Canadian and World Politics



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P
Course Profiles
ublic District School Board Writing Partnership

Canadian and World Studies



Course Profile

Canadian and World Politics
Grade 12

University Preparation

CPW4U

for teachers by teachers

This sample course of study was prepared for teachers to use in meeting local classroom
needs, as appropriate. This is not a mandated approach to the teaching of the course.

It may be used in its entirety, in part, or adapted.


Course Profiles are professional development materials designed to help teachers implement the new Grade 12 secondary school curriculum. These materials were created by writing partnerships of school boards and subject associations. The development of these resources was funded by the Ontario Ministry of Education. This document reflects the views of the developers and not necessarily those of the Ministry. Permission is given to reproduce these materials for any purpose except profit. Teachers are also encouraged to amend, revise, edit, cut, paste, and otherwise adapt this material for educational purposes.


Any references in this document to particular commercial resources, learning materials, equipment, or technology reflect only the opinions of the writers of this sample Course Profile, and do not reflect any official endorsement by the Ministry of Education or by the Partnership of School Boards that supported the production of the document.
© Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2002

Acknowledgments


Public District School Board Writing Team – Grade 12, Canadian and World Politics
Lead Board

Toronto District School Board


Project Leader

Allan Hux, Toronto District School Board


Writing Team

Bernie Rubinstein, Toronto District School Board - retired

Dick Holland, Toronto District School Board

Peter Flaherty, Toronto District School Board


Reviewers

Peter MacKenzie, Toronto District School Board

Ann Louise Stevenson, Toronto District School Board

Nora Allingham, Toronto District School Board

Karen Smulevitch, Toronto District School Board

Colin Mooers, Ryerson University

Jill Goodreau, Toronto District School Board

David Ast, Toronto District School Board


Course Overview

Canadian and World Politics, CPW4U, Grade 12, University Preparation

Policy Document: The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 11 and 12, Canadian and World Studies, 2000.

Prerequisite: Any University or University/College Preparation course in
Canadian and World Studies, English, or Social Sciences and Humanities

Course Description


Students examine national and international political issues from a variety of perspectives. Students learn about the rights and responsibilities of individuals, groups, and states within the international community, analyse the different ways in which Canada tries to settle its conflicts with other nations, and evaluate the role of nationalist and internationalist ideologies in shaping relations among states.

Course Notes


Students are becoming increasingly aware of their global connections. The media shows international events and issues as they happen. Our ‘fireproof house’ is no longer part of the Canadian mentality. Isolation is not a foreign policy option. Being a global citizen or having a global perspective is no longer a lofty goal but a necessity. This course gives students an opportunity to understand the complexity of unfolding world events and how the world might look in the future. Students examine the origins of current events and issues from different viewpoints, so that they can better understand the role values, beliefs, and ideologies play in international policies. By evaluating Canada’s role and influence in international events, students see the factors that determine the power and influence of nations on international decision-making. They assess the impact of Intergovernmental organizations, e.g., OPEC, and Non-governmental organization, e.g., the Red Cross, as products of globalization. No matter what the event or issue, students should have an opportunity to examine human rights and responsibilities in the international community. Multiple interpretations of these rights, responsibilities, events, and issues will help students articulate their own supportable conclusions. An issues-centred approach to global issues helps build a framework for students to research the past and predict the future. Teachers should be sensitive to the personal nature of the background and experiences of individual students as they apply to the sensitive issues of international relations. A strong skill base to lessons and activities will help students listen to and respect the views of others.

Students will have varied academic backgrounds. Canadian and World Politics builds on the foundation of earlier compulsory courses in the policy document The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, Canadian and World Studies, 1999. The teacher cannot assume that students continued their study of politics at the Grade 11 level. Unit 1 of this document serves as both a review of the related knowledge and issues from Grade 10, Canadian History in the Twentieth Century, Grade 10 Civics and Grade 11 Canadian Politics and Citizenship, and an introduction to key concepts at a higher academic level.


In Unit 1 students should make a personal connection to the concept of global citizenship. Students evaluate Canada’s role in the world community by understanding and analysing the factors and goals that have and will influence foreign policy decision-making in this country. In Unit 3 students apply the Canadian decision-making process to an understanding of how decisions are made on a global level. They evaluate the role of international organizations, e.g., The United Nations and World Trade Organization, as world decision-making bodies. Students suggest a model for making global decisions that improves on past and current practices. In Unit 4 students examine in detail how conflicts are resolved internationally. Students examine past conflicts to see the lessons to be learned from how the conflict was resolved and then apply these lessons to our current world environment.

With a strong sense of historic and contemporary international relations, students attempt to resolve issues which may develop in the future. Students assume roles for an International Conference in 2020 to solve issues that they develop for the conference agenda.

This course does attempt to work from the personal level, to the national level, to the international level, and then to the future. At the core of this approach is the development of the essential skills associated with critical and creative thinking, research, and communication. This course prepares students for a university destination and offers students opportunities to practise the skills associated with political science. The requirement for students to ask questions and find answers using a wide variety of sources has been built into this program. Students improve their communication skills through class conferences, role-playing, group presentations, position papers, and formal essays. Writing for and working with Grade 10 Civics students provides an audience for student work and helps the class experience the wider commitment to others so significant in understanding global citizenship.

The teacher should be aware of the resources available for the delivery of this curriculum. Many Internet sites may be accessed by the teacher in the preparation of this course, and by students during the course. The teacher must familiarize students with the local board’s policy regarding the safe use of the Internet and obtain the necessary parental permission forms. The students must be aware of what to do if they become exposed to inappropriate sites.


Units: Titles and Time


Unit 1

The Global Citizen: What does that mean to you?

18 hours

* Unit 2

Canadian International Relations:
What role should Canada play in the world?

23 hours

Unit 3

World Systems: How are world decisions made?

26 hours

Unit 4

Case Studies: How are conflicts resolved internationally?

26 hours

Unit 5

The Art of the Possible: The International Community in 2020

17 hours

* This unit is fully developed in this Course Profile.

Unit Overviews

Unit 1: The Global Citizen: What does that mean to you?


Time: 18 hours

Unit Description

Students explore the concept of global citizenship. Starting with a solid course beginning and a review of what they know and remember from Grade 10 Civics or Grade 11 Politics, students move on to study citizenship on a global scale – from personal connections to abstract understandings. Students explore the need to study citizenship at this level and gain an academic focus on global rights and responsibilities through an examination of the current multi-dimensional issues of globalization and its effects. Current events are a key component of class activities. Students should identify the uses and the abuses of the media. Assessment is varied through the unit and includes an ongoing skills-based analysis of current events and futures-oriented culminating activity.



Unit Overview Chart

Cluster

Learning Expectations

Assessment Categories

Focus

1

PIV.01, PIV.04, PI1.01, PI4.03

Knowledge/Understanding Communication

What does “politics” mean to me; remembering and recalling

2

IC1.03, IC3.04, IC3.06, VB1.03, VB2.04, PIV.01, PIV.02, PIV.03, PIV.04, PI1.02

Knowledge/Understanding Thinking/Inquiry Communication
Application

Developing current events skills: Assessing the tools of information

3

ICV.01, PO1.02, VBV.03, VB1.01, VB1.02, VB3.03, PIV.01, PIV.03, PI1.04, PI2.01, PI2.02, PI3.02, PI4.04

Knowledge/Understanding Thinking/Inquiry Communication

Presenting political concepts and terminology

4

PIV.01, PIV.02, PIV.04, PI3.01, PI3.02, PI4.02

Knowledge/Understanding Thinking/Inquiry Communication
Application

Development of class constitution; the classroom as a political unit

5

ICV.01, PO3.03, VBV.03, VB3.04, PIV.01, PI4.05

Knowledge/Understanding Thinking/Inquiry
Application

Making personal connections to the world

6

ICV.01, IC2.03, IC4.04, PO2.04, VB1.03, VB1.03, VB2.01, VB3.04, PIV.01

Knowledge/Understanding Thinking/Inquiry Communication
Application

Environmental problems and the need for supra-national governments

7

ICV.01, IC1.01, IC1.02, PIV.01, PIV.02, PIV.03, PI1.03, PI2.02, VB2.01, VB2.04

Knowledge/Understanding Thinking/Inquiry Communication
Application

What are the rights of a global citizen?

8

ICV.01, IC1.01, IC1.02, PIV.01, PIV.02, PIV.04, PI1.03, PI2.03

Knowledge/Understanding Thinking/Inquiry Communication
Application

What are the responsibilities of global citizenship?

Culminating Activity: Writing a Story About AD 2020


After exploring the role of the global citizen and the rights and responsibilities of citizenship on the global stage, students individually write a short account of a day in their lives in C.E. 2020. This will incorporate what they have learned in the unit and apply their thoughts on global change and ‘preferred futures’ in a demanding piece of personal writing. Students should examine an example of personal writing before starting the assignment to better understand the criteria for completing this task.

Unit 2: Canadian International Relations: What role should Canada play in the world?


Time: 23 hours

Unit Description

Students evaluate Canada’s role in the world community. Events in this community affect Canada’s foreign policy. To better understand the actions that the Canadian government takes on international issues, students analyse the factors and goals that influence foreign policy decision-making. Students investigate these factors and goals as they apply in a general sense to all countries, then in a specific sense to Canada historically and currently. Using case studies from Canadian history, e.g., Canada’s various United Nations Peacekeeping activities, students speculate on the government response to current international issues and foreign policy tools that it can use to influence the current international situation. To show an understanding of the factors, goals, and tools of foreign policy decision making, students create issue organizers that can be used with Grade 10 Civics students.



Unit Overview Chart

Cluster

Learning Expectations

Assessment Categories

Focus

1

ICV.01, ICV.03, POV.03, IC2.03, PII.01, PII.04, PO3.01, PO3.02, PO3.03, PO3.04

Knowledge/Understanding
Thinking/Inquiry

What is foreign policy?

2

POV.01, PIV.02, IC2.01, IC3.05, IC3.06, PI2.02, PI3.01, PI4.03, PO3.01, PO3.02, PO3.03

Knowledge/Understanding

Factors that influence foreign policy

3

PIV.02, PO1.01, IC2.01, IC3.05, PI1.03, PI2.01, PI2.03, PI4.05, VB3.01, VB3.03, VB3.04

Knowledge/Understanding
Thinking/Inquiry
Application

Goals of foreign policy

4

ICV.03, IC3.01, PO2.01, PO3.04

Knowledge/Understanding
Thinking/Inquiry
Application

Case studies

5

POV.01, POV.03, IC3.04, IC3.02

Application
Thinking/Inquiry
Knowledge/Understanding

Applying the tools for achieving foreign policy goals

6

PIV.03, PIV.04, PO3.05, PI1.01, PI1.02, PI1.03, PI1.04, PI2.03, PI3.01, PI3.02, PI4.01, PI4.02, PI4.03, PI4.05

Thinking/Inquiry
Application
Knowledge/Understanding

Culminating activity

Culminating Activity


Students create a “Decisions 200(2) Organizer” for Grade 10 Civics students.

The class should brainstorm periodically a list of events or issues that affect Canadian foreign policy decision making. The class designs a two-page template for analysing the options open to Canadians in participating in an international event or issue. The class should look at various types of organizers, e.g., mind maps, retrieval organizers, to see what type and form best meets the requirements of this task. In groups of three to four, students should prepare an organizer that can be used with students in the


Grade 10 Civics course as part of their current events program. The organizer might include:

  • a small map of the area in question,

  • a short paragraph outlining the history of the event or issue,

  • past Canadian involvement,

  • policy options available to Canada,

  • foreign policy factors and goals as they relate to this event or issue,

  • a place for Grade 10 students to write down their selection of the ‘best’ option for Canada and why this option was selected.

The class creates, along with the “Decisions 200(2)” template, a rubric for evaluating the organizers they produce. The teacher distributes a partial rubric that lists the evaluation criteria headings in the left column: understanding of concepts, “inquiry/research skills,” communication of the required knowledge, and “application of concepts and skills.” Together, the teacher and students fill in the spaces under the headings with the specific criteria related to the task. Then, again together, the teacher and students write the descriptors for the four levels of achievement. Preparing the organizer is a group activity. Following it, the teacher designs a task to demonstrate individual knowledge and understanding. A one-page report on the effectiveness of the organizer in meeting the criteria could be an option.

Unit 3: World Systems: How are world decisions made?


Time: 26 hours

Unit Description

Students study decision making on a global scale by moving from a theoretical overview to historic and current examples, exploring in small groups different categories of global decisions. They begin with an examination of different decision-making models using a schematic exercise. They then examine the history of the emergence of world government as a foundation for three teacher-led examples. They study the political dimension by examining the formation and structure of the United Nations. They examine the economic aspect by observing World Trade Organization meetings. Students study the Three Gorges Dam in China and Canada’s role in funding this project as an example of decision making in action. Small groups of students then examine different sectors of global decision making (political, economic, military, health, human rights, and environmental) and present their findings to the class. In the culminating activity, they revisit the theoretical models introduced at the beginning of the unit.



Unit Overview Chart

Cluster

Learning Expectations

Assessment Categories

Focus

1

PIV.03, PI1.04, PI2.01, PI2.02, PI3.02

Knowledge/Understanding Thinking/Inquiry

An introduction to different decision making models

2

ICV.01, ICV.04, IC2.04, POV.01, POV.02, PO2.02, PO2.03, PO2.04, VBV.03, VB3.04, PIV.02

Knowledge/Understanding Thinking/Inquiry Application

The history of the emergence of world government

3

ICV.04, IC2.01, IC4.02, POV.01, VBV.01, VB1.01, VB3.04, PIV.02, PI2.01

Knowledge/Understanding Thinking/Inquiry Communication

Understanding decision making at the global level

4

ICV.04, IC2.01, IC4.02, PO3.05, VBV.02, VB1.03

Knowledge/Understanding Thinking/Inquiry Communication Application

Decision making in action; the UN, the WTO, and the Three Gorges Dam

5

ICV.05, IC3.06, IC5.01, IC5.02, IC5.03, PO1.03, VBV.02, PI1.03, PI1.04, PI2.01, PI4.05

Knowledge/Understanding Thinking/Inquiry Communication Application

Researching decision making in different sectors (political, economic, military, health, human rights, and environmental)

6

ICV.05, IC2.01, IC2.04, IC3.06, IC4.01, IC4.03, IC5.01, IC5.02, IC5.03, PO1.03, PO2.04, PO3.04, VBV.01, VBV.02, VBV.03, VB1.01, VB3.03, VB3.04, PIV.01, PIV.02, PIV.03, PIV.04, PI1.01, PI1.02, PI1.04, PI2.01, PI2.03, PI3.01, PI4.01, PI4.02

Knowledge/Understanding Thinking/Inquiry Communication Application

Small group sectoral presentations

Culminating Activity: Creating a personal vision of the ‘new world order’


At the beginning of this unit, students study a series of diagrams of global decision making or world government. In the culminating activity they revisit these diagrams and think about what decision making model is needed for our global future. They can choose one of the existing models or design their own schematic. The chosen diagram is accompanied by a half page of explanatory text.

Unit 4: Case Studies: How are conflicts resolved internationally?


Time: 26 hours

Unit Description

This unit will enable students to learn about global conflicts and how they may be resolved through an examination of specific case studies. Students develop an understanding of the factors involved in creating international conflicts in various parts of the world, appreciate the role that international organizations such as the United Nations have played in conflict-resolution efforts in the past, and recognize the need for more effective methods of resolving international conflicts in today’s world. They learn about the various political, social, economic, and military options that are available to countries involved in a conflict, and apply these general concepts to enhance their understanding of specific global conflicts that have occurred during the Cold War and post-Cold War eras, e.g., Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, Persian Gulf War of 1991, terrorist attacks of 2001. As a culminating activity for this unit, students research and prepare a formal research essay dealing with the lessons that may be drawn from an intensive study of a particular global conflict for the world in 2002.



Unit Overview Chart

Cluster

Learning Expectations

Assessment Categories

Focus

1

ICV.02, IC2.02, IC2.04, PO2.03, VBV.01, VBV.02, VBV.03, VP2.02

Knowledge/ Understanding Thinking/Inquiry

What is international conflict?

2

ICV.04, ICV.05, ICI.03, IC2.01, IC2.02, IC3.04, VB2.03

Knowledge/ Understanding Thinking/Inquiry

What is the process that might resolve international conflicts?

3

IC2.03, IC3.03, PO1.01, PO1.02, PO2.04

Knowledge/ Understanding Thinking/Inquiry

What are the political, social, economic, and military options open to countries where there is a conflict?

4

PIV.01, PIV.02, PIV.03, PI1.01, PI1.02, PI1.04, PI2.01, PI1.02, PI1.03, PI3.02, PI3.03, PI4.01, PI4.04

Knowledge/ Understanding Thinking/Inquiry

Culminating Activity: formal research essay

Culminating Activity: Formal Research Essay Websites


Canadian Centre for Foreign Policy Development – http://www.cfp-pec.gc.ca

Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade


– www.infoexport.gc.ca/section4/missions

Canadian Institute for International Affairs – www.ciia.org/ciia.htm

Canadian Peace building Coordinating Committee – www.cpcc.ottawa.on.ca

Centre for Social Justice – www.socialjustice.org

Greenpeace – www.greenpeacecanada.org

International Criminal Court – http://www.un.org/icc

Human Rights Watch – http://www.hrw.org

Human Security Agenda – http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/foreignp/

Project Ploughshares – http://www.ploughshares.ca

Women in International Security – http://www.wiis.org/

World Alliance for Citizen Participation – www.civicus.org

World Trade Organization – www.canadians.org

A formal research essay will comprise the culminating activity of this unit. Students will research, prepare and present a paper analyzing a particular international conflict that has taken place since 1945 as a case study, and explain the lessons the world in 2002 can learn from this conflict and how it was resolved.

Unit 5: The Art of the Possible: The International Community in 2020


Time: 17 hours

Unit Description

Students form groups of three or four to research and prepare for a simulated World Conference on Global Issues, to be convened in 2020. Each group represents a specific country or special interest group that presents its issues to the conference and seeks resolution. Issues that could form part of the conference’s agenda are global security, human rights, privacy, technology, and state sovereignty. In their participation in the conference, groups assume the role of their particular country or interest group and debate resolutions in this role. As a culminating activity, students individually prepare oral presentations in their roles, and/or write short position papers on the conference issues with which their groups were concerned.



Unit Overview Chart

Cluster

Learning Expectations

Assessment Categories

Focus

1

ICV.04, ICV.05, IC2.02, IC2.03, IC2.04, IC4.01, IC4.02, IC4.03, IC4.04, IC5.01, IC5.02, IC5.03, PO1.03

Knowledge/ Understanding
Thinking/Inquiry Application

Creating an agenda for a world conference to solve global issues

2

ICV.01, ICV.02, IC2.01, IC2.02, IC3.04, PO1.01, PO1.02, PO2.01, PO2.02, PO2.03, PO2.04, VBV.03, VB1.02, VB2.02, VB2.03, VB3.01, VB3.02

Knowledge/ Understanding
Thinking/Inquiry

Assuming a country or interest group role

3

PIV.01, PIV.02, PIV.03, PIV.04, PI1.01, PI1.02, PI2.01, PI2.02, PI2.03, PI3.01, PI3.02, PI3.03, PI4.02, PI4.03, PI4.05

Knowledge/ Understanding
Thinking/Inquiry

Group work and culminating activity

Culminating Activity: Position Paper


After students have prepared for and participated in the World Conference on Global Issues, they conclude by giving oral presentations in the roles of individual countries or interest groups they assumed for the conference, and/or short individual position papers dealing with the major issues that formed the conference’s agenda.

Teaching/Learning Strategies


Students have the opportunity to explore, analyse, and reflect on political decision making through diverse teaching and learning strategies. Critical thinking skills such as formulating a thesis, identifying and developing a viewpoint, debating, analysing primary sources, and problem solving are the focus of many activities. Focused inquiry, data analysis, note taking and guided Internet searches are examples of the research skills that students practise. The teacher should scaffold the required skills in the course as part of the daily lessons, and they should be practised as part of homework assignments. Students have multiple opportunities to hone their skills in communication through formal presentations, role-playing, debates, writing in role, and persuasive paragraph writing. Some of the methods of political inquiry that students should be able to demonstrate are the ability to conduct organized research and document analysis using primary and secondary sources, the ability to create a short position paper in a manner that respects the opinions of others, and the ability to think creatively in reaching conclusions. Cooperative group learning is another important active learning strategy. Tasks are designed to develop skills and concepts through a range of student learning styles. Many important skills are developed in the unit activities. Students demonstrate a synthesis of their learning in the course by participating in the Course Culminating Activity in Unit 5.

The subject discipline of Politics has its own particular ways of using language to express concepts. Teachers should consider a wide variety of learning strategies, in order to help all students. Teaching and learning strategies should show formative attention to the following aspects of language in written and oral forms:



  • specialized vocabulary/idioms;

  • wide range of tense use, active, and passive voice;

  • words, phrases, and clause structures that indicate:

  • sequence/chronology;

  • cause/effect relationships;

  • contrast/comparatives/superlatives;

  • statements of opinion, interpretation, inference;

  • statements of speculation/hypothesis/prediction;

  • statements of belief, intent, necessity, persuasion, evaluation, definition;

  • explanations of reason;

  • formation of questions for formal and informal circumstances, oral or written active listening skills, for example, phrases, and syntax that express encouragement, requests for repetition, clarification, and restatement;

  • activities such as reading/listening tasks (case-study/video-viewing) require a specific and concrete product from students;

  • completion of a graphic organizer/re-enactment or structured oral response;

  • note-taking/summarising;

  • non-verbal communication skills, of particular importance to presentation tasks.

Written tasks should reinforce oral tasks, and vice versa. All learners with difficulties benefit greatly if their teachers initially provide models or scaffolds for oral and written expressive communicative functions.

The study of current events forms an integral component of the study of politics. Discussion of current events creates student interest and helps students understand their world and the relationships among past events, present-day situations, and the future. The study of current events is not a separate topic removed from the program. Indeed, it helps students to achieve the expectations found in the curriculum. Current event activities for each unit can incorporate such tasks as:



  • watching the TV news for meaning or bias;

  • analysing Internet sites;

  • looking at newspapers for bias in reporting events;

  • understanding the uses and abuses of public opinion polls;

  • appreciating the differences between news magazines and journals;

  • measuring public opinion through interviews;

  • understanding how pictures are used in reporting the news.

Students can prepare a folder/portfolio that demonstrates skills in seeking and analysing information.

Assessment & Evaluation of Student Achievement


The Achievement Chart, which is the basis for assessment and evaluation in this course, is found on
p. 246-7 of The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 11 and 12, Canadian and World Studies, 2000. The chart identifies four major categories of knowledge and skills – Knowledge/Understanding, Thinking/Inquiry, Communication, and Application. These categories encompass the curriculum expectations in all courses in Canadian and World Studies. The descriptions at Level 3 represent the provincial standard for student achievement.

Activities in this Course Profile suggest formative assessment, including diagnostic and summative evaluation strategies and tools. The course culminating activity is designed to be appropriate to the University level course requirements. The teacher should introduce the concept and the topic of a culminating activity at the beginning of the course. Acknowledge the fact that students require practice in order to gain competency in the many discrete skills involved in researching and writing a politics essay and presenting in role a point of view on an issue in international relations. The activities and performance tasks in this profile are examples of some strategies that teachers may use with their own classes. The following are some generic suggestions for using assessment and evaluation techniques in Politics courses:



  • Provide opportunities for student learning to improve by using formative assessment tools in each unit, e.g., visual organizers, practice quiz, self- and peer assessment of written work.

  • Model the skill for the students to master, e.g., formulating a thesis, note-taking, report writing.

  • Share with the students clearly developed criteria for their assessment and evaluation tools, e.g., checklists and rubrics. Developing these tools with students helps to clarify how and why they are being assessed or evaluated.

  • Use assessment tools that are appropriate for the expectations being addressed and that relate to the categories on the achievement charts.

  • Ensure that in performance tasks involving group work these tasks build in positive interdependence and individual accountability.

  • Provide rubrics that make it clear to students why they scored as they did and in teacher feedback, outline what steps they need to take to improve.

  • Match the assessment/evaluation strategy to the teaching/learning strategy.

Seventy per cent of the grade will be based on assessments and evaluations conducted throughout the course. Thirty per cent of the grade will be based on a final evaluation in the form of an examination, performance, essay, and/or other methods of evaluation.


Accommodations


Teachers must be aware that there will be students in the class who will require accommodations to meet their individual needs.

Every effort is made to assist all students in achieving success in their Politics course. Specific accommodations are recommended for each activity. Teachers should realize that if expectations are modified extensively, then the nature of the credit can be affected.

The teacher must become familiar with the Individual Education Plans (IEPs) for exceptional students to learn the specific learning strategies that are recommended for use with each student. As well, the proficiency levels outlined in The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 to 12, English as a Second Language and English Literacy Development, 1999 provide teachers and school administrators with a guide to receiving and accommodating these learners in the regular classroom.

There are a variety of strategies that can be used for those students with special needs. Students with specific learning impairments require specific modifications to meet their particular needs in terms of learning, communication, and expression strengths and weaknesses. Students with attention deficit and behavioural challenges need to have opportunities for active learning and interaction within a controlled environment. The variety of learning strategies and student performance tasks provide teachers with some guidance, but each exceptional student’s program may require appropriate adaptations based on recommendations included in the IEP. This course places a great deal of emphasis on reading. Some students might be challenged visually, and reading copies of documents in class and on the computer could be difficult. Teachers must make accommodations for these students, such as using larger font class handouts.

Technology can also be important in modifying activities and accommodating for special needs. For example, book marking of key Internet sites will help to maximize on-line time. There are many enrichment opportunities for gifted students who may explore the issues and personalities in greater depth or from different perspectives.

When planning for ESL students, teachers should recognize and reflect on all aspects of language development. The academic needs of the student who is an English-language learner can be met with a program and activities that encourage cognitive skill development through language skills development.

Teachers should select resources that relate to the ESL/ELD Curriculum Policy Document Strand’s expectations: Reading, Writing, Oral and Visual Communication and Social and Cultural Competence. Use a wide variety of print and illustrative materials. ESL/ELD students should be encouraged to use bilingual dictionaries, if necessary, and to use their first language to plan, organize, and write a first draft of either the written or performance product.

Courses should also display sensitivity to the diversity of cultural, ethnic, religious beliefs and customs, socio-economic levels, and family structures of newcomer. Subject content should be presented in ways that focus on its relevance to ESL/ELD students needs, be they communicative/language, acculturation, and day-to-day survival, social, physical, emotional, or cognitive.

Teachers cannot assume that all students have access to high-speed technology at home to search Internet sites for information. Access to the required technology may have to be arranged through the school library or computer lab, where available.

Resources


Units in this Course Profile make reference to the use of specific print, films, videos, and websites. Teachers need to consult their board policies regarding use of any copyrighted materials. Before reproducing materials for student use from printed publications, teachers need to ensure that their board has a Cancopy licence and that this licence covers the resources they wish to use. Before screening videos/films with their students, teachers need to ensure that their board/school has obtained the appropriate public performance videocassette licence from an authorized distributor, e.g., Audio Cine Films Inc. Teachers are reminded that much of the material on the Internet is protected by copyright. The person or organisation that created the work usually owns the copyright. Reproduction of any work or substantial part of any work on the Internet is not allowed without the permission of the owner.

Print


Angus, Ian. A Border Within: National Identity, Cultural Plurality and Wilderness. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-7735-1653-0

Ballah, Judy. Insights: Understanding War, Exploring Fiction, Poetry, and Non-fiction. Toronto: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1995. ISBN 0-7747-0150-1

Bookbinder, Steve and Lynne Einleger. The Dictionary of the Global Economy. New York: Franklin Watts, 2001. ISBN 0-531-11975-0

Bryan, Shelly and Leitenberg. Global Issues: The Senior Issues Series. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1993. ISBN 007551446X



Canadian Citizenship in Action. Edmonton: Weigl Publishers, 1992.

Canadian Reference Guide to the United Nations. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 1999. ISBN 0-662-27645-0

Ciment, James, ed. Encyclopedia of Conflicts Since World War II. Vaughan: Sharpe Reference, 1999.


ISBN 0-7656-8004-1

DeHaenens, Leen, ed. Images of Canadianness. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1998.

Derbyshire, Dennis and Ian Derbyshire. Encyclopedia of World Political Systems. Armonk Sharpe Reference, 2000. ISBN 0-7656-8025-4

English, John and Norman Hillmer, eds. Making a Difference: Canada’s Foreign Policy in a Changing World Order. Toronto: Lester Publishing, 1992. ISBN 1-895555-30-2

Gibbins, Roger and Loleen Youngman. Mindscapes: Political Ideologies Towards the 21st Century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1996.

Glenday, Dan and Ann Duffy. Canadian Society: Understanding and Surviving in the 1990s. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1994. ISBN 0-7710-3359-1

Griffiths, Rudyard, ed. Great Questions of Canada. Toronto: Stoddart, 2000. ISBN 0-7737-6239-6

Hampson, Fen Osler and Maureen Appel Molot. Canada Among Nations. Don Mills: Oxford University Press, Annual, (2000 edition). ISBN 019541540X

Henderson, Ian. World Affairs: Defining Canada’s Role. 1900-2000. Don Mills: Oxford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0195412788

Koplin, Robert. Global Links: Connecting Canada. Don Mills: Oxford University Press, 1998.


ISBN 0195413334

Kostash, Myrna. The Next Canada. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 2000. ISBN 0-7710-4561-1

Lewis, James R. and Carl Skutsch. Human Rights Encyclopedia. Vaughan: Sharpe Reference, 2001.
ISBN 0-7656-8023-8

Pettigrew, Pierre S. The New Politics of Confidence. Toronto: Stoddart Publishing, 1999.


ISBN 0-7737-3180-6

Pious, Richard M. Governments of the World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.


ISBN 0-19-50846-1

Saul, John Ralston. Reflections of a Siamese Twin: Canada at the End of the 20th Century. Toronto: Penguin Books, 1998. ISBN 0140259880

Stein, Janice. The Cult of Efficiency. Toronto: House of Anansi Press, 2001. ISBN 0887846688

Tucker, Michael J., R.B. Blake, and P.E. Bryden, eds. Canada and the New World Order: Facing the Millenium. Toronto: Irwin Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0772528276

Valaskakis, Kimon. Canada in the Nineties: Meltdown or Renaissance. Ottawa: World Media Institute, 1990. ISBN 0-921957-02-5

Whittington, Michael and Glen Williams, eds. Canadian Politics in the 21st Century. Scarborough: Nelson Thomson Learning, 2000. ISBN 0-17-616676-9



The World in 2020. Ottawa: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 1997.
ISBN 9264156275

Videos


A Place to Stand. Dist: United Nations. Prod: Marlin Motion Pictures Ltd., 1995.
Into the 21st Century. Dist: School Services of Canada, 1990.

Global Citizen – Parts 1 & 2. Dist: Face to Face Media Ltd. Prod: Harcourt Brace & Co, 1996.
Human Rights. Dist: Public Legal Education Society, 1983.

Towards 2000. Dist: CTV Network, 1991.

Waging Peace- Parts 1 & 2. Dist: Cable News Network (from CNN special report), 1989.

Websites


The URLs for the websites were verified by the writers prior to publication. Given the frequency with which these designations change, teachers should always verify the websites prior to assigning them for student use.

Canadian Centre for Foreign Policy Development – http://www.cfp-pec.gc.ca

Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade
– www.infoexport.gc.ca/section4/missions

Canadian Institute for International Affairs – www.ciia.org/ciia.htm

Canadian Peacebuilding Coordinating Committee – www.cpcc.ottawa.on.ca

Centre for Social Justice – www.socialjustice.org

Greenpeace – http://www.greenpeacecanada.org

International Criminal Court – http:// www.un.org/icc

Human Rights Watch – http://www.hrw.org

Human Security Agenda – http:// www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/foreignp/

Project Ploughshares – http://www.ploughshares.ca

Women in International Security – http://www.wiis.org/

World Alliance for Citizen Participation – www.civicus.org

World Trade Organization – www.canadians.org



Note: Resources and organizations working in the areas of policy alternatives and websites which offer a critical view of domestic and foreign policy and their effects are listed below. Teachers should view each resource for bias and make sure that a balanced approach is used in the classroom.

The Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives – www.policyalternatives.ca


The Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives is a national economic and social policy think tank.

The Canadian Council for International Co-Operation – fly.web.net/ccic

Centre for Social Justice – http://www.socialjustice.org/organization.html

Corporate Watch – http://www.corpwatch.org

The Council of Canadians – www.canadians.org

Maquila Solidarity Network – http://www.web.net/~msn/


The Maquila Solidarity Network (MSN) is a Canadian network promoting solidarity with groups in Mexico, Central America, and Asia.

National Anti-Poverty Organization – http://www.napo-onap.ca/

New Internationalist Magazine - For teachers and students of global issues
– http://www.oneworld.org/ni/teaching/teachpage.htm

Oxfam’s Cool Planet for Teachers – http://www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/teachers/

Ten Days for Global Justice – www.web.net/~tendays

The Third World Network – www.twnside.org.sg.

United for a Fair Economy – http://www.ufenet.org/

Print Resources


Canadian Labour Congress. Picture a World That Works: CLC Toolbox for Global Solidarity

This comprehensive toolbox includes Issue Sheets, Tools for Learning, and Resource Tools which will help any educator engage students on issues of Labour, Globalization, Free Trade, Workers’ Rights, and Global Solidarity. The package includes ready made lesson plans and handout.


Videos


Global Pillage. 15 min. Canadian Labour Congress. Outlines the global corporate agenda. Contact the CLC at (613) 521-3400 ext. 289.

Manufacturing Consent. 3 hours (2 parts). National Film Board of Canada. In this classic documentary dissident critic Noam Chomsky exposes the media’s distorted reporting of world events.

Beyond McWorld. Just in Time Productions. Based on the Global Teach-In held in Toronto in Nov. 1997.

A Place that Works. 21 minutes. (CBC) Highlights the success of the Netherlands in balancing both economic growth and social equality.

NAFTA: Playing with a Volatile Substance. (two versions: full-length, 55 minutes; Action tool version, 30 minutes). CineFocus Canada, 72 Stafford St., 4th floor, Toronto, Ontario M6J 2R9
Tel: (416) 867-9940

The Emperor’s New Clothes. 50 minutes, 1995. National Film Board of Canada.

Who’s Counting: Sex, Lies & Global Economics. National Film Board of Canada. 94 minutes.

Dirty Business: Ford Exports from Mexico to the USA. 15 min. Available for rental from Common Frontiers, 305-15 Gervais Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 1Y8.

$4 a Day? No Way! Joining Hands Across the Borders. 18 min. American Labour Education Centre, 2000 P St. NW, Room 300, Washington, DC 20036

Debt Crises. Produced by Public Services International.

Java Jive. 39 minutes. (NFB) Mixing the silly with the serious, Java Jive illustrates the relationship between the production and consumption of coffee.

No Grapes. United Farm Workers of America AFL-CIO. 14 minutes. Highlights the effects of pesticide use on workers and consumers. See also Wrath of Grapes. UFWA, AFL-CIO P.O. Box 62, Keene, California 93531.

Union Aid: CUPE. 9 minutes, 1998. CUPE’s world tour on solidarity features trade unionists from the Phillippines, Mexico, Canada, and South Africa. (613) 237-1590.

They Are Us. 15 minutes, 1993. CAW Social Justice Fund. Illustrates CAW’s SJF projects in El Salvador, in South Africa, and in Canada. (416) 497-4110.

Why International Solidarity? 26 minutes, 1988. CLC International Affairs. Covers the story of Coca-Cola in Guatemala, explains the role of the CLC, and illustrates the power of the multinationals. Contact the CLC.

Labour Show Humanity Fund. 26 minutes.

Turbulence. 52 minute. (NFB)

We’re the Boss!” 29 minutes. (1989, NFB)



Defying the Law. 47 minutes. (1997, NFB) On July 14, 1946, a group of Hamilton steelworkers sparked one of the most important strikes in Canadian history - a strike which many consider to be the birth of the modern Canadian labour movement.

Eye of the Storm. 44 minutes. (1997, NFB)

OSS Policy Applications


The Grade 12 Canadian and World Politics course provides students with the opportunity to acquire skills and knowledge that they need in order to pursue education and career goals and to carry out social responsibility. This course provides students with learning experiences that are consistent with program goals outlined in Choices into Action, Guidance and Career Education Program Policy for Ontario Elementary and Secondary Schools, 1999. Students will relate what they learn in this course to personal aspirations and interests and to possible work and life roles. To help them reach this objective, teachers should offer a range of career exploration activities. Career opportunities in Canada’s Foreign Service or working for an international organization can be discussed as part of several units in this profile. If teachers choose to add this component to the course, examples of ways of providing these opportunities for students are suggested in Ontario Schools, Grade 9 to Grade 12, Program and Diploma Requirements, 1999, section 7.5, Cooperative education and work experience (pp. 52-54)

This course also gives consideration to integrating technology across the curriculum (e.g., use of Internet in research), aiding students with special needs (accommodations, when necessary), using the community as a resource (visits from university faculty representatives), and using the library/resource centre. Teachers should also integrate the values of anti-discrimination, respect, and violence prevention into the course of study.



Students taking this course may earn either an optional credit or an additional compulsory credit for diploma requirements.
Coded Expectations, Canadian and World Politics, Grade 12,
University Preparation, CPW4U

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