Catapult Project Background



Download 57.31 Kb.
Date conversion21.02.2016
Size57.31 Kb.
Catapult Project



Background: Throughout the history of the world, humankind has endured numerous destructive wars. While war was never a desirable choice for civilizations, societies have always felt compelled to be prepared for an attack. This constant pursuit of preparedness has produced numerous technological advances. One such innovation was the catapult.

Ancient Greeks and Romans were the first to perfect this device. Their catapults were capable of throwing a 60-pound rock further than the distance of five football fields. It took great ingenuity and skill to design and build a device that harnessed such a tremendous amount of energy.

Modern catapults are based upon design principles derived from the early Greek and Roman catapults. For example, the massive steam catapults used to launch aircraft from carriers at sea are adaptations of these principles. By providing a rapid controlled energy source and the right angle of launch, objects can be thrown long distances with amazing accuracy.
CHALLENGE:

Beginner Research and model a historical catapult that is capable of launching a marshmallow at least 10 meters.
NEXT LEVEL Research and construct a model of a working catapult. Your design must be able to launch a load (marshmallow) from a tabletop onto a 600 mm diameter target (box) placed at least three (3) meters away on the floor.
LOOK OUT! Research, design and construct a catapult that will launch various loads (pennies, etc.) from a table top into a 15cm diameter container located five (5) meters away on the floor.
MATERIALS:

 Cardboard, paper - various weights

 Rulers/Tape measures

 Weights if necessary for your type of catapult

 Rubber bands

 Kite string

 Scissors, glue,

 Protractors

Compass
CRITERIA: Your success on this Challenge will be based on your completion of the activities below. Three general criteria for your performance will be: your participation in the activity; the accuracy of your measurement and model construction; and the performance of your design. A rubric will be provided to guide you through the development process.
BEGINNER

 Locate and document several examples of catapults from the past.

 Write a brief paragraph that summarizes the historical contribution(s) to civilizations that catapults provided.

 Choose a historical catapult model; develop an explanation of the mechanics of its operation.

 Construct a working model of the selected catapult using only the materials provided; include sketches and drawings.

 Test and present your design.


NEXT LEVEL

 Research catapults and other war machines from the past.

 Summarize the history and mechanics of a specific catapult.

 Construct a working model of the chosen catapult using only the materials provided; be sure to include sketches and drawings.

 Conduct tests to acquire Performance Data (range and accuracy); chart results.

 Test the accuracy of the design; predict the range and accuracy of the toss.

 Present your design.
LOOK OUT

 Research catapults and other war machines from the past.

 Summarize the history and mechanics of different catapults.

 Develop a design that provides an adjustable angle of launch and a triggering mechanism.

 Construct a working model of the chosen catapult using only the materials and specifications provided; be sure to include sketches and drawings.

 Conduct tests to acquire Performance Data (maximum height of launch, maximum range and accuracy); chart the results.

 Use the Performance Data to predict the distance of each launch; compare the prediction to actual results.

 Present your design.



Books


623 Gra Eyewitness Castle (contains pictures and descriptions of medieval siege

weapons including catapults and trebuchets)

623 Ric Weapons: Designing the Tools of War (use index at back to

look up catapults)

623.409 DeV Medieval Weapons: An Illustrated History of Their Impact (use

index at back to look up catapults and trebuchets)

R 608 Wor World of Invention: History’s Most Significant Inventions and People Behind Them\ (use index at back to look up catapults)

R 603 IL How It Works: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Science and Technology: volume 4 (discusses steam catapults)


Internet Sites

http://www.howstuffworks.com/question127.htm



Great site – Includes information on force, power, torque, and energy of catapults; how to build a catapult, physics of the trebuchet,

algorithmic beauty of the catapult; and more

http://apphysicsb.homestead.com/catapult.html



Another excellent, comprehensive site – includes links to information about how a catapult works, how to build one, trebuchet physics, the

history of the trebuchet, war engines of the middle ages, catapults, catapult simulation, etc.

http://www.stormthecastle.com/trebuchet/how-to-build-a-trebuchet.htm Plans and pictures on how to build a medieval trebuchet

http://howtomakeatrebuchet.com/blog/ Good site with details about how to build the various parts of a trebuchet

http://tuhsphysics.ttsd.k12.or.us/Research/IB05/AsaiGrafPete/index.htm



Contains a physics experiment regarding the manipulation of arm length on a catapult, with photos and links to helpful, additional

resources

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/02/0205_040205_catapults.html



Contains information on the history and historical uses of catapults as well as some discussion about mathematical principles applied to

catapult construction

http://depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/miltech/catapult.htm



Contains information on different types of catapults with diagrams

http://members.iinet.net.au/~rmine/gctrebs.html#danes



Contains everything you could want to know about medieval trebuchets

http://www.instructables.com/id/The-Office-supplies-trebuchet/



How to build a trebuchet with office supplies

http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-Make-a-Medieval-Trebuchet-Out-of-Cardboard/



How to build a trebuchet out of cardboard

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/lostempires/trebuchet/builds.html NOVA builds a trebuchet video


GAMES

http://www.globalspec.com/trebuchet/ The Treb Challenge – Custom build your trebuchet to take on three separate challenges: distance, accuracy, and power

http://science.discovery.com/tv-shows/punkin-chunkin/
Beginner – Highest possible grade = C

Beginner

Unsatisfactory (Grade range: F)

Satisfactory (Grade range: D – C)

Exemplary (Grade range: B – A)

Research - historical contributions

-Student used single resource to find information.

-Didn’t cite resources. -One type of catapult listed. -Less than a paragraph of information. -Information hand written.



-Students used multiple resources and cited. -Information encompassed a paragraph. -Two catapults listed.

-Information hand written or typed with errors.



-Student used multiple resources from multiple media sources and

cited each source. -More than 2 types of catapults listed. -Written information exceeds a paragraph, is typed, has a title

page and is grammatically correct.


Catapult Explanation

- mechanics of operation



-Student turns in no explanation of mechanics of chosen

catapult.



-Student turns in incomplete explanation of mechanics of

chosen catapult.

-Explanation is handwritten


-Student turns in explanation of mechanics of chosen catapult.

-Student demonstrates correlation of explanation to working model.

-Explanations are typed


Design Explanations

– sketches and drawings



-No sketches are provided

-Sketches are provided but are not accurate.

-Accurate and updated sketches are provided.

-Model is an accurate representation of initial sketch.



Test and Presentation

-Student does not test catapult or present to the class

-Student tests or presents catapult to the class

-Student tests and presents catapult to the class.



Next Level – Highest possible grade = B

Next Level

Unsatisfactory (Grade range: F)

Satisfactory (Grade range: D – C)

Exemplary (Grade range: B – A)

Research

- historical contributions - mechanics



-Student used single resource to find information.

-Didn’t cite resources.

-One type of catapult listed.

-Less than a page of information.

-Student turns in little or no explanation of mechanics

of chosen catapult.

-Information is hand written.


-Students used multiple resources and cited.

-Information encompassed at least a page.

-At least two catapults listed.

-Student turns in explanation of mechanics of chosen catapult.

-Explanation is handwritten or typed errors.


-Student used multiple resources from multiple medias.

-Cited each sources.

-More than 2 types of catapults listed.

- Included explanation of mechanics of chosen catapult.

-Student demonstrated correlation of explanation to working model.

-Written information exceeds one page, is typed, has a title page and is grammatically correct.



Working Model

-Student had incomplete working model or could not have

repeated attempts.

-No sketches are provided


-Student’s model worked.

-Sketches are provided but are not accurate.



-Student’s model worked with ability to have multiple attempts.

-Accurate and updated sketches are provided.

-Model is an accurate representation of initial sketch.


Performance Data Collection – Accuracy and Range

-Performance tests are conducted but not recorded

-Multiple performance tests are conducted and recorded for range or accuracy.

-Multiple performance tests are conducted and recorded for both range and accuracy.

Performance Tests – Accuracy and Range

-Does not do accuracy tests.

-Accuracy tests are done but data is not accurately taken

or is not displayed neatly.



-Predictions and tests are done for toss range and accuracy.

-Data is recorded accurately and neatly.



Presentation

-Students does not present design to class

-Students presents design to class

-Student presents and thoroughly


Look Out – Highest possible grade = A

Look Out

Unsatisfactory (Grade range: F)

Satisfactory (Grade range: D – C)

Exemplary (Grade range: B – A)

Research

- historical contributions - mechanics



-Student used single resource to find information.

-Didn’t cite resources.

-One type of catapult listed.

-Less than 2 pages of information.

-Information hand written.


-Student used multiple resources and cited.

-Information encompassed 2 pages.

-Two catapults listed.

-Information hand written or typed with errors.



-Student used multiple resources from multiple media sources.

-Cited each source.

-More than 2 types of catapults listed.

-Written information exceeds 2 pages, is typed, has a title page and is grammatically correct.



Model Design

-No design depicting adjustable angle launch or triggering mechanism

-Design for adjustable angle launch and/or triggering mechanism

given but not used on actual working model



-Design for adjustable angle launch and triggering mechanism is given and is used as shown on working model.

Working Model

-Student had incomplete working model or could not have

repeated attempts.

-No sketches are provided


-Student’s model worked.

-Sketches are provided but are not accurate.



-Student’s model worked with ability to change range.

-Accurate and updated sketches are provided.

-Model is an accurate representation of initial sketch.


Performance Data Collection – Accuracy, Range, Height

-Performance tests are not completed.

-Some performance tests are completed but data is not

accurately taken or is not displayed neatly.



-Performance tests are completed and acquired data for toss

range, height, and accuracy.

-Data is recorded accurately and neatly.


Performance Predictions Tests – Accuracy, Range, Height

-Students failed to use performance test data to predict

accuracy, range, and height of tosses.



-Students used performance test data but results did not match

for some tests.



-Students used performance test data and achieved matching

results for accuracy, range, and height.



Presentation

-Students does not present design to class

-Students presents design to class

-Student presents and thoroughly explains design elements of

catapult to the class.




The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page