ith the death of Julius Caesar in 44 BC, his adopted son Octavian became the sole ruler of Rome. Octavian took measures to earn the loyalty of the Roman army. He encouraged the soldiers to retire from the army by providing them with land. Once the soldiers retired, Octavian did not have to be concerned with the army turning on him. Further, Octavian knew he could count on the soldiers' support if he was challenged by the Senate.
Octavian restored peace and order to Rome. He made sure the lands throughout the empire were well run and taxes were fair. Octavian built massive roads and bridges, government buildings, and huge public baths. He said, "I left Rome a city of marble, though I found it a city of bricks." The Roman people awarded Octavian with the title Augustus, which means, "respected one." Many Romans deified Augustus after his death. This means they worshipped him as a god.
ugustus ruled Rome for 41 years, though he did not call himself an emperor. He was careful to not meet the same fate as his great granduncle, Julius Caesar. Augustus was very respectful to the senators, but the Senate knew he controlled the army and could do as he pleased.
1. Who became ruler of Rome after Julius Caesar’s death? ______________________________________
2. What did Octavian do to gain support of the army? __________________________________________
3. What accomplishments is Octavian credited for throughout his reign? ___________________________
4. What title was Augustus given by the people? ______________________________________________
5. For how many years did Augustus rule Rome? _________________
6. What were the units that Roman armies were divided into called? ______________________________
7. What is the Pax Romana? ______________________________________________________________
he Roman army was so strong that it protected citizens from attacks from the tribes who lived beyond the empire. The powerful, professionally trained forces were divided into large units called legions. Each legion would have as many as 6,000 soldiers. The two hundred year period that began with the rule of Caesar Augustus was known as the Pax Romana, or the "Peace of Rome."
Caesar Augustus– Active Reading Guide
Work in pairs or alone to answer the following questions and complete the activities about the reading from the Caesar Augustus Reading Passage.
stablishing Peace and Order
1. When did Julius Caesar die? _______________________
2. How did Octavian encourage soldiers to retire? _______________________________________________________________________
3. What did Octavian restore in Rome? ________________________________________________________________________________________
4. What was the name of Caesars best friend who killed him? ___________________
5. What would Octavian having the support of the soldiers help him do?_________________________________
he Empire of Augustus
6. What does ‘Augustus’ mean? __________________________________________________
7. How many year did Augustus rule Rome? ______________
8. What were some things Augustus did to ensure peace and order?
9. What name call did the people give to Octavian? ___________________
Order in the City
11. What did Augustus’ statement, "I left Rome a city of marble, though I found it a city of bricks." refer to? ___________________________________________________________________________________________
12. What four infrastructures did Augustus have built? ___________________________________________________________________________________________
13. What did many Romans do after the death of Augustus? ___________________________________________
Growth in the Provinces
14. Who did the Roman army protect citizens from? _______________________________________________
15. What term defines the 6,000 soldiers that protected Rome? __________________
The Pax Romana
16. How many years does the period of the Pax Romana cover? ______________________
7. What does Pax Romana mean? ___________________________