|CAST 305: Feminist Research Methodologies
TTH 3:00-4:15, King 327
Office: Rice 112
Office Hours: M: 2-4; T & Th: 11-12; and by appointment
*** This course fulfills a GSFS major requirement ***
This interdisciplinary course traces the historical and dialectical impact of feminist epistemologies on research methodologies and methods. The factors that make research distinctly feminist lie in the complex connections between epistemologies, methodologies and research methods. We will consider the distinguishing features of feminist research such as the significance of gender and sexuality as category of analysis, intersectionality as a research framework, reflexivity in research methods, the challenge to objectivity, and the connections between research and social justice agendas. This course takes an interdisciplinary approach to the study of gender and sexuality as these factors intersect with other core axes of identity such as race, class, ethnicity, and nation. A key concern for this class, then, will be to explore conceptual and practical issues related to interdisciplinarity. What are the merits and/or limitations of interdisciplinary research? How do you do such research? In asking such questions, this course will address in depth some of the central ethical and activist concerns for feminist scholars surrounding the generation, control, and use of information. Finally, we will examine feminist approaches to research practices, including oral history, case studies, archival research, visual and literary criticism, survey/content analysis, and fieldwork.
To think critically about the relationship between epistemology, methodology, and methods
To be able to distinguish how different feminist epistemologies and methods produce different knowledges
To understand ethical issues and power relations in social research, especially in relation to race, class, gender, and sexuality
To articulate the role of critical interdisciplinary studies in feminist research
To link theories of intersectionality to research design and feminist methodology
To gain greater facility in designing a feasible research question
To enhance skills in understanding and assessing existing research
*Booth, Wayne C., et al. The Craft of Research, 2nd Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.
* All Articles listed on schedule can be located on Blackboard (BB) under Course Articles.
I - PREPARATION, ATTENDANCE, & PARTICIPATION:
The class requires your thoughtful and continuous participation; therefore, regular attendance is mandatory. More than two unexcused absences typically result in a lower final grade. Attendance in class, however, does not constitute participation. The class is designed around discussions of assigned readings and part of your grade is based on participation. In order for the course to be effective, you must come to class having carefully read all material and be prepared to discuss, question, argue, and perhaps rethink issues raised in the readings. I welcome substantive and vigorous debates but these must be based on careful listening and thoughtful responses. It would be beneficial for you to take notes on any material that you find enlightening, controversial, or objectionable.
Note – Even though there are no required texts for this class, except for Booth, I expect you to be ready to discuss the readings in depth. Therefore, you must either bring a paper copy of each article, or a laptop with downloads, or good notes with you to class each day.
Classroom Etiquette: Please arrive a few minutes early so that we may start class on time. Turn off all cell phones. No texting. Laptops are great for consulting readings and note taking, but I take great exception to people who use class time to check email, surf the web, or engage in any social networking sites.
II- WRITTEN ASSIGNMENTS
This writing intensive class is designed not only to explore a variety of feminist methods as well as to develop critical reading, writing, and analytical skills. Therefore, assignments address the methodological, ethical, and logistical issues necessary to bring an original research project to fruition.
ALL ASSIGNMENT DUE DATES ARE FIRM DEADLINES
1) Research Journal, Due October 15 and December 18
Throughout the semester, please keep a research journal. This can take the form of notes, ideas, bibliographic and URL citations, quotes and data from readings etc. Several times in the semester, I will ask you to bring your journal to class for in-class assignments. Journals will be graded pass/fail. I will collect and review the journals over fall break and again at the end of the semester (due with final project).
2) In-Class Mid-term, October 15
This exam will be an in-class integrative/analytical essay based on the assigned readings. Essay questions will be distributed the previous Tuesday in class.
3) Statement of Ethical Intent, 5 pages, Due November 172
Write a statement of ethical intent for your topic that could be submitted to an IRB committee. This statement should include a brief summary of the proposed research but primarily you should discuss your plans for ensuring confidentiality, the process of securing informed consent, potential harm and/or benefits of this research, and any conflict of interest related to your chosen topic. You must also attach a consent form.
If your research topic is based in the humanities and does not raise ethical considerations, I will assign an alternative project.
4) Research Project, 10-12 pages
The primary work of the semester will be to design and write a research proposal.
The objectives of this assignment are threefold: 1) to learn how to identify and refine an interdisciplinary research question; 2) to explore the range of materials available in order to gain an understanding of the types of resources that are most appropriate for a given research project; 3) to foster critical thinking about feminist research methodologies. Be sure to select a project that builds on your individual interests and knowledge. You must consult with me early on about your project.
The different components of this assignment address the main steps required in the research process, including formulating a thesis, creating a research strategy that uses various sources, and integrating these materials within a critical framework.
Topic Proposal, 1 page, P/NP. Due September 15 in class.
Identify a topic of interest to you and explain the reasons for that interest (which may be a combination of academic, social, political and/or personal issues). Because this topic will be the foundation for all future assignments, you will not be permitted to change your topic. Therefore, choose a topic that will hold your attention for the semester.
Research Question, 1-2 pages. Due September 22 in class.
A research question explicitly and succinctly states the issue(s) and/or questions that your research will explore. Identify your research question and explain why it is worthy of research. Finally, identify two disciplinary or interdisciplinary areas of secondary literature that you plan to review for this project.
Literature Review, 5-7 pages. Due November 3 in class.
Write a review of the current scholarship on your research question. What are the debates on this question? Consider how epistemological assumptions shape the research process and the production of knowledge. How do different approaches to the topic clarify or challenge the assumptions underlying the research question? What are the methodological strengths and/or gaps in this research? How can your project build on, enhance, and/or modify the existing research?
Methodological Plan, 1-2 pages. Due November 24 in class.
Which methods are most appropriate for your research and why? You should include both a discussion of your methodological approach and an explanation of the methods you will use.
Presentation, 10 minutes, P/NP.
Each of you will have 10 minutes to present your research proposal to the class. This oral presentation is an opportunity for you to reflect on your learning about feminist research theory and practice as you developed your proposal. Your presentation should include a brief overview of your proposal but plan to focus on the intellectual and practical challenges you faced during the process.
Final Project, Due December 18, by 9:00 pm to Rice 112
This final project should be 10-12 pages, double-spaced typed pages, fully referenced with footnotes and bibliographic references.
The paper should include 1) an abstract 2) an introduction that explains the research question, and why it is important or relevant to current scholarship; 3) a literature review; and 4) your research plan. This plan should also include an explanation of how you will advance this research through future data gathering and analysis.
ALL PAPERS MUST BE TYPED OR PRINTED: Papers should be stapled, double-spaced, using 12-point type, and include page numbers.
Class participation 15%
Research Journal 5%
Statement of Ethical Intent 10%
In-class Midterm 25%
Research Proposal 45%
(15% of the grade will be the preliminary papers)
LATE WORK: All assignments must be completed on time. Papers not turned in on that date will be penalized in grading and may not receive written comments.
P/NP: Students opting for this grading system must complete all assignments to receive credit.
ACADEMIC INCOMPLETES at the end of the semester will not be given except in the case of emergency. You must get approval from me at least 48 hours before the deadline.
HONOR CODE: This course adheres to the policies of the Oberlin College Honor Code which applies to all work submitted for academic credit, whether it is a creative project, a quiz, an exam or a paper. For quizzes and exams, this means you must complete the assignment independently of other students. For papers, you must cite all written sources that you consulted, whether you quote directly or paraphrase. This is true whether you are using electronic or printed materials. Incomplete or improper citations are a form of plagiarism. If you are unfamiliar with proper citation formats, or have questions please consult me, a reference librarian, a writing tutor and/or a style manual. Lack of familiarity with proper procedures is not a defense.
At the end of each academic exercise, students shall write in full and sign the Honor Pledge: “I affirm that I have adhered to the Honor Code in this assignment.” See Oberlin Honor Code, www.oberlin.edu/students/student_pages/honor_code2.html, for more information.
Students with Disabilities: If you need disability–related accommodations for your work in this class, please let me know. Support is available through Student Academic Series. Contact Jane Boomer, Coordinator of Services for Students with Disabilities for assistance in developing a plan to address your academic needs.
Unit 1: Feminist Epistemology:
Theories of Knowledge: or who can know what and how do we know it?
9/3 Critical Perspectives on Knowledge
Reading: Foucault, History of Sexuality (BB); Hall, “Foucault and Discourse” (BB); Rosaldo, “Grief and A Headhunter’s Rage” (BB)
9/8 Feminist Critiques of Epistemology
Reading: Ramazanoglu, Feminist Methodology (BB); Mohanty, “Under Western Eyes” (BB); Allen, “Kochinnenako in Academe” (BB)
9/10 Intersectional Approaches to Feminist Epistemology
Reading: Hesse-Biber and Yaiser, “Difference Matters” (BB); Smith, “Research through Imperial Eyes” (BB); Garland-Thomas, “Integrating Disability” (BB)
9/15 Research Lab: Bring Research Journal
Reading: Craft of Research, 3-33, 75-107.
Topic Proposal Due
9/17 Feminist Standpoint Theory
Reading: Harding, “Rethinking Standpoint Epistemology” (BB); Collins, “Black Feminist Epistemology” (BB); Narayan, “Project of Feminist Epistemology” (BB)
9/22 Feminist Poststructuralist Theories
Reading: Butler, “Performative Acts” (BB); Haraway, “Situated Knowledges,” (BB)
Research Question Due
Unit 2: Methodology
9/24 Questioning Experience
Reading: Scott, “The Evidence of Experience” (BB); Mohanty, “Feminist Encounters” (BB); Aguilar-San Juan, “Going Home” (BB).
9/29 Subjectivity, Objectivity and Location
Reading: Khan, “Reconfiguring the Native Informant” (BB); Lal, “Situating Locations” (BB)
10/1 Subjectivity, Objectivity, and Location
Reading: Alcoff, “The Problem of Speaking for Others” (BB); Zavella, “Feminist Insider Dilemma” (BB); Craft of Research, 37-74.
10/6 Participatory Action Research and Ethics
Reading: “Barazangi, “Understanding Muslim Women,” Brabeck, “Testimonio”, and McIntyre and Lykes, “Wearing Words and Pictures,” all in Traveling Companions, 21-77 (BB)
10/8 Political and Ethical Issues
Reading: Halsey and Honey, “Unraveling Ethics” (BB)
Read 2 of the following Ethics Codes for ASA, APA, AHA, and AAA
*American Sociological Association. “Ethics.” Download from: http://www.asanet.org/page.ww?section=Ethics&name=Ethics
*American Anthropological Association, “Code of Ethics,” Sections 1-3. Download from: http://www.aaanet.org/committees/ethics/ethcode.htm
*American Historical Association, “Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct,” Sections 104. Download from: http://www.historians.org/pubs/Free/ProfessionalStandards.cfm
10/13 Literature Reviews
Reading: Arondekar, “The Voyage Out,” (BB); Hyun Yi Kang, “Feminist Studies of Asian American Literary/Cultural Studies,” (BB); Craft of Research, 111-181
In addition, read handout on literature reviews from University of Toronto (see link on BB).
10/15 In-class Midterm
10/20& 10/222 ***** Fall Break *****
Unit 3: Methods: Techniques for Gathering Research Material
10/27 Research Strategies
Reading: Hesse-Biber and Leckenby, “How Feminists Practice Social Research” (BB); Kaomea, “Dilemmas of an Indigenous Academic,” (BB) Yescavage and Alexander, “Muddying the Waters” (BB)
10/29 Interview Methodologies
Reading: Errante, “But Sometimes You’re Not Part of the Story” (BB); Borland, “That’s Not What I Said” (BB); Presser, “Negotiating Power and Narrative in Research” (BB)?
11/3 Interview Methodologies
Reading: White, “Talking about Sex and HIV” (BB); Riessman, Narrative Analysis (BB)
Literature Review Due
Reading: Schutt, “Survey Research” (BB); Rochlin, “Heterosexism in Research” (BB); Skolnik and Anonymous, “Privileges Held by Non-Transpeople” (BB)
Meet in small groups to design and conduct a brief survey
11/10 Focus Groups and In-depth Interviewing
Reading: Wilkerson, “Focus Groups” (BB); Anderson and Umberson,“ Gendering Violence” (BB)
11/12 Discourse Analysis
Reading: Rose, “Discourse Analysis I” (BB)
Statement of Ethical Intent Due
11/17 Discourse Analysis
Reading: Espinosa-Dulanto, “Silent Screams,” (BB) Solis, “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” (BB); “Somerville, “ Scientific Racism and the Invention of the Homosexual Body” (BB)
11/19 Multiple Methods Research
Reading: Jayaratne and Stewart, “Quantitative and Qualitative Methods” (BB); Adler, “Multiple Layers of a Researcher’s Identity” (BB); Manuelito, “An Indigenous Perspective on Self-Determination” (BB)
11/24 Writing and Analysis
Reading: Craft of Research: 183-240
Methodological Plan Due
11/26 THANKSGIVING – no class
12/1 Writing Workshop Bring in 200-word abstract of your project
Reading: Social Science Research Council, “The Art of Writing Proposals,” download from: http://www.ssrc.org/fellowships/art_of_writing_proposals.page
Reading: Craft of Research, 263-282.
FINAL PROJECT DUE FRIDAY, DECEMBER 18 NO LATER THAN 9pm.
ARTICLES on BLACKBOARD
Aguilar-San Juan, Karen. “Going Home: Enacting Justice in Queer Asian America.” In Feminist Theory Reader, eds. C. R. McCann and S-Y. Kim, 267-276. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Alcoff, Linda. “The Problem of Speaking for Others.” In Just Methods: An Interdisciplinary Feminist Reader, ed. A. Jaggar, 484-495. Boulder, CO: Praeger, 2008.
Allen, Paula Gunn. “Kochinnenako in Academe: Three Approaches to Interpreting a Keres Indian Tale.” In Just Methods: An Interdisciplinary Feminist Reader, ed. A. Jaggar, 21-33. Boulder, CO: Praeger, 2008.
Anderson, Kristin L. and Debra Umberson. “Gendering Violence: Masculinity and Power in Men’s Accounts of Domestic Violence.” In Feminist Perspectives on Social Research, ed. S. Hesse-Biber and M. Yaiser, 251-270. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Arondekar, Anjali. “The Voyage Out: Transacting Sex under Globalization.” Feminist Studies 33. 2 (Summer2007): 337-349.
Barazangi, Nimat Hafez. “Understanding Muslim Women’s Self-Identity and Resistance to Feminism and Participatory Action Research.” In Traveling Companions: Feminism, Teaching, and Action Research, eds. M. Brydon-Miller, P. Maguire, and A. McIntyre, 21-40. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
Borland, Katherine. “That’s Not What I Said: Interpretive Conflict in Oral Narrative Research.” In Women’s Words: The Feminist Practice of Oral History, eds. Sherna Berger Gluck and Daphne Patai, 63-75. New York: Routledge, 1991.
Brabeck, Kalina. “Testimonio: Bridging Feminist and Participatory Action Research Principles to Create New Spaces of Collectivity.” In Traveling Companions: Feminism, Teaching, and Action Research, eds. M. Brydon-Miller, P. Maguire, and A. McIntyre, 41-54. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
Butler, Judith. "Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory." In The Second Wave: A Reader in Feminist Theory, ed. Linda Nicholson, 415-427. New York: Routledge, 1997.
Collins, Patricia Hill. “Black Feminist Epistemology.” In Just Methods: An Interdisciplinary Feminist Reader, ed. A. Jaggar, 247-256. Boulder, CO: Praeger, 2008.
Errante, Antoinette. “But Sometimes You are Not Part of the Story: Oral Histories and Ways of Remembering and Telling.” In Feminist Perspectives on Social Research, ed. S. Hesse-Biber and M. Yaiser, 411-434. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Espinosa-Dulanto, Miryam. “Silent Screams: Deconstructing (Academia) the Insider/Outsider Indigenous Researcher Positionalities.” In Decolonizing Research in Cross-Cultural Contexts: Critical Personal Narratives, ed. K. Muta and B. Swadener, 45-52. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2004.
Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality, vol. 1. New York: Vintage, 1990, 17-35, 77-114.
Garland-Thomson, Rosemarie. “Integrating Disability, Transforming Feminist Theory.” In Feminist Theory: A Reader, eds. W. K. Kolmar & F. Bartkowski, 575-586. Second Edition. Toronto: McGraw Hill, 2005.
Hall, Stuart. “Foucault and Discourse.” In Social Research Methods: A Reader, ed. C. Seale, 345-349. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Halsey, Christine and Anne Honey. “Unraveling Ethics: Illuminating the Moral Dilemmas in Research Ethics.” Signs 30, 4 (Summer 2005): 2141-2162.
Haraway, Donna. “Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective.” In Feminist Theory Reader, eds. C. R. McCann and S-Y. Kim, 391-403. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Harding Sandra. “Borderlands Epistemologies.” In Just Methods: An Interdisciplinary Feminist Reader, ed. A. Jaggar, 331-341. Boulder, CO: Praeger, 2008.
Hesse-Biber, Sharlene N. and Michelle L. Yaiser. “Difference Matters: Studying Across Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality.” In Feminist Perspectives on Social Research, ed. S. Hesse-Biber and M. Yaiser, 101-120. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Hesse-Biber, Sharlene N. and Denise Leckenby. “How Feminists Practice Social Research.” In Feminist Perspectives on Social Research, ed. S. Hesse-Biber and M. Yaiser, 209-226. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Hyun Yi Kang, Laura. “Feminist Studies of Asian American Literary/Cultural Studies.” Feminist Studies, 33 3 (Fall 2007): 518-538.
Jayaratne, Toby E. and Abigail J. Stewart. “Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in the Social Sciences: Current Feminist Issues and Practical Strategies.” In Just Methods: An Interdisciplinary Feminist Reader, ed. A. Jaggar, 44-57. Boulder, CO: Praeger, 2008.
Kaomea, Julie. “Dilemmas of an Indigenous Academic: A Native Hawaiian Story.” In Decolonizing Research in Cross-Cultural Contexts, eds. K. Mutua and B Swadener, 27-43. Albany: State University of New York, 2004.
Khan, Shahnaz. “Reconfiguring the Native Informant: Positionality in the Global Age.” Signs 30, 4 (Summer 2005): 2017-2036.
Lal, Jayati. “Situating Locations: The Politics of Self, Identity, and ‘Other’ in Living and Writing the Text.” In Feminist Approaches to Theory and Methodology, eds. S. Hesse-Biber, et al, 100-137. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Manuelito, Kathryn. “An Indigenous Perspective on Self-Determination.” In Decolonizing Research in Cross-Cultural Contexts: Critical Personal Narratives, ed. K. Muta and B. Swadener, 235-262. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2004.
McIntyre, Alice and M. Brinton Lykes. “Wearing Words and Pictures in/through Feminist Participatory Action Research.” In Traveling Companions: Feminism, Teaching, and Action Research, eds. M. Brydon-Miller, P. Maguire, and A. McIntyre, 57-78. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
Mohanty, Chandra Talpade. “Feminist Encounters: Locating the Politics of Experience.” In Feminist Theory Reader, eds. C. R. McCann and S-Y. Kim, 460-471. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Mohanty, Chandra Talpade. “Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses.” In Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism, ed. C. Mohanty et al., 51-80. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.
Narayan, Uma. “The Project of Feminist Epistemology: Perspectives from a Non-Western Feminist.” In Feminist Theory Reader, eds. C. R. McCann and S-Y. Kim, 308-317. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Presser, Lois. “Negotiating Power and Narrative in Research: Implications for Feminist Methodology.” Signs 30, 4 (Summer 2005): 2067-2090.
Ramazanoglu, Caroline. Feminist Methodology: Challenges and Choices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2002, 1-20.
Riessman, Catherine K. Narrative Analysis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1993, 8-15.
Rochlin, Martin. “Heterosexism in Research: The Heterosexual Questionnaire.” In Gender & Sexuality: The New Basics. Eds. A Ferber, K. Holcomb, and T. Wentling, 299-300. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Rosaldo, Renato. “Grief and a Headhunter’s Rage.” In Social Research Methods: A Reader, ed. C. Seale, 395-400. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Rose, Gillian. “Discourse Analysis I: Text, Intertextuality and Context,” Visual Methodologies, 135-163. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001.
Schutt, Russell. “Survey Research,” In Investigating the Social World: The Process and Practice of Research, 2nd edition, 229-272. Newbury Park, CA: Pine Forge Press, 1999.
Scott, Joan W. “The Evidence of Experience.” In Feminist Approaches to Theory and Methodology, ed. S. Hesser-Biber et al, 79-99. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Skolnik, Avy and Anonymous. “Privileges Held by Non-Trans People.” In Gender & Sexuality: The New Basics. Eds. A Ferber, K. Holcomb, and T. Wentling, 300-301. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Smith, Linda Tuhiwai. “Research through Imperial Eyes.” In Just Methods: An Interdisciplinary Feminist Reader, ed. A. Jaggar, 382-398. Boulder, CO: Praeger, 2008.
Solis, Santiago. “Snow White and the Seven ‘Dwarfs’ – Queercripped.” In Gender & Sexuality: The New Basics. Eds. A Ferber, K. Holcomb, and T. Wentling, 351-360. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Somerville, Siobhan. “Scientific Racism and the Invention of the Homosexual Body.” In Gender & Sexuality: The New Basics. Eds. A Ferber, K. Holcomb, and T. Wentling, 284-298. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
White, Renee T. “Talking about Sex and HIV: Conceptualizing a New Sociology of Experience.” In Just Methods: An Interdisciplinary Feminist Reader, ed. A. Jaggar, 282-290. Boulder, CO: Praeger, 2008.
Wilkinson, Sue. “Focus Groups: A Feminist Method.” In Feminist Perspectives on Social Research, ed. S. Hesse-Biber and M. Yaiser, 271-295. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Zavella, Patricia. “Feminist Insider Dilemmas: Constructing Ethnic Identity with Chicana Informants.” In Feminist Dilemmas in Fieldwork, ed. D. Wolf, 138-159. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1996.
Yescavage, Karen and Jonathan Alexander. “Muddying the Waters: Constructions of Sexuality, Gender, and Sex in Cross-Cultural Perspective.” In Gender & Sexuality: The New Basics. Eds. A Ferber, K. Holcomb, and T. Wentling, 21-31. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
BOOKS ON RESERVE
Booth, Wayne C., Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams. The Craft of Research, 2nd ed.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003. Dei, George J. Sefa and Gurpreet Singh Johal, eds. Critical Issues in Anti-Racist Research
Methodologies. New York: Peter Lang, 2005.
Hesse-Biber, Sharlene Nagy and M. Yaiser Feminist Perspectives on Social Research. New
York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Hesse-Biber, Sharlene Nagy and Patricia Lina Leavy. Feminist Research Practice: A Primer.
Thousand Oaks: SAGE, 2007.
Naples, Nancy A. Feminism and Method: Ethnography, Discourse Analysis, and Activist
Research. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Ramazanoglu, Caroline with Janet Holland. Feminist Methodology: Challenges and Choices.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2002.
Rose, Gillian. Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001.
Skinner, Tina, Marianne Hester and Ellen Malos, eds. Researching Gender Violence: Feminist
Methodology in Action. Portland, Or.: Willan, 2005.