Canada & the Cold War Cloze Notes
The Cold War
During World War II the United States and Soviet Union were allied. Following the defeat of Nazi Germany relations between the two “_____________________” worsened.
The world was divided in to two major alliance systems. The Americans led _____________________ (which Canada belonged to) and the Soviets led the _____________________.
The Cold War was “cold” because it was fought using everything short of actual direct warfare between the Soviet Union and America, e.g. spying, arms race, proxy wars, propaganda, etc.
Germany was divided in to four zones of occupation following its defeat. Each of the major members of the Allies was given a region to administer.
_____________________, although in the Soviet zone, was likewise divided in to four separate zones of occupation.
The Soviets and Americans held different opinions about what a post-World War II Germany should look like. The Americans wanted to establish a _____________________ which practiced capitalism; however, the Soviets wanted to establish a _____________________.
By _____________________, the USSR closed all rail and roadways in to West Berlin in an effort to force Britain, American and France out of the Soviet zone. The Allies responded by airlifting 4,000 tonnes of supplies in to Berlin every day. Canadian pilots flew many of the sorties in to West Berlin.
The Soviets interfered with Canadian pilots, e.g. buzzing, close flying, shooting near airplanes, releasing balloons in the “_____________________”, blinding pilots with searchlights or shooting anti-aircraft guns at Allied planes. The airlift ended on _____________________ with the Soviets capitulating.
Japan’s empire was dismantled following World War II. Korea was divided in to north and south. In the _____________________, the Soviets established a _____________________. In the _____________________, the Americans established a _____________________
On June 25, 1950, the army of _____________________ invaded the south in an attempt to unite the country. The United Nations gave its approval for a military intervention in Korea. Canada was one of the sixteen member nations which fought during the Korean War. The UN army pushed North Korea back in to its own territory. _____________________ sent troops in to North Korea to help push Canada, etc. back.
In April 1951, North Korean and Chinese troops threatened to over-run American troops in the center of South Korea. Canadian and other Commonwealth troops entered the battle in the _____________________ helping the Americans retreat to safety. The Canadians were awarded a _____________________ for this gallant action.
The _____________________ (a ceasefire) was signed on July 27, 1953. The war was never brought to an end with the signing of a peace treaty.
Approximately 26,000 Canadians served during the Korean War. Exactly 516 Canadians lost their lives as soldiers, pilots and members of the navy.
The Suez Crisis
The Suez Canal was constructed by _____________________ and _____________________in 1869. On July 26, 1956, Egyptian _____________________ decided to “nationalize” the canal.
Egypt’s action created an international crisis. Britain and France no longer had free access to the _____________________.
Britain, France and Israel threaten to invade Egypt. The _____________________, Egypt’s ally, threatened to “rain down” _____________________ on London and Paris if they did not leave Egypt alone.
On November 5, 1956, a _____________________ army seized the Suez Canal. The Soviets threatened nuclear war. Canada’s ambassador to the UN, _____________________, suggested a “_____________________” force be created keeping Egyptians and Europeans separate while a _____________________ was found; it was eventually decided the canal would be overseen by an international council (including Egypt).
Pearson’s “peace keeping” solution was accepted. However, Egypt protested the presence of Canadian troops because Canada’s flag was “too British”. The Canadians removed the _____________________ from their uniform and began to don a simple _____________________ (which eventually became the basis of a new Canadian flag in _____________________). Pearson was awarded a _____________________ and is regarded as the father of the idea of a UN Peace Keeping Force.
Cuban Missile Crisis
In April 1961, the United States helped a group of Cubans attempt to overthrow the communist government of _________________. This was called the “________________” invasion. The invasion failed and _________________, premier of the USSR, offered Castro nuclear weapons to deter any future American attacks.
In October 1962, an American spy plane detected _________________ being constructed in _________________. America demanded the silos be removed immediately. The USSR threatened the United States saying it would use nuclear weapons if the Americans invaded Cuba again. President _____________________ decided to establish a _____________________ of Cuba to prevent the completion of the silos.
For 13 days the world watched as the Americans and USSR appeared to be getting closer to nuclear war.
In Canada, the army was placed on high alert. Prime Minister _____________________ was reluctant to support Kennedy because most Canadians did not support the aggressive anti-Cuban American policy.
As Soviet ships approached the quarantine zone Canadian forces mobilized and announced a DefCon 3 alert. Diefenbaker’s lacklustre support reflected the desire of preserving Canada’s _____________________ when it came to _____________________. Consequently, Diefenbaker and Kennedy did not like one another and Canadian-American relations suffered.
Kennedy offered to remove missiles from _____________________ if Khruschev took the nukes from Cuba back to the USSR. Khruschev accepted and the crisis ended.
The Vietnam War
Before World War II Vietnam was controlled by _____________________. During the war, Japan removed the French presence entirely. In 1945, with the defeat of Japan and the absence of France an independent country was declared by the leader of the _____________________ Party, _____________________ with Hanoi as its capital.
France wanted to recapture Vietnam; but they were defeated by the Vietnamese at the Battle of _____________________ on May 2, 1954. The Americans were unwilling to allow Vietnam to go communist because of a policy called the “_____________________”, e.g. if one country went communist in East Asia then others would certainly follow. America decided to intervene militarily in 1968.
From 1954 to 1975 Canada served on two international _____________________ and provided medical supplies and technical assistance. Canadian diplomats were involved in negotiations between Washington and Hanoi. Canada was officially an “__________________________________________”. In reality, Canada was a supporter of the Americans.
Canada supported South Vietnam. Canadian delegates engaged in _____________________ for the US Central Intelligence Agency and aided the covert introduction of American arms and personnel into South Vietnam while they spotted for US bombers over North Vietnam. Canadians also helped suppress news coming out of Vietnam about the Americans dropping _____________________ and other defoliants.
Canada sold the Americans 12.5 billion dollars in food and war materials. _____________________ dropped significantly in Canada because of America’s war spending. Also, the herbicide “Agent Orange” was tested for in use in Vietnam in New Brunswick. The Americans practiced _____________________ runs over _____________________, Alberta and _____________________, SK. Ten thousand Canadians fought for America during the war.
In 1973, it became clear America could not defeat North Vietnam (mainly because of dropping support at home). By 1975 the capital city of South Vietnam (Saigon) fell. The Americans withdrew in defeat.
End of the Cold War
In the mid-1970s, _____________________ was appointed as ambassador to Canada for the Soviet Union. He and Canada’s Prime Minister, _____________________ became close friends over the decade of the 1970s. Some historians think Trudeau and Yakovlev’s friendship influenced Soviet policy in the late 1980s.
In the early 1980s, Yakovlev was an assistant to the future premier of the USSR, _____________________. Yakovlev and Gorbachev eventually introduced two very important reforms to the Soviet Union, e.g. _____________________ and _____________________. Glasnost literally meant “openness” and “accountability” of the Soviet government to the people it served.
Perestroika literally means “restructuring” and its use led to full blown economic reforms where capitalism was introduced in to the USSR. Trudeau, well known for his support of pluralism and the rule of law, is thought to have helped Yakovlev develop the notions of glasnost and perestroika.
Gorbachev’s reforms contributed to the countries of Eastern Europe becoming independent of Soviet control, the fall of the _____________________, and the eventual _____________________ of the Soviet Union itself in _____________________ and the end of the Cold War.
1). How did NATO’s formation ensure that both Canada’s and the United States’ foreign policy would be radically different from their policies before World War II?
2). Describe the role Canadian peacekeepers play when they are sent to areas of conflict?
3). Why were three lines of radar strung across Canada’s north? What were the names of these three lines?
4). Albert Einstein once observed that one cannot simultaneously prepare for and prevent war. What did he mean by this statement do you think? Explain in detail.
The Quiet Revolution
1). What was the Quiet Revolution?
2). We have learned about several different political philosophies so far this semester. Which political philosophy would best describe the Union Nationale’s efforts to maintain “outdated traditional values” despite the fact Quebec had changed and become “outward looking”?
The October Crisis
1). What was the October Crisis?
2). Was the Canadian Government justified in declaring martial law and suspending individual freedoms during the October Crisis? Explain.