Question: To what extent was Canada a Major Participant in the Second World War?
Answers by: Steven
Canada joins World War 2
Canada declared war on Germany in September 10, 1939
Canada wasn’t prepared for the war
Canada had low army, air force and navy troops. Equipments were outdated and unfit for combat. Only 4500 troops with low equipments such as anti-tank gun.
Canada’s involvement of British Commonwealth Air Training Plan
Canada hosted and administers a training plan in which British can train their troops in Canada. BCATP trained over 130,000 pilots, navigators, flight engineers, and ground staff. Canada paid 70% of the $2.2 billion spent.
Canada used Total war again during World War 2.
King and C.D. Howe directed manufacturing. They made industries what to produce and how to produce. Crown corporations (industry owned by the government) replaced those private sectors that can’t produce what Howe wanted.
Canada was in the Allies’ force in the War
The allies’ force, including Britain, France, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, stationed quietly along France border with German and waited for German’s movement, which was known as the “phoney war”.
Involvement of the Battle of Britain
80 Canadian fighter pilots joined British forced against Germany.
Involvement of War in the Pacific
Canada sent 1975 troops to Hong Kong, but all were either killed or taken prisoner.
Canada’s involvement in Dieppe Raid
Canada tried to secretly attack German from the shore, but met a German convoy on the way. They were mulled down when they got to the shore. On August 19, 1943, the most terrible mistake was made. 907 Canadians died, 1874 taken prisoner and 586 wounded.
Royal Canadian Navy was very important to Battle of the Atlantic
They started massive training and building program. Canadian built warships such as corvettes and convoys to protect vital supply ships
Benefit of the Battle of Atlantic
Canada had 400 vessels and over 100,000 sailors by 1945. Merchant navy, protected by convoys, completed over 25,000 voyages across the Atlantic.
RCAF(Royal Canadian Air Force) played an important role
250,000 Canadians joined RCAF during the World War 2. They bombed raids in Britain, North Africa, Italy, Northwest Europe and Southeast Asia. They were also bombing Germany at night.
Canada joined allies’ invasion of Italy
The invasion went from July 10, 1943 to May 8, 1945(spring, last took over Rome). 1372 soldiers died.
Involvement in D-Day, which was the biggest invasion of the war
June 6, over 30,000 Canadians landed on Juno Beach as part of first attack.
Canada was giving separate tasks during the D-Day Invasion
They needed to liberate Netherlands. After Netherlands surrounded, Canada begun air drop food and fuels and traveled by convoy of truck to the civilian of Netherlands. Therefore, Canadians were hailed as heroes of Netherland.
Involvement of the Nuclear Bomb
Canada secretly bought the uranium mine in Great Bear Lake, NWT for the U.S. and British scientist to work on the nuclear bomb.
Canada’s prevention of Inflation.
Because of the war, production and employment were very high, so King wanted to prevent inflation (spending too much, taking in too little). In 1942, he introduced food rotation, which limited Canadian’s good s per week.
In all provinces but Quebec, most people agreed on conscription, which had divided the nation again. King’s slogan “Not necessarily conscription, but conscription if necessary” failed to work. He avoids conscription oversea, but in 1944, the invasion of Europe leads conscription again oversea. 2463 Canadian conscripts out of 12,000 reached the front.
Rapid increase of manufacturing production in Canada
All goods (transportations, food) and services (nursing) increased. Canada provided military and economic support to the Allies. Canada became a modern industrial nation.
Urbanization due to the total war
Many people moved to urban to look for jobs. Manufacturing was more important then agriculture, so Canadian cities and industrial areas became important to the economy of Canada.
Result of World War 2 to Canada
They had world’s third-largest (allied) navy and fourth-largest air force.
Largest navies: Britain, US (only joined in 1941), Germany, Canada.
Question: In its treatment of minorities, have Canadians become more tolerant during the period of 1914-2000?
Answers by: Abraham
1) Starting in 1914, minorities were not accepted at all. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities
-In the summer of 1914- Komagata Maru incident – because of Canada imposing the continuous voyage act, the Komagata Maru, carrying mostly Sikh’s were forced to return to India from Vancouver. P.12
2) Land was often taken without consent or care. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities
-In the early 1900’s. Aboriginals were put onto reserves and their children were put into residential schools to assimilate into white culture. P.12
3) Immigrants were unable to come to Canada. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities
-A head tax was imposed on immigrants – particularly the Chinese and east Indians to prevent many east Asians from coming to Canada. P.12
4) Immigrants were often victims of open discrimination. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities
-During the early 1900’s immigrants were openly discriminated. They were paid less for doing the same jobs as whites and prices for goods cost more. There were also many instances of riots and in 1907 whites attacked stores and homes owned by Chinese and Japanese Immigrants. P.12
Aboriginals have their rights to religious and cultural ceremonies taken away by changes to the Indian Act. [aboriginal powerpoint]
5) Canadians didn’t let aboriginals enlist at the start of the First World War. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities
-Aboriginals were not originally accepted into the army until after the Government needed more soldiers and many African and Japanese Canadians were enlisted reluctantly. Even though these groups overcame racist attitudes there was still discrimination evident as few were promoted. P.25
6) During WWI and WWII immigrants were treated unfairly. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities
-During WWI, many east Europeans were detained without the government having to lay charges due to the War Measures Act. The habeas corpus was taken away. P.27
7) In WWI, the French living in Quebec did not get a say in many things. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities
-When PM Borden introduced the military service act aka conscription, the French were outraged. They did not believe in fighting a war that had nothing to do with them and didn’t feel a connection between Britain. P.39-40
8) In 1920, even after Aboriginals fought in the war and died along side Canadians, it didn’t change anything back home. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities.
-Aboriginals still weren’t classified as people and Social and economic conditions on reserves were poor. They also tried looking for jobs but were met with hostility and discrimination.
9) The KKK rose to power in the 1920’s following the war. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities.
-During this time the KKK started hunting Blacks or people from different ethnic origins. They would drag Black citizens out onto the street and hang them. The KKK was a white supremacist group that even consisted of people who upheld the law. P.71
10) After the WWII, immigrants from East Europe were only treated worse. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities.
- Immigrants from Russia and Eastern Europe were often accused of being socialist revolutionaries and the government deported them. The government also adopted immigration restrictions so only British and U.S citizens could. Immigrants were also treated unfairly as they did dangerous jobs for low pay that no Canadians wanted, and unions were unsupportive. P.71
11) During WWII, Japanese Canadians were discriminated against. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities.
-Japanese Canadians were jailed and help in internment camps. Their land was also taken away from them and sold. P.126
Doukhobors, Hutterites and Mennonites were not allowed to vote because they refused to participate in the war due to religious beliefs. Doukhobors were only given the vote back in 1953.
12) Canada didn’t listen to French Canadians. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities.
- When Canada was discussing the matter regarding the new Canada flag, the French citizen’s pleas went unheard and this emotional debate split the country. P.194
13) Trudeau imposes the war measures act in Peace times. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities.
-Trudeau imposes the war measures act in peace time to combat the FLQ crisis. This is the only time it has ever been used in a peace time. Quebec citizens were outraged when troops moved in and let to Trudeau’s famous interview “Just watch me.” P.195
14) Trudeau created the official language act. Canada gradually becomes more tolerant of minorities.
- Trudeau created the official language act in 1969 under the Bi-Bi Commission. This stated that English AND French were the official languages of Canada. P.194
15) Canada watches as the 1980 referendum takes place. Canada is tolerant of minorities.
-The 1980 referendum called by PQ leader Rene Leveque ended in a failure, however, Canada respects this act and Trudeau makes a speech about how Canada should remain united.
16) Night of the long Knives. Canada wasn’t tolerant of minorities.
- The “Night of the long Knives” happened when all province leaders minus Quebec come to a compromise late at night in a kitchen hotel. When Quebec found out they felt betrayed. Notes
17) Charter of rights and Freedoms. Canada is tolerant of minorities.
- The charter of rights and freedoms is established in 1982 to guarantee minority equality with fellow Canadians. Minority language and education is allowed. P.199
18) Aboriginals deemed as “Persons” Canada is tolerant of minorities.
- Aboriginals are considered “persons” under the law in 1949. They are allowed to vote in provincial governments and later in federal governments in 1960. Throughout the 1950s, laws restricting their rights to lawyers for land claims battles and potlatches are revoked. However, they are still subject to abuse (adoption scoop and relocation of Inuit) during this time. P.68-70
19) Canada becomes a middle power. Canada is tolerant of minorities.
- Canada becomes more respectful of minorities and becomes a middle power to help poor Countries and build links between the East and West and North and South. They aim to establish global peace. P.147
20) “Bill 101” Canada is tolerant of minorities.
-Canada respects Quebec when they pass Bill 101 which makes French the only official language in Quebec. P. Notes
St. Louis – Canada turns away Jews trying to escape the Holocaust