By john g. Nioolay and john hay



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From a photograph by Brady.

david davis 304

From a photograph by Brady.

james K. polk 320

From a photograph by Brady.

franklin pierce 336

From a photograph by Brady.

ILLT7STEATIONS xvii

PAGE

ltman trumbull .,. ...„.*,.. 368

Prom a photograph by Brady.

owen lovejoy 384

From a photograph.

david E. atchison 400

Prom a daguerreotype.

andrew H. eeeder ..... 416

Prom a photograph by B, Knecht.

james H. lane 432

By permission of the Strowbridge Lithographing Co.

MAPS vol. I

PAGE

map showing localities connected with early events in

the lincoln family 20

map of new salem, ill., and vicinity 80

map of the boundaries of texas 256

historical map of the united states in 1854 354

TABLE OF CONTENTS

vol. I chapter I. lineage

The Lincolns in America. Intimacy with the Boones.
Kentucky in 1780. Death of Abraham Lincoln the
Pioneer. Marriage of Thomas Lincoln. Birth and
Childhood of Abraham . 1

chaptee II. indiana

Thomas Lincoln leaves Kentucky. Settles at Gentry-
ville. Death of Nancy Hanks Lincoln. Sarah Bush
Johnston. Pioneer Life in Indiana. Sports and
Superstitions of the Early Settlers. The Youth of
Abraham. His Great Physical Strength. His "Voyage
to New Orleans. Removal to Illinois 28

chapter III. illinois in 1830

The Winter of the Deep Snow. The Sudden Change.
Pioneer Life. Religion and Society. French and
Indians. Formation of the Political System. The
Courts. Lawyers and Politicians. Early Super­
annuation 47

chapter IV. new salem

Denton Offutt. Lincoln's Second Trip to New Orleans. His Care of His Family. Death of Thomas Lincoln. Offutt's Store in New Salem. Lincoln's Initiation by the " Clary's Grove Boys." The Voyage of the

Talisman . 70

xix

XX TABLE OF CONTENTS

chaptee Y. lincoln in the black hawk wae

Black Hawk. The Call for Volunteers. Lincoln
Elected Captain. Stillman's Run. Lincoln Reenlists.
The Spy Battalion. Black Hawk's Defeat. Disband-
ment of the Volunteers
87

chaptee VI. sueveyoe and repeesentative

Lincoln's Candidacy for the Legislature. Runs as a
Whig. Defeated. Berry and Lincoln Merchants.
Lincoln Begins the Study of Law. Postmaster.
Surveyor. His Popularity. Elected to the Legis­
lature, 1834 101

chaptee VII. legislative expeeience

Lincoln's First Session in the Legislature. Douglas
and Peek. Lincoln Reflected. Bedlam Legislation.
Schemes of Railroad Building. Removal of the Capi­
tal to Springfield 123

chaptee VIII. the lincoln-stone peotest

The Pro-Slavery Sentiment in Illinois. Attempt to Open the State to Slavery. Victory of the Free-State Party. Reaction. Death of Lovejoy. Pro-Slavery Resolutions. The Protest ....... 140

chaptee IX. , collapse of "the system"

Lincoln in Springfield. The Failure of the Railroad
System. Fall of the Banks. First Collision with
Douglas. Tampering with the Judiciary 153

chaptee X. eaely law peactice

Early Legal Customs. Lincoln's Popularity in Law
and Politics. A Speech in 1840. The Harrison
Campaign. Correspondence with Stuart. Harrison
Elected. Melancholia 167

chaptee XI. maeeiage

Courtship and Engagement, The Pioneer Tempera­
ment. Lincoln's Love Affairs. Joshua F. Speed.
Lincoln's Visit to Kentucky. Correspondence with
Speed. Marriage 186

TABLE OF CONTENTS xxi

chapter XII. the shields duel

A Political Satire. James Shields. Lincoln Chal­
lenged. A Fight Arranged and Prevented. Subse­
quent Wranglings. The Whole Matter Forgotten.
An Admonition 203

chapter XIII. the campaign of 1844

Partnership with Stephen T. Logan. Lincoln Becomes
a Lawyer. Temperance Movement. Baker and Lin­
coln Candidates for the Whig Nomination to Congress.
Baker Successful. Clay Nominated for President.
The Texas Question. Clay Defeated 213

chapter XIV. lincoln's campaign for congress

Schemes of Annexation. Opposition at the North.
Outbreak of War. Lincoln Nominated for Congress.
His Opponent Peter Cartwright. Lincoln Elected.
The Whigs in the War. E. D. Baker in Washington
and Mexico 237

chapter XV. the thirtieth congress

Robert C. Winthrop Chosen Speaker. Debates on the
War. Advantage of the Whigs. Acquisition of Terri­
tory. The Wilmot Proviso. Lincoln's Resolutions.
Nomination of Taylor for President. Cass the Demo­
cratic Candidate. Lincoln's Speech, July 27, 1848.
Taylor Elected 258

chapter XVI. A fortunate escape

Independent Action of Northern Democrats. Lin­
coln's Plan for Emancipation in the District of Co­
lumbia. His Bill Fails to Receive Consideration. A
Similar Bill Signed by Him Fifteen Years Later.
Logan Nominated for Congress and Defeated. Lin­
coln an Applicant for Office. The Fascination of
Washington 283

chapter XVII. the circuit lawyer

The Growth and Change of Legal Habits. Lincoln on the Circuit. His Power and Value as a Lawyer.

xxii TABLE OF CONTENTS

Opinion of David Davis. Of Judge Drummond. In­
cidents of the Courts. Lincoln's "Wit and Eloquence.
His Life at Home 298

chapter XVIII. the balance of poweb

Origin of the Slavery Struggle. The Ordinance of
1787. The Compromises of the Constitution. The
Missouri Compromise. Cotton and the Cotton-Gin.
The Race between Free and Slave States. The Admis­
sion of Texas. The Wilmot Proviso. New Mexico
and California. The Compromise Measures of 1850.
Finality 310

chapter XIX. eepeal of the missouri compromise

Stephen A. Douglas. Old Fogies and Young America.
The Nomination of Pierce. The California Gold Dis­
covery. The National Platforms on the Slavery Issue.
Organization of Western Territories. The Three Ne­
braska Bills. The Caucus Agreement of the Senate
Committee. Dixon's Repealing Amendment. Douglas
Adopts Dixon's Proposition. Passage of the Kansas-
Nebraska Act 330

chapter XX. the drift of politics

The Storm of Agitation. The Free Soil Party. The American Party. The Anti-Nebraska Party. Dissolu­tion of the Whig Party. The Congressional Elections. Democratic Defeat. Banks Elected Speaker .... 352

chapter XXI. lincoln and trumbull

The Nebraska Question in Illinois. Douglas's Chicago Speech. Lincoln Reappears in Politics. Political Speeches at the State Fair. A Debate between Lincoln and Douglas. Lincoln's Peoria Speech. An Anti-Nebraska Legislature Elected. Lincoln's Candidacy for the Senate. Shields and Matteson. Trumbull Elected Senator. Lincoln's Letter to Robertson. . . 365

chapter XXII. the border ruffians

The Opening of Kansas Territory. Andrew H, Reeder Appointed Governor. Atchison's Propaganda. The

TABLE OF CONTENTS xxiii

Missouri Blue Lodges. The Emigrant Aid Company.
The Town of Lawrence Founded. Governor Reeder's
Independent Action. The First Border Ruffian In­
vasion. The Election of Whitfield 393

chapter XXIII. the bogus laws

Governor Reeder's Census. The Second Border Ruffian Invasion. Missouri Voters Elect the Kansas Legis­lature. Westport and Shawnee Mission. The Governor Convenes the Legislature at Pawnee. The Legislature Returns to Shawnee Mission. Governor Reeder's Vetoes. The Governor's Removal. Enactment of the Bogus Laws. Despotic Statutes. Lecompton Founded 408

chapter XXIV. the topeka constitution

The Bogus Legislature Defines Kansas Politics. The
Big Springs Convention. Ex-Governor Reeder's Res­
olutions. Formation of the Free-State Party. A
Constitutional Convention at Topeka. The Topeka
Constitution. President Pierce Proclaims the Topeka
Movement Revolutionary. Refusal to Recognize the
Bogus Laws. Chief-Justice Lecompte's Doctrine of
Constructive Treason, Arrests and Indictment of the
Free-State Leaders. Colonel Sumner Disperses the
Topeka Legislature
425

chapter XXY. civil war in kansas

Wilson Shannon Appointed Governor. The Law and
Order Party Formed at Leavenworth. Sheriff Jones.
The Branson Rescue. The Wakarusa War. Sharps
Rifles. Governor Shannon's Treaty. Guerrilla Leaders
and Civil War. The Investigating Committee of Con­
gress. The Flight of Ex-Governor Reeder. The
Border Ruffians March on Lawrence. Burning of the
Free-State Hotel 438

ABRAHAM LINCOLN

CHAPTER I

LINEAGE


I


N the year 1780, Abraham Lincoln, a member of chap. i. a respectable and well-to-do family in Rocking- rrao. ham County, Virginia, started westward to establish himself in the newly-explored country of Kentucky. He entered several large tracts of fertile land, and returning to Virginia disposed of his property there, and with his wife and five children went back to Kentucky and settled in Jefferson County. Little is known of this pioneer Lincoln or of his father. Most of the records belonging to that branch of the family were destroyed in the civil war. Their early orphanage, the wild and illiterate life they led on the frontier, severed their con­nection with their kindred in the East. This , often happened; there are hundreds of families in the West bearing historic names and probably descended from well-known houses in the older States or in England, which, by passing through one or two generations of ancestors who could not read or write, have lost their continuity with the past as effectually as if a deluge had intervened vol. I—1

ABEAHAM LINCOLN

chap. i. between the last century and this. Even the patro­nymic has been frequently distorted beyond recog­nition by slovenly pronunciation during the years when letters were a lost art, and by the phonetic spelling of the first boy in the family who learned the use of the pen. There are Lincolns in Ken­tucky and Tennessee belonging to the same stock with the President, whose names are spelled " Link-horn" and "Linkhern." All that was known of the emigrant, Abraham Lincoln, by his immediate descendants was that his progenitors, who were Quakers, came from Berks County, Pennsylvania, into Virginia, and there throve and prospered.1 But we now know, with sufficient clearness, through the wide-spread and searching luster which surrounds the name, the history of the migrations of the family since its arrival on this continent, and the circumstances under which the Virginia pioneer started for Kentucky.

less. The first ancestor of the line of whom we have

knowledge was Samuel Lincoln, of Norwich, Eng­land, who came to Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638, and died there. He left a son, Mordecai, whose son, of the same name,—and it is a name which persists in every branch of the family,2—removed to Mon-mouth, New Jersey, and thence to Amity township,

1 We desire to express our obli- arisen in the attempt to trace
\ gations to Edwin Salter, Samuel their genealogy. For instance,

L. Smedley, Samuel Shackford, Abraham Lincoln, of Chester

Samuel W. Pennypacker, How- County, son of one Mordecai and

ard M. Jenkins, and John T. brother of another, the President's

Harris, Jr., for information and ancestors, left a fair estate, by

suggestions which have been of will, to his children, whose names

use to us in this chapter. were John, Abraham, Isaac,

2 The Lincolns, in naming their Jacob, Mordecai, Rebecca, and
children, followed so strict a tra- Sarah—precisely the same names
dition that great confusion has we find in three collateral families,

LINEAGE

now a part of Berks County, Pennsylvania, where chap, i. he died in 1735, fifty years old. From a copy of his will, recorded in the office of the Register in Phila­delphia, we gather that he was a man of considerable property. In the inventory of his effects, made after his death, he is styled by the appraisers, " Mordecai Lincoln, Gentleman." His son John received by his father's will " a certain piece of land lying in the Jerseys, containing three hundred acres," the other sons and daughters having been liberally provided for from the Pennsylvania property. This John Lincoln left New Jersey some years later, and about 1750 established himself in Rpckingham County, 1750. Virginia. He had five sons, to whom he gave the names which were traditional in the family: Abra­ham,—the pioneer first mentioned,—Isaac, Jacob, Thomas, and John. Jacob and John remained in Vir­ginia; the former was a soldier in the War of the Revolution, and took part as lieutenant in a Virginia regiment at the siege of Yorktown. Isaac went to a place on the Holston River in Tennessee; Thomas followed his brother to Kentucky, lived and died there, and his children then emigrated to Ten­nessee.1 "With the one memorable exception the family seem to have been modest, thrifty, unambi­tious people. Even the great fame and conspicu-ousness of the President did not tempt them out of their retirement. Robert Lincoln, of Hancock County, Illinois, a cousin-german, became a captain and commissary of volunteers; none of the others,

i It is an interesting eoinci- tiye of the President, performed,

denee, for the knowledge of which on the 17th of May, 1837, the

we are indebted to Colonel John marriage ceremony of Andrew

B. Brownlow, that a minister Johnson, Mr. Lincoln's succes-

named Mordecai Lincoln, a rela- sor in the Presidency.

ABKAHAM LINCOLN

chap. I.

so far as we know, ever made their existence known to their powerful kinsman during the years of his glory.1

It was many years after the death of the Presi­dent that his son learned the probable circum­stances under which the pioneer Lincoln removed to the West, and the intimate relations which sub­sisted between his family and the most celebrated man in early Western annals. There is little doubt that it was on account of his association with the, famous Daniel Boone that Abraham Lincoln went to Kentucky. The families had for a century been closely allied. There were frequent intermarriages2 among them—both being of Quaker lineage. By the will of Mordecai Lincoln, to which reference has been made, his " loving friend and neighbor "


1 Soon after Mr. Lincoln arrived in Washington in 1861, lie re­ceived the following letter from one of his Virginia kinsmen, the last communication which ever came from them. It was written on paper adorned with a portrait of Jefferson Davis, and was in­closed in an envelope emblazoned with the Confederate flag : "To abraham lincoln, Esq., President of the Northern Con­federacy.

" sir : Having just returned from a trip through Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee, permit me to inform you that you will get whipped out of your boots. To-day I met a gentleman from Anna, Illinois, and although he voted for you he says that the moment your troops leave Cairo they will get the spots knocked out of them. My dear sir, these are facts which time will prove to be correct.

"I am, sir, with every consid­eration, yours respectfully,

"minor lincoln, "Of the Staunton stock of Lin-coins."

There was a young Abraham Lincoln on the Confederate side in the Shenandoah distinguished for Ms courage and ferocity. He lay in wait and shot a Dunkard preacher, whom he suspected of furnishing information to the Union army. (Letter from Samuel W. Pennypacker.)

2 A letter from David J. Lincoln, of Birdsboro, Berks County, Penn­sylvania, to the writers, says, "My grandfather, Abraham Lincoln, was married to Anna Boone, a first cousin of Daniel Boone, July 10, 1760." He was half-brother of John Lincoln, and afterwards became a man of some prominence in Pennsylvania, serving in the Constitutional Convention in 1789-90.

LINEAG-E

G-eorge Boone was made a trustee to assist Ms chap. i. widow in the care of the property. Squire Boone, the father of Daniel, was one of the appraisers who made the inventory of Mordecai Lincoln's estate. The intercourse between the families was kept up after the Boones had removed to North Carolina and John Lincoln had gone to Virginia. Abraham Lincoln, son of John, and grandfather of the Presi­dent, was married to Miss Mary Shipleyl in North Carolina. The inducement which led him to leave Virginia, where his standing and his fortune were assured, was, in all probability, his intimate family relations with the great explorer, the hero of the new country of Kentucky, the land of fabulous richness and unlimited adventure. At a time when the Eastern States were ringing with the fame of the mighty hunter who was then in the prime of his manhood, and in the midst of those achieve­ments which will forever render him one of the

1 In giving to the wife of the pioneer Lincoln the name of Mary Shipley we follow the tradition in Ms family. The Hon. J. L. Nail, of Missouri, grandson of Nancy (Lincoln) Brumfield, Abra­ham Lincoln's youngest child, has given us so clear a statement of the ease that we cannot hesitate to accept it, although it conflicts with equally positive statements from other sources. The late Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy, who gave much intelligent effort to genealogical researches, was convinced that the Abraham Lincoln who married Miss Han­nah Winters, a daughter of Ann Boone, sister of the famous Daniel, was the President's grand­father, Waddell's "Annals of

Augusta County" says he married Elizabeth Winter, a cousin of Daniel Boone. The Boone and Lincoln families were large and there were frequent intermar­riages among them, and the patri­archal name of Abraham was a favorite one. There was still another Lincoln, Hannaniah by name, who was also intimately as­sociated with the Boones. His sig­nature appears on the surveyor's certificate for Abraham Lincoln's land in Jefferson County, and he joined Daniel Boone in 1798 in the purchase of the tract of land on the Missouri River where Boone died. (Letter from Bich-ard V. B. Lincoln, printed in the "Williamsport [Pa.] Banner," Feb, 25, 1881.)

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