Cabinet Research Report



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Açı Schools

Açı Model Government Europe 2016

World In Chaos: Terrorism

Cabinet Research Report

Lina Mollalian



Welcome Letter From The President

Dear Delegates,


Welcome to the Açı Model Government 2016 Spanish Cabinet. My name is Lina Mollaian and it is my pleasure and honour to serve as your Spanish Cabinet Committee Director, as well as the Committee Director for the Council for Transportation, Technology and Communication.

This years crisis theme is about terrorism and in our cabinet we will be focusing more specifically on the Catalonian independence issue.

This research report will serve you as a basis for your own research work.

I am looking forward in meeting and working with every single one of you and to tackle this years conference with eagerness and determination to learn to the fullest from this experience.



Brief Explanation of Agenda item

The Catalonia and the independence issue
Catalonia has been part of Spain, since the 15th century when King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile married and united their realms. Catalan’s broad autonomy was given by 1931 when Spain became a republic.
Most of the tourist attracted to Spain go to Catalan and stay in barcelona and enjoy their time at the beache.Catalonia is one of Spain’s richest and most highly industrialised regions, they’re proud of their own identity, language and their independent mind. It makes up about 16% of Spain’s population and 19% of its GDP (Gross Domestic Product). There is a common feeling shared within the people from catalan that the weatlthy region doesn’t give back as much as Catalan gives. They’ve been hit badly by Spain’s economic crisis, left with 19% of unemployement and so the urge in support for seperation grew which made more and more Catalans want full independence.
The transportation and communication systems of Catalonia are integrated with other regions of Spain. The most recent event this year was in October 2015, when the Catalonia train network underwent suspected sabotage resulting in routes from Barcelona, Madrid, and the French border to be interrupted. Robber had stole fiber optic communications cables causing around 9,500 passengers to be delayed.
Barcelona, the capital of Catalonia region, was the first major city in Spain to implement rail lines and despite the high unemployment and economic conditions in Spain, the Catalonia region attracts more foreign businesses and multinationals as it is a port city and has good infrastructure. Its naval technology is advanced and its ever-expanding port is the ninth largest container shipment center. Thus, its transportation system is advanced enough to sustain an independent Catalonia.
Catalonia has been making progress towards becoming a safe, eco-efficient and low carbon region, based on resource efficiency consumption and minimizing their impacts on health and the environment in Catalonia.
Catalonia has a climate that permits diversified agriculture. South of Catalonia has been a principal region of concentrated irrigated horticulture. Orange trees, orchard fruits, rice, and vegetables were produced in this region, and farther to the south, fig trees and nut trees were grown. Catalonia would be able to sustain itself through its own agriculture if it were independent; however, their food and agriculture sector works well integrated with Spain as well.

Catalonia is working on improving their agriculture and green technology. For instance, they are working with the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) to convert agricultural waste into animal feed through the European research project NOSHAN. According to the FAO, global food production for the year 2050 will have to increase by 70% in order to feed the world population, which will rise from 7 to 9 billion people. While the United Nations estimates that over 1.3 billion tonnes of food is wasted each year worldwide, 89 million of which come from the EU and 8 million from Spain.


In Catalonia resides around 465,000 muslims, out of which 10% are thought ‘radicals’
The Ministries Relation to the Crisis Theme

Terrorism is defined as the premeditated use or threat of use of violence by individuals or subnational groups to obtain a political or social objective through the intimidation of a large audience, beyond that of the immediate victim. Although the motives of terrorists may differ, their actions follow a standard pattern with terrorist incidents assuming a variety of forms: airplane hijackings, kidnappings, assassinations, threats, bombings, and suicide attacks. Terrorist attacks are intended to apply sufficient pressures to a government so that it grants political concessions.

Transportation, Technology and Communication
Transportation, technology and communication have already changed the nature of society and continue to have further extensive effects on business, industry, and individuals. Spain is a global leader in transportation and technology, as seven Spanish companies build or manage 40% of the principal transport enterprises in the world, mainly airports, ports and highways. Furthermore, within the European Union, a Spanish company monitors all of Germany’s airspace and Spanish companies are expanding Heathrow Airport in London and also manage different sections of this international hub.
Spain’s high-speed railway system is present in 5 continents and has served as a model by other countries to follow. Spain’s latest high-profile railway projects include leading the construction and maintenance of a high-speed railway system linking Mecca-Jeddah-Medina in the Middle East and the design and construction of a high speed line in Turkey linking the Asian and European sides. There have been discussions about the Strait of Gibraltar crossing, setting up a bridge or tunnel linking Morocco (Africa) and Spain (Europe).
Spain is currently one of the few countries in the world capable of designing, manufacturing, assembling, certifying and maintaining a full airplane. Spain is involved in these processes with the two leading airline companies, Boeing and Airbus. Spain is the world's second manufacturer of airplanes for military transport, in-flight refueling and missions and has lead important projects such as the Eurofighter simulator and military naval technology. Another important high-profile project includes engineering projects in the Panama Canal.
Spain also contributes to space technology, with helping manufacture satellites and space exploration programs. Spain is the second largest automobile manufacturer after Germany, with 90% of Spanish cars exported abroad to around 130 countries. With Spanish unemployment at 24 percent, the Spanish government has allowed more foreign automotive companies, such as Ford, to set up operation plants as the labor costs are lower and they have more accepted flexible work practices.
In addition, Spain is a global leader in the development and implementation of electronic ID technologies and biometric solutions. Spain's electronic ID card and passport is one of the world's most ambitious and pioneering experiences. In e-government, Spain is the world's ninth most advanced country, and fifth in Europe.
The March 2004 bombings of commuter trains in Spain perpetuated by al-Qaeda was the deadliest terrorist attack in Spain’s history, killing around 200 people and injuring more than 1,800 people. Terrorism continues to be a threat to Spain and the European Union. Just recently this November 2015, police prevented a terrorist attack by breaking up a jihadist terror cell, linked to ISIS. The suspects were all young Moroccans between the ages of 26 and 29 that were radicalized in Madrid, rather than overseas. On top of ISIS and other radical Islamic groups, the Spanish government has threats from the ETA, a Basque group labeled a terrorist organization by the United States and the European Union.
It is essential to develop more effective preventative measures to combat terrorism. Transport systems are increasingly targeted because they are used by millions of people a day and are easily accessed because they lack strong security, like an airport. Furthermore, the typical passenger density in a railway or subway station is very high which enables heavy substantial casualties caused with a relatively small device. Furthermore, as Spain is investing in extensive overseas projects in the Middle East region, Spain needs to be on high-alert for terrorist activities within their borders.
Some counter-terrorism strategies that Spain can use to limit terrorist activities in transport systems include:

• Spain’s ID technologies and biometric solutions can be a pivotal role in monitoring border security throughout Spain and the European Union

• Better monitoring of passenger name record (PNR) data for law enforcement purposes

• Cooperative and comparative research between Spain and the EU in order to understand the probabilities, possibilities, and problems associated with security issues relating to the transport and communication systems

• Utilizing the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) for combating terrorist activities

• More security enforcement at railway stations

• Training, monitoring and assessing of transport security personnel

• Monitor social media for terrorist activity to stop mobilization and communication

• Establish the Schengen Information System (SISII)

• Develop common standards on civil aviation, port and maritime security

• In the event of an attack, have a rapid sharing of military resources, operational support and media coordination amongst the EU member states
Justice
A report or complaint (denuncia) has to be made by the injured party in order for the police to be noticed of the crime. Otherwise when the police is called to a reported crime scene and there the police will themselve make the initial complaint (atestado policial). From there then as soon as possible a consular officer is offered to assist the detainee after receiving announcement of his/hers arrest. Upon the arrest then the person has to be informed about their rights and the reason of their detention.
For people who have been victims of terrorists acts the governent supports them with a special unit which assists them. The victims usually are contacted by social workers right after the medical and security state allows to do so. They will be filled in with the necessary information for the victims and families and get the help they need to recover. They get support to faciltate their recovery throughout the whole criminel proceedures. Legal Aid is provided for the victims, free of costs.

The ministry of justice has created an office of information and Assistance to victims of terrorism at the Audiencia Nacional.


Tourism
Tourism accounts for 11 percent of Spain’s economy and in recent years it has helped greatly to keep Spain’s economy going. Being the third most visited country in the world, it is the most visited country in Europe, with the summer bringing the greatest number of tourists to Spain. Last year from January to August, 42.3 million tourists came to Spain. That is 4.5 percent tourists than the year before. The main reasons why tourists come to visit Spain are the warm climate, sunny beaches, it’s spicy cuisine, their superb wine, impressive monuments and heritages and it’s beautiful music and dancing. During 2015, one of the biggest reasons why a greater number of tourists decided to travel to Spain and broke the record of number of tourist was because of less people wanting to visit other countries such as Egypt, Turkey and France due to the terrorist activities in those countries. Therefore, many tourists opted to go to Spain, instead of putting themselves at risk of terrorist attacks.
In mid-2015 Spain launched a terror safety attack over the fear of an ISIS tourist attack. Officers have increased security on beaches in Spain due to their fears of them being targeted. Spain set up security measures including having the Civil Guard working with other EU countries security police forces, such as the French Gendarmerie, the Royal Moroccan Gendarmerie, the Portuguese National Republican Guard, German state police and Italian Carabinieri police to protect tourists abroad. Another way Spain makes travel to their country more appealing is by reducing the prices, as terrorism changes the behaviour of travel patterns amongst Europeans. Spain is incorporating more crisis management and security planning into their policies to prevent being an easy terrorist target. Since the biggest terrorist attack in Spain in 2004, Spain has rebuilt their image of safety and attractiveness to help economic recovery in the local travel and tourism industry. Spain urges other EU member states not to get discouraged by terrorist attacks and continue to keep their tourist industry up with increased safety and security measures.

Environment
Spain faces many environmental challenges, the biggest challenges include: deforestation, air pollution, quality and quantity of water nationwide, and desertification. Some of these problems arise due to extensive cutting of forest, forest fires, carbon dioxide emissions, overgrazing, human mismanagement and dumping of oil, gas production, and raw sewage waste in the Mediterranean Sea.

Spain is also vulnerable to oil pollution from tankers which travel the shipping routes near the nation's shores. Spain's cities produce about 13.8 million tons of solid waste per year.


The government of Spain has tackled some of these issues by:
• Managing protected areas and developing a national biodiversity strategy as implemented by Natura 2000

• Matching policies and commitments to climate change with the EU and Kyoto Protocol

• Revising water management systems

• Encouraging eco-friendly vehicles and electric vehicles



• Reducing dependency on oil imports
Despite these challenges, Spain has taken on an active leading role in producing and managing energy resources. Spain was the first European country in production of wind power and is the top wind producer of wind power. Spain is a global leader in photovoltaic solar energy, thermosolar energy, solar energy and manufacturer of wind turbines. Through R&D&D investment, Spain has invested in the research and development of renewable energy sources. Spain is also invested in supplying power sources and electricity in Mexico and Latin America. Spain has been developing water treatment and reverse osmosis desalination technology.
There have been several cases of eco-terrorism in Spain; however, the threat is pretty limited compared to other terrorist activities. There have been some cases of forest fires in Spain caused by accidents and reckless behavior, but are not pin pointed to actual terrorist group. Causing forest fires are treated as a criminal offence in Spain even if unintentional.
One of the technologies that have been developed to monitor the forests and environments in Spain include tiny unmanned aircrafts. The images help the government monitor and respond to the forest fires. This same technology is now being applied to combat terrorism. Spanish companies have been designing very tiny helicopters and planes with cameras (including infrared to see at night) and microphones to record conversations and ID potential terrorists quickly. This also gives them the opportunity to track their movements.
Food and Agriculture
Most of Spain is semiarid and the only about 40% of the land is suitable for cultivation as the general soil quality is poor and the rough terrain makes it a challenge for agricultural technology. Despite these conditions, Spain has made some notable developments in their agriculture sections consisting of both irrigated and non-irrigated crops. Most of Spain’s irrigated crops account for around 50% of the value of the agriculture exports and include products such as corn, fruit trees, vegetables, grapes, cotton, sugar beets, potatoes, legumes, olive trees, strawberries, tomatoes, and fodder grasses. Furthermore, Spain has been a top exporter of seafood products to places such as France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal and Brazil.
Most recently, barley has been the top domestic crop in Spain; however, due to the economic recession its production along with other traditional crops, such as grapes, wheat, and olives has decreased steadily over a period within the last decade. However, maize, tomatoes and oranges showed a increases in production. As a way to compensate for these agricultural production decreases, many of Spain’s food industries have been offering special reduced menu items for consumers. Furthermore, organic crops and farming methods are becoming more popular and encouraged by the Spanish government.
Agriculture now accounts for only 2.7 percent of the Spanish economy, down from 4.2 percent 10 years ago, and for 5 percent of the workforce, compared with 8 percent in 1995. Theses trends are due to the economic challenges, decrease in population and increase in unemployment that also not only affect the agriculture, but the value sales of packaged food products. These factors have caused consumers to purchase food packages that offer high nutritional content at an affordable price (Euromonitor International, 2014).
Given the recent terrorist activity in Europe, it should be noted that the terrorism impacts the food and agricultural sector indirectly. However, there can also be a potential direct impact as illustrated by the 1981 Spanish “cooking oil scandal.” This scandal was the most devastating food poisoning and food terrorist attack in modern European history.
The death toll was more than a 1000 deaths and caused injury to more than 25,000 victims who became permanently disabled. This disaster took form through a chemical agent present in cooking oil and multinational interests tried to cover up the scandal.
Spain and other EU member states facing demands on their resources, terrorist threats and possible food terrorism should revise and develop public health emergency and security measures. Listed below are some recommendations to counter food terrorist threats:

• Develop national system to respond to food and agricultural terrorist threats

• Most vulnerable foods and food processes should be identified and protected greater

• Foods which are most widely disseminate or spread should be double checked

• The least supervised food production areas and processes should be monitored
Health
The healthcare system is ranked among the best in the world. For spanish citizens who live and work in spain get the free healthcare, which is partially paid by the social security payments and the rest will be taken off their salary. This is a special pay-in scheme (Conveino Especial) that is offered nation-wide, however, it does not count for children, they do not have to enter the Convenio Especial for healthcare, since theirs is free because of the Spanish law protection.

Public and Private healthcare is offered in Spain, it does not mean you need private healthcare for medical treatement, it only provides you faster treatement for non-emergency procedures.


Spain spends about 10% of their GDP on healthcare, also it has a great health technologies and ranks high in many aspects. It ranked first in europe for biotechnology, third in the world in the field of grobiotechnology and then fift in the world for biochemistry and molecular biology

The world third largest producer of blood products and plasma, diagnostic system, and medical and healthcare treatement company is Spanish.

Furthermore Spain ranks highest in donation rate in the world, they’re rate is at 35.3 onnars per million peopl, which almost doubles the EU rate and is 8 point above United States. Their transplant model managament is considered examplary and now being started to be implemented in most parts of the world, as it is an innovative and very efficicient system to manage communication and the transfer for transplants in the right center. This way of management has been recommended by WHO (World Health Organization), as it consists of ways to advance organ donations more.

Similar results were found in the countries the managament has been set.


Immigration and Refugees
In March 1984 the law on the right to Asylum and refugees status has passed and in 1994 it has been amended and so it is the main piece of legislation that governs the refugee status in Spain.

Just like any other country in Europe Spain has been taking refugees in the past few years as like in 2012 they’ve taken in about 2,500, in 2013 is was around 4,500, in 2014 it came up 6,000 and in the last six months of 2015 it has been 6,000. However Spain has only a capacity of accommodating around 1,000 refugees and so they can only stay six months. Only under special circumstances and for particular vulnerable people that period can be renewed.


Since the incidents in paris, there have been few threats that terrorists will lead attacks throughout Europe and so spain shares those threats.

Sixty terrorist suspects with connections to the Islamist extremist groups, more particularly to the Islamist State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), have been arrested by the spanish authorities in 2015.

A recent study has shown that jihadist activity in Spain has increased in the number of radical activist wich own the spanish citizenship in the past years. 120 individuals that have been suspected to be involved in Islamist Terrorism activities have been arrested by the law enforcement agencies since 2013 until the 15th of november 2015. Within those suspects 45% were of Spanish nationality.

Still the Spanish Minister of Defense Pedro Morenés speaks against the restictions to the entry refugees fleeing war zones based on the suppositions, that some jihadist could blunder into the European Union. He says:

‘ We cannot equate immigrants and refugees with terrorists. We cannot stop humanitarian acion just because it may pose a risk. What we need to do is to minimize the risk.’

At the sea boarder of Gibraltar and Morocco, €2.3m has beeen spent they have been putting more control forces so that they can keep track and check for refugees who try to cross the mediterranean sea illegally, this way spain has a better overview of who is trying to enter the country. They also prevent death through dangerous attempts to come in the country by unstable boats or risky boat rides, where they have to hide in unsafe places. They were able to observe the decrease of the number of refugees trying to enter by those chancy conditions and so this can be a likely temporary solution.


Education, Youth and Culture
Education is compulsory between the ages of six and sixteen considering no years have been repeated. Education is a state-funded and so free, however, they must pay for their own school materials.

There are three categories of Spanish school in their education system public schools (colegios pùblicos), state-funded state private schools (colegios concertados) and then there are private schools (colegios privados).


Youth unemployement is second highest in th European right after Greece, it’s now up to 55%. One out of four spanish people are not educated, are not employed or trained they are between 19 and 29.
Since the economic crisis a big concern for spain is unemployement, but also the radicalisation of youth.

There are reportadly about 100 radical Wahhabi mosques in Spain and two radical Muslim TV channels is now broadcasting from spain.

Within the radical activist with spanish nationality 60.9% were between the ages of 15 and 29, while 15.9 % were woman and 13.1 were converts to the Islam.
Economic and Financial Affairs
After WWII, Spain’s economy was depleted causing high levels of unemployment and low levels of production resulting to rapid inflation and black markets. However, by the 1950s Spain was able to evolve into a more liberal, free market economy and by the end of the 1950s, Spain’s austerity plan stabilized the economy and created foreign investments. Nonetheless, these reforms resulted into high levels of unemployment and by the 1960s, the economy in Spain began to move forward due to rapid industrial growth (e.g tourism, automotive industries, overseas investments) creating a period known as the “Spanish Miracle.” It wasn’t until the 1970s, like the rest of the world, Spain once again fell in economic decline due to the oil crisis. From the 1970s onwards, with free markets, private investments, social security, and eliminating unnecessary governmental agencies, foreign investment grew and there was greater economic stability. The recession in the 1990s brought about some economic challenges, but in the late 1990s and early 2000s, Spain joining the Eurozone curbed unemployment and helped progress the economy. However, from 2008 onwards, Spain has been facing many economic challenges and continues to face recession, high unemployment and economic hardships. Some measures that can be used to combat these challenges include:
• Adopting austerity measures set out by Eurozone countries, such as England and Germany.

• Increase government regulation of the banking systems and lending

• Invest in more industries to create more jobs and exporting products based from the new industries

• Invest in education programs that provide free vocational training to help curb youth unemployment


Past and recent terrorist activity in Spain has significantly impacted the Spanish economy through a number of different ways. Some ways that terrorist incidents have had economic consequences on Spain are by destroying infrastructure, diverting foreign direct investment (FDI), redirecting public investment funds to security, or limiting trade. With the recent tragic events in Paris, this impacted Spain’s financial markets and economy as it discourages capital inflows.

Freqeuented


Spain’s Timeline



1959

The ETA, or basque homeland and freedom, founded as Spain enter the 20th year of the General Franco’s fascist dictatorship

1961

They attempt their first try on a large-scale operation by derailing a train that carries civil veterans travelling to San Sebastian to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the start of the spanish civil war.

They fail and in response the police with road controls, arrests, house searches and widespread use of torture.



1968

ETA* conducts its first murder by killing a police chief, Meliton Manzanas, in San Sebastian

1974

ETA is blamed for the bombing in central Madrid bar frequented by the police.

This attack kills 12 and seriously injures 69 people



1980

About 118 people are killed by ETA’s bloodiest year to date

December 2nd 1983

Basque group bombs 8 U.S facilities in Spanish basque territory to protest US involvement in Central America

May 8th 1985

Firebombing of US Citibank and Xenox buildings

July 21st 1999

Government releases two former ETA leaders hoping to end years of killing in basque

January 21st 2000

An old truce has been ended by Basque separatists which lasted 14-months and in which Pedro Antonio Blanco was killed through the car bomb.

May 6th 2001

Politician Manuel Jimenez killed in attack in Zaragoza; ETA blamed

May 12th 2001

ETA car bomb in central Madrid wounds 14 on eve of Basque vote.

July 10th 2001

GETA** car bomb attack kills one and wounds 12 in Madrid.

July 27th 2001

Bomb outside of Barcelona bank wounds three; GRAPO suspected.

August 18th 2001

Car bomb explodes in tourist area near Barcelona after warning call;

ETA responsible.



November 6th 2001

ETA car bomb detonates during rush hour in Madrid, wounding 100.

March 11th 2004

An Al Qaida local cell has set out 4 bombs as target the Madrid commuter rail network and killed about 191 people and injured around 2,050 people

July 29th 2009

Car bomb in Burgos left more than 60 wounded.

ETA claims responsibility.


*ETA - Euskadi Ta Askatana

(a basque nationalist and separatist organizations)

**GRAPO - Grupos de Resistencia Antifscista Primero de Octubre



( First of October Anti-Facist Resistance Group)

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