Canada Study the map of Canada, find these places and write them in your empty map: water



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Canada
Study the map of Canada, find these places and write them in your empty map:

water: the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, the Hudson Bay, the Hudson Strait, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Strait of Cabot, the Labrador Sea, the Baffin Bay, the Beaufort Sea, Lake Superior, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, Niagara Falls, Great Bear Lake, Great Slave Lake, Lake Winnipeg, the St. Lawrence River, the Saskatchewan River, the Fraser, the Yukon, the Mackenzie (the longest river)

islands and peninsulas: Vancouver Island, Labrador, Newfoundland, Baffin Island, Victoria Island, Queen Elisabeth Islands, Queen Charlotte Islands

provinces: British Columbia (Victoria), Alberta (Edmonton), Saskatchewan (Regina), Manitoba (Winnipeg), Ontario (Toronto), Quebec (the largest province, Quebec city), Newfoundland (St. John`s), New Brunswick (Fredericton), Nova Scotia (Halifax), Prince Edward Island (Chralottetown)

territories: the Yukon (Whitehorse), Northwest Territories (Yellowknife), Nunavut (Iqaluit)

cities: Ottawa, Toronto (the largest), Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Winnipeg, Quebec city, Halifax

mountain ranges: the Cordillera, the Coast Mountains, the Rocky Mountains, the St. Elias Mountains (Mt. Logan – 6.050 m), the Mackenzie Mountains, the Canadian Shield, Lowlands
Facts and figures

Capital: Ottawa

Area: 10 million sq. km

Number of provinces: 10, number of territories: 3

Population: more than 30 million

Official languages: English, French

Flag: red stripes on the sides symbolize Canada`s position between two oceans, white square in the middle with a simple red maple leaf – red symbolizes the blood of Canadians who died in WWI, white represents the snow of the north

Form of government: federal parliamentary democracy

Head of state: Queen Elisabeth II, represented by Governor General

Head of government: Prime Minister

Legislative power: Federal Parliament: House of Commons (5 years), Senate

Currency: Canadian dollar


Climate + agriculture + industry

Canada can be divided into seven regions:

a) the Pacific Coast – the coast of British Columbia and Vancouver Island, moderate climate influenced by the Pacific

b) the Cordillera – made up of the Rocky Mts., the Coast Mts. and other ranges running north to south, alpine snowfields, deep valleys, desert-like conditions

c) the Prairies – Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, plains, the richest grain-producing region in the world, deposits of oil, natural gas, potash (potaš – uhličitan draselný)

d) the Canadian Shield – around the Hudson Bay, deposits of gold, silver, zinc, copper and uranium

e) the Great Lakessouthern Quebec, Ontario, 50% of Canadians live here, 70% of manufactured goods is produced here, sugar maple (javor cukrový), grapes, peaches, pears, fruit, ship-building, paper mills, timber (almost half the area of Canada is covered by forests)

f) the Atlantic Provinces – New Brinswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland – first lands to be settles by Europeans, wheat, fishing

g) the Arctic – no longer inaccessible, can be reached by road or air, most communities have electricity, health service, long and bitterly cold winters, short summers with continuous daylight (temperatures can reach 30°C), tundra
Explorers of Canada

name

time

place

extra info

JOHN CABOT

(1450-1499)



1497
1498

Labrador, Newfoundland, Cape Breton Island

second expedition, maybe reached America



Italian-born English explorer and navigator, sailed on ship called Matthew, wanted to find a northwest passage to Asia, claimed the land for England, explored the coastline and named many islands

JACQUES CARTIER

(1491-1557)


1534
1535
1541

1.000 miles up to St. Lawrence River

tried to start a settlement in Quebec, but abandoned after a terribly cold winter



French explorer, looking for a northwest passage to the Pacific, named the land Canada (kanata means village in Huron-Iroquois language), Huron-Iroquois Indians gave him directions, claimed the land for France

HENRY HUDSON

(1565-1611)


1609

1610-1611



150 miled up to today`s Hudson River (flows to St. Lawrence), discovered today`s New York City

the Hudson Strait, the Hudson Bay



English explorer and navigator, sailed there four times, looking for the northwest passage to Asia, encouraged Dutch settlements

died on this trip


GEORGE VANCOUVER

(1758-1798)


1792

Strait of Juan de Fuca (today`s US-Canada border), Puget Sound (Vancouver), Vancouver Island

English explorer and navigator, two ships Discovery and Chatham

ALEXANDER MACKENZIE

(1755-1820)


1789

1793


the Mackenzie River from Great Slave Lake to the mouth in the Arctic Ocean, Pacific Ocean

second expedition: from Fort Chipewyan across the Rocky Mts. to the Pacific coast across Peace, Parsnip, McGregor and Fraser Rivers



Scottish-born fur trader and explorer, 1779 emigrated to Canada, 1788-96 commanded the trade in Fort Chipewyan on Lake Athabasca, the first European to cross the North American continent north of Mexico (2x), retired in Scotland

ROALD AMUNDSEN

(1872-1928)


1899
1900

1903


1904
1926
1905

started the expedition to the North Magnetic Pole

bought a ship Gjoa

sailed from Oslo around Greenland, through Baffin Island to King William Island, here he spent two years building 2 ships, observatory and huts, Netsilik Indians taught him Arctic survival techniques

continued to the Pole – had moved 30 miles since it was originally located in 1831 – the first time anyone realized that the magnetic poles move

the first person to fly over the North Pole

the first person to sail around the world through the northeast and northwest passage



Norwegian polar explorer, the first person to reach both North and South Pole



History

Match the dates and events:

date

event

cca 30.000 years ago

the first inhabitants (American Indians) came across the Bering Strait from Asia, some of them settled in Canada, the others continued to the south; later the Inuits came to live in the Arctic regions

10th century

the first Europeans were the Vikings from Norway, they settled for a short time on Newfoundland island

1497

John Cabot searching for the northern route to the Orient reached the land and claimed it for the English crown

1534

Jacques Cartier claimed the land for the French

1763

the rivalry between England and France because of fish and fur trade ended by the Treaty of Paris, which gave all the French territory east of the Mississippi River to the British

1867

the Dominion of Canada was established (Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick), later other provinces joined

1931

the Statute of Westminster gave Canada constitutional autonomy from Britain

World War II

Canadian forces fought in Italy and the Atlantic

1947

Canada was declared to be of equal status with Great Britain within the Commonwealth

1980

a referendum on the separation of Quebec was defeated

1999

the territory of Nunavut was formed as the first territory in Canada to have the majority of indigenous people



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