Causes and effects of important turning points in world history from 600 to 1450



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CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 600 TO 1450

Including, but not limited to: 



Development of the Islamic caliphates and impact on Asia, Africa, and Europe
Causes

  • Arab soldiers unified by Islam and attracted by the promise of plunder conquered territory from Spain to India across North Africa, Arabia and Anatolia

  • The Sassanid and Byzantine Empires were weak and therefore vulnerable to invasion

  • New converts were made in the conquered territories, especially among those already familiar with monotheism

  • Following Muhammad’s death no successor had been provided, so political struggles followed with the Four Rightly-Guided Caliphs and eventually the emergence of the Umayyad caliphate establishing an empire with a highly bureaucratic structure

Effects

  • Islam served to politically and culturally unify Arabs, Persians, and many other ethnic groups in the territories conquered by the caliph

  • Trade was promoted as merchants were given high social status. Trade flourished along the Silk Routes and in the Indian Ocean.

  • Cultural diffusion spread knowledge along the trade routes including advances in mathematics, translations of Classical Greek texts, and new medical practices, as well as the construction of mosques, hospitals, schools, orphanages, and libraries across the region

  • Europeans and Muslims fight in the Crusades, yet contact promotes a revival of trade and economic development in Europe

Mongol invasions and their impact on Europe, China, India, and Southwest Asia
Causes

  • Mongols began raiding and trading with settled societies, possibly because of changing environmental conditions on the steppe

  • Mongols adeptness at  mobility and skillful tactics as warriors resulted in huge conquests

  • Mongols were unified under one ruler, Genghis Khan

Effects

  • Created the largest land-based empire across Eurasia which facilitated the spread of products and disease.

  • Facilitated peacefully travel and trade along the Silk Road heralding the Pax Mongolica

  • Conquered Beijing in 1215, placing China under foreign rule for the first time

  • Kublai Khan (of the Yuan dynasty of China) kept Chinese political and economic systems in place, but ended the civil service exams

  • In China, Mongols segregated themselves from Chinese people

  • Destroyed the Muslim heartlands around Baghdad ending the Muslim caliphate; were stopped in Egypt by Mamluks, shifting Arab power to Egypt

  • Mongols converted to Islam and were absorbed into Muslim society in Southwest Asia

  • Russia was made a tribute state resulting in the expansion of serfdom

  • Cultural diffusion was facilitated across the Eurasian continent

  • India stayed protected from Mongol invasions until the late 14th century

  • Marked the final threat of nomadic invasions of settle civilizations

POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF ISLAM ON EUROPE, ASIA, AND AFRICA

Including, but not limited to:.



  • Political, Economic, Social Impact of Islam on Asia

    • By the early 700s Islam spanned from Spain to India.

    • Arabic language spread, trade was facilitated, and scientific and technological advances spread across the region.

    • By 1258 the Mongols invaded the Islamic heartlands of the Muslim Empire, but an Islamic state survived in India as the Delhi Sultanate.

    • In 1206, Muslim warriors captured the city of Delhi and consolidated most of northern India under their control. Muslims generals established the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1520).

    • While Islam was introduced to India via these conquerors, it did not supplant Hinduism and the two religious groups lived separately, while the Muslims ruled.

  • Political, Economic, Social Impact of Islam on Africa

    • Islam spread to North Africa in the 7th century and over the next hundred years spread through the Sahara and to sub-Saharan Africa via trade routes.

    • Islam spread to Africa overland across the Sahara and to the east coast of Africa via the Indian Ocean trade complex.

    • Trade across the Sahara was centered on the gold and salt trade while trade from the east coast of Africa centered on the trade of enslaved people.

    • In North Africa the most significant converts to Islam were the nomadic Berbers.

    • In sub-Saharan Africa, by the 1300s converts to Islam were the nomadic Berbers. In western Sub-Sahara the most powerful was the state of Mali and was founded by Sundiata. Mali’s most famous Muslim ruler was Mansa Musa (1312-1337), who was known throughout the region for his great pilgrimage to Mecca.

    • Most converts to Islam in sub-Saharan Africa were merchants or ruling elites, who gained political and economic advantage by conversion.

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MUSLIM, CHRISTIAN, AND JEWISH SOCIETIES IN EUROPE, ASIA, AND NORTH AFRICA

Including, but not limited to:



  • As Islam expanded, "People of the Book" including Zoroastrians, Jews, and Christians, were tolerated and allowed to continue practicing provided they obeyed Muslim governmental authority and paid a special "non-Muslim" tax. Converts were readily accepted into Muslim society.

  • Christians and Jews served as officials, scholars, and bureaucrats in Muslim states.

  • Muslims set up an extensive trade network between Europe, Asia, and North Africa.

  • Cultural blending leads to achievements in art and science in Muslim-controlled cities in Asia, Europe, and North Africa

  • Berbers, who had originally been Christian and Jewish, converted to Islam in the 600s.

  • Muslim invasion of Spain in the 700s was followed by a "golden age" in scientific and artistic achievements for Spanish Muslims

  • Christian Spanish nobles reconquered Spain (Reconquista) driving out Muslims by 1492

  • Muslim invasions of Eastern Europe between 600s and 900s led to disorder and suffering that forced people to look to local rulers for security; led to the rise of feudalism

  • Relationships varied between the Catholic Church and Jews living in Europe, depending on the policies of individual popes

  • Catholic Inquisition led to the expulsion of Muslims and Jews from Spain

  • Crusades contributed to conflicts among Christians, Jews, and Muslims

Including, but not limited to:

  • Muslim tribes from Central Asia invade northwestern India in the 600s

  • Turkish warlords invade India in 1000 and establish the Delhi Sultanate, where Hindus were treated as conquered people

  • Mughal ruler Akbar establishes a golden age in India

    • Religious freedom for Hindus and non-Muslims

    • Taxation on Hindu pilgrims and on non-Muslims abolished

    • Mingling of Arabic, Persian, and Hindu cultures led to new developments in art and literature and the use of the Urdu language in army camps (mixture of the Hindi language, with Sanskrit, Persian, Turkish, and Arabic words)

  • Shah Jahan – construction of the Taj Mahal as a tomb for his wife

  • Aurangzeb – expansion of Mughal empire throughout most of the Indian subcontinent

    • His harsh policies against Hindus included bringing back the tax on pilgrimages, banning of Hindu temple construction, destruction of Hindu monuments, and dismissal of Hindus from government positions

  • Sikhs break away and establish a separate state in Punjab

  • The Portuguese turn over Bombay to English troops and merchants, which leads to the beginning of British conquest of India (1661)

MAJOR POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS IN TANG AND SONG CHINA AND IMPACT ON EASTERN ASIA

Including, but not limited to:



  • Tang China (618 AD-907 AD)

    • Political developments

      • Emperor Taizong extends China’s boundaries north to Manchuria, south to Vietnam, and west to the Aral Sea

      • Empress Wu Zhao extends Chinese influence to the Korean Peninsula

      • Scholar – officials take competitive civil service exams to work in government offices

      • Government census was taken; capital city Chang’an was largest city in the world at the time

    • Economic developments

      • Foreign trade on the Silk Roads grows

      • Arrival of tea from Southeast Asia

      • New inventions – porcelain, mechanical clocks, block printing, gunpowder all increase trade and spread to Japan and Korea

      • Construction of the Grand Canal linked the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers and facilitated the shipment of rice to urban centers

    • Cultural developments

      • Spread of Buddhism through trade networks to Japan, Korea, and Vietnam

      • Greater social mobility and movement to cities

      • Decline in the status of women including the beginning of binding the feet of upper class girls

  • Song China (960 AD-1279 AD)

    • Political developments

      • Rule limited to Southern China after Tang losses in Central Asia and Manchuria

    • Economic developments

      • Introduction of a fast-growing rice from Vietnam that led to faster growing population

      • Movable type spreads to Japan and Korea

      • Paper money contributes to a large-scale economy

      • Advances in sailing technology, such as the magnetic compass, lead to the growth of ocean trade

    • Cultural developments

      • New height in Chinese art – natural landscapes and objects drawn with black ink

      • China’s population at 100 million with ten cities having at least 1 million people

DEVELOPMENT OF SLAVE TRADE

Including, but not limited to:



  • During the Classical Era generally prisoners of war were a source for enslaved people. Some enslaved people served in households in Classical Greece and Classical Rome.

  • During the 7th century the slavery trade expanded when Islamic traders trade goods for Africans and transport enslaved people to Southwest Asia

  • During the 600-1450 period, the slavery trade was prominent along the eastern coast of Africa and across the trans-Saharan trade routes

  • Muslim African rulers enslave non-Muslims because Islam prohibited Muslims from enslaving fellow Muslims

  • 4.5 million Africans transported as enslaved people to Southwest Asia between 650 and 1000 AD

HOW SILK ROAD AND AFRICAN GOLD-SALT TRADE FACILITATED SPREAD OF IDEAS AND TRADE

Including, but not limited to:



  • Silk Road – long-distance trade route from China to Rome; products from the east such as spices and silk transported west, Roman ideas taken to their eastern provinces; Indian and Arabic traders act as middlemen and grow wealthy; promotion of cultural diffusion between regions that come into contact with each other including the spread of Buddhism to China from India

  • African Gold-Salt Trade – Arab and Berber traders took salt from the Sahara to West Africa in exchange for gold; African traders also crossed the Sahara to trade gold for salt in North Africa; cloth and weapons from Mediterranean ports taken to West Africa; powerful rulers in Ghana and Mali regulated the gold trade in West Africa 

CHANGES RESULTING FROM MONGOL INVASIONS OF RUSSIA, CHINA, AND ISLAMIC WORLD

Including, but not limited to:



  • Genghis Khan’s unification of the nomadic tribes in northeast Asia facilitated the eventually consolidation of a vast Eurasian empire

  • Russia

    • Fall of Kiev (1240)

    • Russian religion and culture permitted to continue as long as high tributes were paid; as a tribute state the practice of serfdom expands

    • Isolation from Western Europe prevents spread of new ideas and inventions

    • Moscow emerges as a major city

    • Ivan III assumes the title of czar and achieves a bloodless standoff at the Ugra River that leads to separation from the Mongols

  • China

    • Northern China conquered by Ögedei (Genghis Khan’s son) in 1234

    • Kublai Khan, completes the capture of southern China

    • China united for the first time in 300 years

    • Mongol control over Asia opens China to foreign contacts and trade (Marco Polo)

  • Islamic world

    • Hulagu (grandson of Genghis Khan) captures Baghdad and has over 10,000 people killed

    • End of Seljuk Turkish rule after the capture of the Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia

    • Poor administration of captured regions leads to dissolution of the Mongol Empire and rise of the Ottoman Turks

EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS

Including, but not limited to:



  • Trade in the Indian Ocean

    • Trade divided into an Arab zone, Indian zone and Chinese zone; thrived for years prior to the arrival of Europeans

    • Arab traders spread Islam to East Africa

    • Arab slavery trade along East African coast; later influences the European slavery trade

    • Piracy (both historic and contemporary)

    • European voyages of exploration bring spices from the East Indies and contribute to the Commercial Revolution in Europe

RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE

Including, but not limited to: 

Post-Classical Era (600-1450)


  • Many had religious motivations for participation in the Crusades.

  • Islam served as a cultural unifying force bringing together many ethnic groups.

  • Merchants convert to Islam to facilitate trade, which spread Arabic. In Africa Arabic mixes with Bantu to create Swahili.

THE INFLUENCE OF ISLAM ON LAW AND GOVERNMENT IN THE MUSLIM WORLD

Including, but not limited to:



  • Shari’a

  • Interpretation of Shari’a varies between Sunni and Shi’a sects of Islam as well as among individual adherents

ART, ARCHITECTURE, LITERATURE, MUSIC, DRAMA REFLECT HISTORY OF CULTURES

Including, but not limited to:


Post-Classical Era (600-1450)

  • Gothic cathedrals built several stories high were characterized by walls of windows (letting in the light of God) and flying buttresses outside to support the walls. This architectural style became popular after the 12th century in Europe and reflected the cultural influence of the Christianity.

  • Castles built as fortresses originally in Southeast Asia by Muslim conquerors was adopted as an architectural style in Europe during the post-classical era and reflected the influence of feudal warfare.

  • Illuminated manuscripts in which the first letter of the chapter was adorned artistically were produced by Christian monks working as scribes.

  • Arabesques geometric patterns and calligraphy mainly used in Islamic decoration reflected the prohibition within Islam of artistic renderings of human figures, especially Muhammad.

  • Mosques architecturally characterized by domes and minarets. Minarets reflected the influence of the call to pray five times a day.

  • Islamic poetry reflects the oral heritage of the nomadic Arab tribes, most famous of the Muslim poets is Rumi a 13th century Sufi mystic.

  • Islamic literature produced during the Abbasid Golden Age includes One Thousand and One Nights, a collection of stories from West and South Asia again reflecting the rich oral traditions of this region. Was later translated into English as The Arabian Nights.

  • Noh drama developed in Japan during the 13th century is characterized by musical drama with an emphasis on the interactions of the performers reflects the nature of eastern societies’’ emphasis on group cooperation.

  • Samurai armor and sword making reflected the influence of feudalism in Japan.

  • Chinese landscape paintings such as Strolling About in Spring and Dong Yuan’s Mountain Hall reflect the emphasis on harmony with nature that characterizes eastern traditions.

  • Stupas and pagodas as an architectural style reflect the influence of Buddhism in East Asia and the emphasis on harmony with nature.

ORIGIN AND DIFFUSION OF MAJOR IDEAS IN MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY THAT TOOK PLACE BETWEEN 700 AND 1200

Including, but not limited to:



  • Islamic caliphates

    • Baghdad – House of Wisdom preserves and translates scientific and medical documents into Arabic

    • Astrolabe

    • Algebra

    • Optics

  • Tang to Ming China

    • Tang and Song China

      • Porcelain

      • Movable type

      • Gunpowder

      • Mechanical clock

      • Paper money

      • Magnetic compass

    • Ming China

      • Spurred by contact with Europe, i.e., telescope

      • Trigonometry

      • Hydraulic powered devices for irrigation and agriculture

      • Snorkeling gear for pearl divers


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