C. Trotsky created a disciplined and effective Red Army



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AP European History

Exam, Unit 11


1. Which of the following was a major factor responsible for the Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War?

a. The Bolsheviks controlled the periphery of the country.

b. The governments of France and Britain supported the Bolshevik cause with food and war supplies.

c. Trotsky created a disciplined and effective Red Army.

d. The Bolsheviks had the undivided support of the peasants.

e. The Bolsheviks refused to use the Cheka to subdue the opposition.
2. Of the following, which of Wilson's Fourteen Points was fully implemented?

a. "Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety."

b. "Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at..."

c. "A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims."



d. "All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Loraine...should be righted..."

e. "A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality."


3. Historically, which of the following factors has proved LEAST necessary for making a successful revolution?

a. Support of the military forces.

b. Well-organized revolutionary leaders.

c. Grievances providing motivation to revolt.



d. Active participation of the majority of the citizens.

e. Ineptitude of the government in power.


4. Which of the following best explains the motivation of the Bolshevik government in signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918?

a. The Bolshevik government made no claim to authority in non-Russian-speaking territories.

b. Lenin was sympathetic to the German cause and felt that the treaty would aid the German war effort on the western front.

c. Lenin was attracted by German promises to aid Russia industrial development.



d. Lenin was not willing to risk his limited power base through further struggle against a foreign enemy.

e. The Bolsheviks thought the Allies were on the verge of victory against Germany.


5. "We see men living with their skulls blown open; we see soldiers run with their two feet cut off....Still the littlest piece of convulsed earth in which we lie is held. We have yielded no more than a few hundred yards of it as a prize to the enemy. But on every yard there lies a dead man." The quotation presents a theme in:

a. Emile Zola's Germinal

b. Albert Camus' The Stranger

c. T.S. Eliot's The Waste Land

d. James Joyce's Ulysses

e. Erich Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front
6. Most historians would agree with which of the following descriptions of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919?

a. A treaty that spelled out the Soviet Union's reparation obligations

b. A triumph of farsighted political and economic planning

c. A treaty that dismantled the British Empire

d. A destructive peace dictated by the United States

e. A treaty that the defeated thought too harsh and the victors thought too lenient
7. The immediate cause of the 1905 Russian Revolution was social strain resulting from:

a. the agitation of the Russian Social Democratic party

b. the mass emigration of skilled workers to the New World

c. attempts by the government to reform the Russian Orthodox Church

d. the demands of ethnic groups for political autonomy

e. Russian losses in the Russo-Japanese War
8. Which of the following provisions affecting Germany in the Versailles Treaty was LEAST important in fostering antagonisms that led to the Second World War?

a. The loss of Germany's Pacific island possessions

b. The creation of the Polish Corridor and the establishment of Danzig as a self-governing city within the Polish tariff area.

c. The payment by Germany of reparations for war damages.

d. The limitation of the Germany army to 100,000 soldiers

e. The assignment of sole responsibility for planning and instigating the war to Germany.
9. Which of the following spared Europe a general multinational war during the second half of the nineteenth century?

a. A system of interlocking alliances

b. Europe's preoccupation with industrial development

c. The strength of the German army

d. Fear of Ottoman expansion into the rest of Europe

e. A policy of free and unrestricted trade
10. In 1917 the Bolsheviks sought to rally support from the Russian people with which of the following slogans?

a. "Peace, bread, and land"

b. "Socialism in one country"

c. "Blood and iron"

d. "Family, work, and fatherland"

e. "Liberty, equality, and fraternity"
11. Which of the following factors most stimulated the entrance of large numbers of women into the labor force in many European countries during the First World War?

a. The decline in the average size of families

b. The increase in divorce rates

c. Women suffrage

d. The spread of Wilson's principles

e. The shortage in the labor supply
12. Which of the following was NOT a military innovation first used during World War I?

a. tanks


b. poison gas

c. trench warfare

d. airplanes

e. flamethrowers
13. All of the following were among President Wilson’s Fourteen Points EXCEPT:

a. an independent Poland

b. absolute freedom of navigation

c. the limitation of armaments

d. the autonomous development of the peoples of Austria-Hungary

e. the autonomous development of the peoples of the Russian Empire

“The Allied and Associated Governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage…as a consequence of the war.”

--The Treaty of Versailles, 1919
14. Which of the following best states one purpose of the treaty clause above?

a. To give the League of Nations the power to impose economic and military sanctions

b. To provide a basis for international disarmament talks

c. To encourage independence for European colonies

d. To include Germany in the peace negotiations

e. To justify large reparations payments from Germany


15. On the map above, the shaded state is:

a. Poland

b. Hungary

c. Greece



d. Serbia

e. Bulgaria


16. Unlike Marx, Lenin emphasized that:

a. revolution is not necessary for the triumph of communism

b. the peasantry rather than the proletariat would lead the communist revolution

c. the elimination of private control of the means of production is necessary to bring about a socialist society



d. the working class, on its own, would not develop revolutionary consciousness

e. communist cooperation with liberal political parties is necessary to bring about socialism


17. The gradual decline of the Ottoman Empire which occurred during the nineteenth century created the most serious diplomatic and political tension between which of the following?

a. Austria and Prussia



b. Austria and Russia

c. France and Russia

d. Russia and Greece

e. Russia and Prussia


18. All of the following resulted from the First World War (1914-1918) EXCEPT:

a. increased government regulation of the economy

b. the entrance of large numbers of women into the work force

c. a decline in the use of mass political propaganda

d. the democratization of society through shared suffering

e. an increase in the power and prestige of labor unions
19. A major goal of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck's foreign policy after the unification of Germany in 1871 was to:

a. provide for the encirclement of Russia, Germany's major enemy in the east

b. project German power into the Balkan peninsula

c. isolate a French nation bent on vengeance after the Franco-Prussian War

d. compete with Great Britain in the construction of large battleships

e. gain colonies in Africa and Asia


20. The purpose of the British poster above was to:

a. shame able-bodied men into volunteering for military service

b. encourage fathers to remain at home with their children

c. discourage enlistment by white-collar workers

d. commemorate those who had died in the First World War

e. highlight the differences between the First and Second Wars
21. The diplomacy of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck (1862-90) was designed to prevent an alliance forming between which two nations?

a. Austria-Hungary and Russia

b. Great Britain and France

c. Italy and Austria-Hungary



d. France and Russia

e. Great Britain and Italy


22. Which of the following is true regarding the onset of the First World War?

a. governments and populations were unprepared for the war’s length and extent

b. the military plans and strategies of the Great Powers were largely fulfilled

c. the declaration of war was greeted among the public with widespread opposition

d. a conference among the Great Powers nearly averted the conflict

e. Russia remained neutral pending the outcome of Austria’s campaign against Serbia
23. The principal reason why the Provisional Government in Russia did not win popular support in 1917 was:

a. its decision to make peace with Germany

b. its weak alliance with the Ottoman Empire

c. further setbacks in fighting World War I

d. the restoration of Nicholas II to the throne

e. the attack by the Japanese on Port Arthur
24. The Schlieffen Plan developed by Germany before the outbreak of war in 1914:

a. included provisions for a secret invasion of England

b. was a plan to support the Russian invasion of the Ottoman Empire

c. was opposed by the Kaiser but implemented anyway

d. relied on the use of unrestricted submarine warfare

e. was designed to fight a two-front war against France and Russia
25. Popular opinion in Germany, France, and Russia largely reacted to the outbreak of war in 1914 with:

a. horror and aversion

b. resigned acceptance

c. great enthusiasm

d. fear of defeat

e. puzzlement and perplexity
26. Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany is best characterized as:

a. farseeing and statesmanlike

b. mature and seasoned

c. uncultured and brutish



d. unstable and reactive

e. democratic and libertarian


27. Trench warfare was established along the Western Front early in World War I because:

a. airplanes allowed most of the fighting to be done in the skies

b. improvement in the rifle made snipers the principal combatants

c. neither side had adequate cavalry to break holes in opposing lines



d. defensive weapons had gained the advantage over offensive ones

e. the terrain made it difficult to assemble large armies


28. The United States entered World War I in 1917 for all of the following reason EXCEPT:

a. Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare



b. Woodrow Wilson’s belligerent policy

c. Anglophilia

d. the sinking of the Lusitania

e. the Zimmerman Telegram

29. The primary purpose of the First World War poster shown above was to:

a. encourage women to serve in the armed forces along with men

b. encourage and facilitate female recruitment in the munitions industry

c. encourage men to volunteer for military service

d. evacuate women and children to rural areas for safety

e. persuade families to house soldiers
30. France regained which of the following as part of the peace settlement after the First World War?

a. Alsace-Lorraine

b. Burgundy

c. Flanders

d. The Rhineland

e. The Ruhr
31. As a result of the 1905 Revolution, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia agreed to:

a. withdraw from the Russo-Japanese War

b. break up the system of communal landholding and farming

c. abdicate in favor of his son



d. create a national legislative assembly

e. assist the Pan-Slavic movement in the Balkans


32. Which of the following authors wrote of the suffering of soldiers fighting during the First World War?

a. James Joyce

b. Charles Beaudelaire

c. Erich Maria Remarque

d. Thomas Mann

e. Leo Tolstoy
33. The Provisional Government in Russia (1917) failed primarily because:

a. it did not institute universal suffrage



b. it continued to pursue an unpopular war

c. it lost the support of the nobility by redistributing land to the peasants

d. its leader insisted on “peace at any price” with Germany

e. its leaders attempted to reinstate the tsar


34. After the First World War, it was difficult to write a peace treaty according to Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points primarily because:

a. the Great Depression caused the Allies to insist on reparations



b. the Allies had secret treaties that conflicted with the Fourteen Points

c. Germany would not accept the Fourteen Points

d. Wilson had disavowed the Fourteen Points after Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare

e. Wilson and his Fourteen Points were largely unknown in Europe


35. One major consequence of the First World War was

a. a long period of peace and stability in Europe

b. the reestablishment of the Ottoman Empire

c. the start of the Russian Revolution

d. greater prosperity for Great Britain and France

e. greater Italian influence in European diplomacy
36. The Treaty of Berlin in 1878 reflected general European agreement on which of the following?

a. Reduction of tariff and trade barriers

b. The status of Poland

c. The building of a railroad to Baghdad



d. Boundaries and spheres of influence in the Balkans

e. Reductions and limits on armaments


37. Of the following, which contributed most to Germany’s defeat in the First World War?

a. The spread of influenza among the German army and civilian population



b. The effects of the Allied naval blockade

c. The Allied use of submarine warfare



d. The collapse of the Russian army in 1917

e. The Allied threat to use poison gas


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