Connectors that show cause:
On account of
As a result of the rain, we all got wet.
Since it rained, we all got wet.
Connectors that show effects:
For this reason,
It rained. As a result we all got wet.
Why Do We Lie?
As little children, most of us were taught the virtue of honesty through fairy tales and other stories. The story of Pinocchio, who begins life as a puppet, teaches us the importance of telling the truth. The boy who lied by “crying wolf” too many times lost all his sheep as well as the trust of his fellow villagers. There is a story that young George Washington cut down a cherry tree. From this story, American children learn that Washington earns his father’s praise only when he admits what he has done. Even though we know that “honesty is the best policy,” why do we often lie in our everyday lives? The fact is that for many reasons. Thesis (主旨句)
Thesis (主旨句)-------＞轉變成 3-4句(topic sentence主題句) 放在本文各段的第一句
We sometimes lie to minimize our mistakes (topic sentence主題句). While it is true that we all make blunders sometimes, some of us do not have the courage to admit them because we might be blamed for the errors. For example, students might lie to their teachers about unfinished homework. They might say that they left the work at home when, in fact, they did not even do the work. These students do not want to seem irresponsible, so they make up an excuse-a lie-to save face.
Another reason we lie is to get out of situations that we do not want to be in or cannot manage. For example, if we just do not want to attend the dorm meeting early on Saturday morning, we might give this excuse: “I have been fighting off a cold all week, and I need to sleep on Saturday morning. I will be sure to attend the next meeting.” This type of lie also occurs frequently in writing class. A student with weak writing skills sometimes asks a friend to write a composition for him or her. When the teacher confronts the student, the student almost always denies the accusation. When we do not want to admit the truth and then face the consequences, we use lies to avoid difficulties.
In contrast, we sometimes tell a white lie when we do not want to hurt someone else’s feelings. For example, if a good friend shows up with unflattering new haircut, we could be truthful and say, “The haircut looks awful. It does not suit you at all!” Instead, we are more likely to lie and say, “I like your haircut. It looks good on you,” and spare our friend’s feelings. These types of lies are generally not considered negative or wrong. In fact, many people who have told the truth to loved ones, only to see a negative reaction, wish they had told a white lie. Therefore, white lies can be useful in maintaining good relationships.
Similarly, we tell “protective lies” in order to help us get out of or avoid dangerous situations. Parents, particularly those with young children, may teach their children to use this type of lie in certain circumstances. What should children do if a stranger calls while the parents are out? Good parents have told their children to explain that Mom and Dad are too busy to come to the phone at that time. In this situation, protective lying may prevent harm or disaster.
People lie for many reasons, both good and bad. However, before we resort to lying to cover up mistakes or to avoid unpleasant situations, perhaps we should rethink our motives for lying. We never know when our lies might be exposed and cause us embarrassment or the loss of people’s trust.
For almost fifty years, the Cold War was one of the most talked about issues in politics. Tensions between NATO countries and the Soviet Union were high, and the world felt the potential danger of a disastrous conflict. When the Iron Curtain fell, many countries rejoiced. Independent-minded Soviet Republics got the independence they had wanted, and the communist ideology that had been so prevalent began to lose ground. More than ten years after the break-up of the Soviet Union, the effects are still being felt. Thesis (主旨句)
One of the most obvious changes in the post-communist world is the shift to a market economy. Governments that had normally subsidized prices for their consumers-for things like food, transportation, and housing and electricity- are now letting competition and external factors set prices. Inflation is high, and many citizens are having a difficult time adjusting to the fluctuations in prices based on supply and demand. However, imported goods are now commonplace in local markets, so consumers have more choices in what they buy. The switch to a market economy is often a painful process, but the citizens of the former soviet Union are still confident that they will one day benefit finally from the economic changes.
Another anticipated effect of the fall of the Iron Curtain is sovereignty. The Soviet Union existed as one entity for many years, but now one can count thirteen newly formed republics. These republics are currently in the process of shaping their own identities. They can focus on building their own cultures, languages, and priorities. This empowerment increases national pride and uniqueness. The idea of all Soviets being one and the same is now gone. National identity is at the forefront of many people’s minds.
While many former Soviets now feel a sense of national identity, the fall of the Soviet Union has taken away the identity of many others. Many ethnic groups have lived in this part of the world for generations. They were raised as Soviets, spoken Russians as a native language, and were taught to believe that they were citizens of the great superpower. Koreans, Tartars, Uighurs, and others can be found in most of the former Soviet Republics. Now that independence has spread from Eastern Europe to Central Asia, many of these citizens are considered minority groups. They do not want to be repatriated to distant lands such as North Korea or China. While they look like Korean or Chinese, they do not speak the languages and have not had ties with these parts of the world for many years. As the newly formed republics try to reinvigorate their traditions and values, many of the ethnic minorities tend to feel left out with no place to really call home.
The fall of the Soviet Union is perhaps one of the most momentous events of the twentieth Century. Walls fell, markets opened, and people rejoiced in the streets, anticipating a life full of opportunities and freedom to make their own choices. A system that took so long to build will probably need as much time, if not more, to truly adapt to the free enterprise system that is now the world model.
Success in College (寫5段500字)
I. 第一段: Introduction (100 words): Background information, Thesis (主旨句)
Some College students always believed the myth, “We can play whatever we like during the four years.” However, I think this idea is totally wrong. In the four years of college, we should study very hard because we study at the field of humanity. If we are not an outstanding student in foreign languages, we will become a loser and will be very hard to find a good job after we graduated. …………………………
Thesis (主旨句): College’s success can be influenced by three factors, interest, goal and perseverance.
II. Body (本文)---------3 paragraphs, 300 words
Topic Sentence (主題句)
1. 第2段 When we are interested in particular subject, we will involve in it completely. 100 words(在大學時代曾經修過最有興趣的科目，自己如何全心投入 最後獲得高分)
2. 第3段We will concentrate our mind more easily when we are pursuing a specific object. 100 words (在大學時代，自己的學術目標?工作目標?妳是如何在準備的???)
3. 第4段 With continued effort and determination, we can overcome many difficulties. 100 words (在大學時代，自己有多用功，碰到挫折如何面對?如被老師退件用什麼心態面對???)
III. 第5段Conclusion: 100 words (不能提新的論點; 只能把以前提過的重要論點 作摘要式的陳述 及強調)
I have explored how to succeed in college. Although there are many factors leading to college’s success, I think the following three factors are most significant……………