • Roman women – nearly social equals of men, ran the household and were given authority and respect. Had personal freedom, could own property, and could testify in court

    • Could not vote.  Officially, they were expected to remain in the background.  But would attend plays, festivals, and games.  Lower-class women could work at such jobs as spinner, weavers, shopkeepers, midwives, entertainers, and waitresses.

  • Role of women during Middle Ages

    • Church viewed women as inferior to men.

    • In contrast, a true knight pledged to protect all women, but in reality, usually only protected the wealthier woman.

    • A noblewoman could inherit an estate from her husband.

    • When her husband was off fighting, the lady of a medieval castle might act as military commander and a warrior.

    • Noblewomen often defended castles, hurling rocks, firing arrows; some even dressed in armor and mobilized a cavalry of knights.

    • Were not eligible to receive land as reward in exchange for military service.

    • Lords passed down their fiefs to their sons, not the daughters.

    • Daughters were used as diplomatic tools to form alliances through marriages.

  • Role of children in industrialization

    • Children take on the role of bread-winner for families

    • Easier for them to find work due to their size (working in the coal pits); reduced wages paid to children

  • Role of women during the world wars

    • Role of women was extended as they entered the workplace to aid the war time economy.

  • Other issues applied to other specific cultures

    • Women and children viewed as property with no rights (legal rights or property rights)

    • Children viewed as labor source and social security

    • Polygamous marriages

    • Nuclear and extended families

ROLES OF VARIOUS FORMS OF TECHNOLOGY AND MEDICAL ADVANCEMENTS IN DEVELOPING THE MODERN GLOBAL ECONOMY AND SOCIETY

  • Telecommunications

    • Development of mass communication and information industries including satellites, computers, the Internet that allow people to transmit information and business transactions quickly and cheaply

    • Television broadcasts of news and popular shows to different areas of the world in short amounts of time spread culture

  • Computer

    • Smaller computers developed as a result of the space program where equipment had to be downsized for space capsules (e.g., silicon chips replace vacuum tubes)

    • Variety of consumer products used computers and silicon chips as part of production – telephone, microwave ovens, automobiles

    • Computers and the Internet allow people to transmit information and business transactions quickly and cheaply

  • Transportation

    • Modern airplanes (e.g., Concorde, make world travel faster and easier)

    • Bullet trains

    • Supertankers accelerate ocean trade

    • Interstate highways in the United States

  • Medical Advancements

    • Penicillin

    • Laser and ultrasound improves surgery

    • Medical imaging – CAT scans and MRIs provide three-dimensional images of regions of the body

    • Genetic engineering and cloning that introduces new genes into an organism


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