Origins and Development
Harry Beckhough © April, 2004.
Germany's Four Reichs
Origins and Development, seeking
World Domination in ruthless terror.
by Harry Beckhough
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Harry Beckhough was born in Bristol in 1914. He is an Honours graduate of Bristol University in philology, specialising in German. Studying in Freiburg University in 1933 he witnessed Hitler's rise to power.
In WWII, he was commissioned in the Royal Artillery, served in India, until taken over by Bletchley Park, (Station X) as Codebreaker. He served with the 8th Army, breaking Rommel's signals and messages for Montgomery. After Alamein victory, he was recalled to India to serve with the 14th (Burma) Army, dealing with Japanese code signals.
On return home as Lt. Col. R.A./Int, he became S.O.I. (Senior Officer) with Foreign Office with the remit to resuscitate the Rhineland Universities of Cologne and Bonn. There he met regularly Dr. Konrad Adenauer C.D.U., Chancellor of the first post-war German Government, members of his family and Ministers. Over 4 years, to end 1950 he met many of the leading statesmen and prominent figures in Bonn, seat of the first Government. As an academic, in charge of the 2 Universities, they spoke freely to him of their plans for the future. He has extensive knowledge of Germany, and has explored the development of its aggressive nature from its earliest years.
This book reveals that inherited desire for domination which has been Germany's major characteristic through major wars and battles over the centuries, invariably ending in chaos, as exemplified by their leading German philosopher, Nietzsche.
Harry Beckhough © April, 2004.
Germany's Four Reichs
Origins and Development, seeking
World Domination in ruthless terror.
About the Author.
Germany's First Reich.
Germany's Second Reich.
Germany's Third Reich.
Germany's Fourth Reich:
- The New Beginning.
- The Plot Continues.
- Expanding by Ratchets.
- Adding the Finishing Touches.
- Key Features of German Deceit.
Harry Beckhough © April, 2004.
My reason for this direct entry into the ongoing debate on the European Union and its origins, is the strength of my personal knowledge and factual experience of Germany over many years. Added to my own research into the eternally aggressive intent of the German mindset, lust after power and domination of all Europe, East and West, and beyond, from the Atlantic to the Urals. A way of thinking, planning, plotting and lying deception, foreign to the British way of life, and unthinkable to our trusting nature.
As a language student in Germany, I witnessed Hitler's meteoric vault to power in 1933, snatching victory from Von Papen, originally chosen as worthy successor by Hindenburg. Then Hitler's hysterical, aggressive speeches, provoking the savage assaults by his brutal, bullying Nazi Brownshirts, and even more menacing cold-blooded, merciless behaviour of his chosen bodyguard, the black-clad SS executioners. I was dismayed to hear German philosophers like Heidegger at Freiburg University, and the Cologne Professor of Philosophy, writing and speaking in praise of Hitler, almost as a Wagnerian warlike hero.
After return home, I had the privilege of personal discussions with Winston Churchill, then Chancellor of Bristol University, who presented me personally with my degrees. I became his devoted follower, especially after his tremendous speech as "The Voice in the Wilderness". Deprived of all his offices, and finally relegated to the Back Benches by P.M. Chamberlain, cast aside by the appeasers and Nazi and Mussolini's fascist supporters, they failed to stop his determined, continuous warning of the warlike intent of Hitler.
Next, my war service in WWII, first with Royal Artillery in India, then transfer to Intelligence and Bletchley Park, to become code-breaker, first with 8th Army Desert Campaign, decoding Rommel's signals and campaign despatches, with translation for Montgomery, who claimed he could "read Rommel's mind". Followed by similar service with the 14th (Burma) Army against the Japanese.
Finally, Foreign Office remit to reopen and resuscitate the German Rhineland Universities of Cologne and Bonn, from end 1945 to end of 1950. There I met and became friendly with Dr. Konrad Adenauer, famous Oberbürgermeister (elected Lord Mayor) of Cologne, until deposed by the stupid act of a British General (newly appointed), who sent a junior officer to dismiss him 'on the spot', without notice. He told me this hurt his personal pride and public image and dignity, for which he never forgave the British - leading to his liaison with Charles de Gaulle, who was also virulently anti-British, for personal hurt pride against Churchill, who did not think highly of him.
I mollified 'Adi' during his frequent visits to my warm office in the University (freezing outside), with real coffee (only 'ersatz' (artificial) obtainable generally, except on the Schwarze Markt (Black Market), and Schnapps. My friendly office was quite popular, helping 'defensive' visitors relax and give forth...Reminding him that he was Head of CDU (Christian Democratic Party) and most likely to become the first post-war German Chancellor - after Hitler - he smiled and said "Haben Sie irgend eine Ahnung was das heisst?" (Have you the slightest idea of the burden that entails?).
He regarded me as a harmless, helpful academic with fluent German - and even Kölnische dialekt (Cologne dialect), and gossip and odd stories which came my way from students, shop-keepers, teachers - even from Cardinal Frings - a small, erect character, who was tough enough to frighten off the Nazi officers sent to arrest him. He actually, unknowingly, added a new verb to the German vocabulary: in the freezing winter of 1946, heating well-nigh impossible in fractured Cologne. Trains carrying artificial coal bricks passing through, had to slow down at certain signals. Shadowy figures would jump on, throwing piles of coal-bricks down to waiting family.
They quoted Cardinal Frings who, when approached by the police, agreed he had, from the Cathedral pulpit, quoted the Bible's permission for a man to take what he needed to feed and support his family. In Cologne dialect they called it 'Fringsen' - and even the police chief had to laugh. Adenauer said they were grateful for my work in restoring Cologne University (it is all on my records with F.O.), so he talked to me in confidence, as did his sister whom I met at Council meetings. The family home was in Bonn, hence his choice of this very small town as German Capital, in place of Berlin, badly damaged and in 4-Party control, especially Russian enclave.
Adenauer took pleasure in confiding in me, some of his feelings and plans for restoration of his Germany's rightful pride and world regard. It was an open secret, how many leading Nazis had escaped Underground from end 1943 to 1945, with the help of Vatican 'rat' lines. Köln was a Catholic city (called 'schwarz'- black - by the Nazis), so no fuss was made. In confidence Adenauer told me of his good reception in America, where he was skilfully able to assuage their fears of a Communist uprising in Western Europe, by authoritatively claiming that he was the only one capable of dealing first-hand with Russians via Berlin. He persuaded the Americans that he was fully aware of the rising Communist menace (which in truth did not exist), and could deal with it best with American support. They believed him implicitly (our trusting West is just not brought up to pierce and dissect the wholesale lies and cunning deceit, of which both Russians and Germans are so adept). Hence the outpouring of cascades of American dollars into Adenauer's lap when, in fact, good Intelligence colleagues found only small traces of Communism. I accompanied them, roughly-dressed, to some Communist meetings, but they were ill attended, with poor speeches.
On the other hand Adenauer, nicknamed "the old Fox", was in regular contact both with the Russians with whom he was on good terms, and with the Nazi underground through their International H.Q. at Madrid. In fact he was already employing up to 150 'returnees' in his Ministry.
He knew how to play both sides equally well, and how to bring the French on board, with support of de Gaulle and the host of small French farmers. He laid the foundation of Germany's speedy restoration in power and influence by late 1950s. They are eternally active both above and underground, for that is their very nature. They simply take defeat in their stride. Vaterland has never been so crushed and demolished inside, and they quickly began expanding frontiers and rebuilding Baltic strength.
Those were some of my personal experiences, which inspired my research in depth, seeking the thread running continuously through the German mindset. Churchill was aware of it, but even his deep thinking could not thoroughly appraise their closeness with the hedonist Russian world of lies and deceit, carried on by KGB after 1990/91 collapse, with arch deceivers like Yeltsin, and especially Gorbachëv, who took in and successfully tricked the Western world - as revealed by Christopher Story, and others.
I foresee, with confidence, that their latest, and far too speedily advanced effort at domination and dictatorship of greater Europe, East and West, is also doomed to end in chaos, with the final break-up and dissolution of the now almost totally German-led, oversized EU, into the chaos of its obviously uncontrolled, and secretly manoeuvred, misdirection and French disharmony. Especially with the growing inner-European scepticism, as truth gradually emerges of its hollow, lying, manic structure and total mismanagement of accounts, with billions missing through perpetual robbery, deceit and cheating. A long series of accountants have all refused to accept and sign-off the accounts. The incoming new members have refused to accept the Franco-German conditions of entry.
Yet our own political leaders still refuse to open their eyes and their minds to the truth. They still maintain the medicine will be "good for us", however bitter the taste. That we are better within the demonic heat of the EU, than withdrawing to the confident rebuild of our lost fortune, in freedom under our own sovereign rights and laws, to make our own decisions, as we have done well over a thousand years.
Above all, I have sought to present a true portrait of the German aggressively self-centred mindset, unchanged through the ages, so aptly and unerringly described by their own cherished philosopher Nietzsche, within my text. I do not claim 100% accuracy, and originality, and have made grateful use of many recognised authorities and writers of similar opinion. We are all trying to convince and move our leaders in the right direction of true grasp and knowledge of the traps, laid so convincingly, by a series of some of the cleverest gamesters in this 'hooksters' paradise. I recommend that my opening derivative be read with the context of my book "In The Beginning," concerning the origins of the Pentateuch and the Old Testament.
Constructive criticism, correction, debate and argument are all welcome. At least it will indicate that my contribution has been read and marked. For the danger is both real and imminent to the Western world, and especially our beloved Britain. We band of Britain's true supporters and defenders from aggressive supranational dictatorship, must co-operate in support of our country's long-fought and hard-won freedom and sovereignty, to which I have devoted much of my life.
Marlborough, April, 2004
Harry Beckhough © April, 2004.
Germany's First Reich.
Nietzsche, German philosopher, said: "The German is an expert on secret paths to chaos." Churchill wrote: "The Germans, after all, had been belligerent for 2000 years. British public schoolboys were taught that Civilisation stops at the Rhine and the Danube. "A Hun alive is a War in prospect" (Biography William Manchester).
By early 1930s Germany succeeded in arousing in her neighbours the terror at which they were expert, deliberately promoted by Karl von Clausewitz, in two wars, as Schrecklichkeit (terror); the Prussian strategist's secret weapon to shorten wars. In the 1914 war German troops behaved "frightfully", executing, without mercy, civilians, hostages, prisoners, as ordered by superiors. Barbara Tuchman wrote, " Suddenly the world became aware of the beast beneath the German skin".
According to Gerald Flurry, the German roots go further back than Churchill's estimate of 2000 years of belligerency, right back to the Bible and Noah's son Shem. He bore a son Assur, progenitor of those fierce warriors, the Assyrians. Dr Hoch, in his Compendium of World History described ancient Assyria as "the greatest war-making power in history, dedicated to ferocity, bloodshed and manslaughter. Fabled for their fierce barbarism". "The Assyrians came down like a wolf on the fold...". That same barbaric vein continued in their descendants, named by Tacitus c. 55 A.D. as: "The Germani, warlike people". So they ever have remained, warlike and ever aggressive, even in defeat. Evinced in Tiglath Pileser lst, Emperor of Assyria, who conquered Babylon c.1100 BC., hated and feared for his ruthlessness and cruelty in warfare.
James McCabe (History of the World) names the Assyrians: "... a fierce, treacherous race - they never kept faith when it was in their interest to break treaties". Hitler, likewise, totally egoistic, broke faith, promises, treaties, contracts, agreements (as with the Russians, attacking them in 1941, without warning, despite his solid agreement with Stalin, who believed him implicitly), whenever it suited his selfish purpose. Unprovoked war, without warning, i.e. ruthless treachery, lies and deceit are all common in German history from the outset.
Flurry maintains that the ancient tribe of Chatti (or Hatti, from Hebrew Hittite branch), came from Noah's first son Ham. They occupied Canaan, fighting fierce battles together with their kin, the Assyrians, of like ferocity. Whereas Abraham, from Shem's third son Arphaxad, was the complete opposite of the rest of this warlike family, being peace-loving in his unique faith in One God.
Dr. Hoch said: "The Assyrians were called Kings of the Hittites, who migrated into Asia Minor, c.1200 BC., amalgamating with the Assyrians. The Assyrians called many of their own people Hittites, or Chatti - a fierce warlike people, hated and feared for their ruthlessness in warfare." The ancient Kings of Assyria were called Khatti sars i.e. Kaisers of Katti. The Germans continued the title Kaiser. They acquired, eventually, Indo-Germanic speech, which developed into "Old High German," at the first major language change into Germanic. Tacitus claimed that the Chatti, or Hatti (ancestors of the Hessians and Alemanni), were the chief of those early German tribes, true to their name, meaning: to subjugate, terrify.
Jerome, the historian, c 340 AD, wrote of Indo-Germanic tribes, including 'Assur', invading Europe. Ever fiercely ambitious, the Assyrians, about 800 BC, were prepared to take the whole world by storm - meaning, of course, their then conceived, smaller world. Tiglath-pileser III, Assyrian King in Niniveh, had ambition to turn the whole 'civilised' world, into a single Empire, controlling all wealth and trade (as in discovered Palace records, preserved in scrolls and tablets). This grand, global ambition, was continued by later Germans, right into modern times, growing ever more ambitious, no matter how often their cunning, devious schemes collapsed or were thwarted "on their secret paths to chaos."
The collapse of the Assyrian Empire fuelled mass emigration, West and North, across the mainland of Europe, as far North as Scandinavia, between the Elbe and the Oder, during the second millennium BC. After fierce battles, the Teutons (West Germans) displaced the Celts and threatened Gaul, moving up the Elbe and Rhine, and reaching South to the Danube. By the time of Tacitus (c 55 - 117 AD.) these warlike Germani had settled in that area - the West Germans were mainly Alemanni, on the Upper Rhine. The Franks (named 'Free' by the Romans) and the Saxons, settled between the Weser and the Elbe. The East Germans moved toward the Black Sea, by 214 AD. and then crossed the Rhine.
By 476 AD. the Germanic Kingdoms brought down the Western half of the Roman Empire by fierce battles, and Alaise took Rome - the Franks were then one of the principal German peoples. The Merovingian King Clovis ruled the Frankish kingdom in Gaul and Western Germany, end of 5th century AD., and accepted Christianity. The Carlingians took over in the 730s, and Pepin III was crowned in 751 as Christian King.
Charlemagne (Charles the Great 771-843), heir to Pepin, marched into Italy in 774 to protect the Pope, who was under attack from angry dissenters. A typical warlike German, he continued the Frankish policy of expansion, to include all Germans, by strong arm methods. In that same year he became King of the Lombards, by fierce conquest, absorbing them into his Frankish Empire, along with Bavaria, building his Empire on all sides. In 799 he again rescued that same Pope Leo III, beaten and imprisoned by conspirators, enjoying his favour thereafter. In 800 Charlemagne was officially welcomed to Rome and crowned Emperor by the grateful Pope Leo III, in St. Peters, on Christmas Day. Thus the old Roman imperial title was revived and conferred on Charlemagne, by this Pope.
He became, therefore, Founder and First Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, and subjugated by Blut und Stahl (blood and steel), every German tribe to Roman Catholicism, except the hardy Saxons, who refused. He thus spread the Christian faith by violent, bloody means, forcing his brand of Christianity overall. Yet he was later worshipped as Leader of the Holy Roman Empire - though his bonds to the ancient Romans were far from holy.
But Charlemagne's great empire was divided by the Treaty of Verdun 843, when his grandson Louis the German (843-876), became King of the East Franks, and ruled over most of the area that later became Germany, from the Rhine to the Slavs in the East. But, in the 9th Century, Charlemagne's kingdom began to disintegrate. Five tribal duchies emerged in Bavaria, Franconia, Swabia, Lorraine and Saxony, each a Feudal state within the German kingdom.
Otto 1st, the Great (936 to 973 AD.) was a ruthless warrior, anointed King of Germany in Aachen. Pope John II appealed to him for protection, and he responded. The Pope then bestowed the imperial crown on Otto in 962. He, in turn, forcibly extended Christianity by brute force. For the following 800 years German kings called themselves "Roman Emperors of the German Nation". Otto converted each newly conquered territory, developing strong German nationalism. Thus the disparate German tribes were welded together, becoming the imperial race, with a growing feeling of national kinship. His brutally fierce campaigns brought renewal of the Roman Empire in the West. Otto knew, like other German emperors, that their constant vision of world dominium went only via Rome, demanding close ties with the papacy. Indeed, Otto III (983 - 1002) designated his cousin Bruno as Pope Gregory V, to ensure safe, family continuity, joining Church with State. Henry II, Otto's cousin, was crowned emperor in Rome in 1014. He concentrated on developing and expanding Germany by ruthless battles, forcing subjugation, growing his empire by strongarm tactics. Germany now had Salian and Hohenstaufen Emperors from 1024 to 1268. The Franconian House began the powerful Imperial age.
Henry III, the Black (1039 - 1056), strongest of the German emperors, and most intelligent, conquered Poland, Bohemia and Hungary by usual Germanic aggression and violence, with his own brand of intimidation. But, in 1074, the Charter of Worms was issued, without episcopal intervention, followed by the struggle over Lay Investiture. Pope Gregory saw danger ahead, issuing a strong reform directive. But the bishops persuaded Henry to call the Synod of Worms in 1076, with the bishops repudiating allegiance to Pope Gregory, declaring him deposed.
Henry V (1106-1128) was a resourceful, but brutal, treacherous ruler, continuing the Germanic habit of breaking promises and agreements. He fought tough, brutal, killing wars against Hungary, Poland and Bohemia. He then fought through Italy to secure the imperial crown, supported by his aggressive German people. Pope Paschal, humiliated, was forced to resign all secular holdings of the Church, except the See of Rome. Pope and Emperor were henceforth bitter rivals. But, as Henry left no direct heir, the Archbishops of Mainz and Cologne took revenge by preventing all but their own choice, Lothair of Saxony, who served them well, beginning the long struggle of Welf und Waiblinger (Hohenstaufen). This ended in 1135, the Year of Pacification in Germany. Such peace in Germany obviously could not last, with such ever-warlike people.
The House of Hohenstaufen (1138-68) was the first German dynasty to be fully conscious of the historical implications of the imperial tradition, and the significance of Roman law to support or deny imperial pretensions. Hence the struggle between Pope and Emperors seeking release from papal pressure. The bitter contest of 'Welf and Waiblinger' caused chaos in Germany, always fighting and feuding. The struggle against Slavs and Scandinavians - always for the German burning desire for expansion, brought a crusade against the Slavs in 1147. A truly gory colonisation of Holstein followed with foundation of Lübeck in 1143.
Frederick 1st (Barbarossa = Red Beard, 1152-1190) the strong, ever-fighting warrior king, adopted the style of 'Holy Roman Empire'. He pursued forceful consolidation and expansion of Royal lands. Continuous, aggressive war against Slavs, Hollanders, Danes and Flemings, waging bloody battles in his aim of colonisation and empire building. In 1186, the marriage of the future Henry VI made Sicily the centre of the struggle between popes and emperors, bringing final destruction of German unity and the ruin of the House of Hohenstaufen. Frederick led the 3rd Crusade to enjoy more heavy fighting and mass killing in the name of Christendom.
Civil War broke out in Germany 1197 to 1212, inciting citizens to bloodlust and murder, causing utter chaos throughout the empire, with family strife and bloodshed. Then came the Great Interregnum in 1250, with a period of internal confusion and disorder, leaving Germany in a continuing state of family feuds, revenge killings, assassinations and general mayhem. All that had been so painstakingly pieced together from Charlemagne onward, aiming to make one great, consolidated German Empire, seemed now being torn apart. The aggressive German people, without their needed strong, imperial leader, now lost their way, resorting to petty, internecine struggles, feuds, fighting in family and gangs, waging minor warfare under local leaders, apparently fiercely enjoying the mayhem, as suits their character.
In 1438 Albert of Habsburg became Habsburg Emperor through to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. But, in 1517, came a major change, when Martin Luther (miner's son become monk, become priest and then professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg), called for reform of the Roman Catholic Church. His Probes into functions of the Church, spread rapidly throughout Germany. In 1517, Luther nailed to the Wittenberg Church door, 95 Theses against misuse of absolution and indulgences, followed in 1519 by Luther burning the papal Bull, for which he was excommunicated.
The basic Lutheran doctrine was justification by faith alone, making priestly offices of the Catholics unnecessary, as intermediary between individual and God. 1543 Copernicus published Luther's De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestricum, claiming the Papacy had no control over eternal mystery of death.
The Coronation of Charles V as Emperor at Bologna, was the last of a German emperor by the Pope. He was busily fighting continuously. In the Schmalkaldic War (1546/7), Charles sought to crush the independence of the empire in Germany, and restore the unity of the Church, urged by the Pope. Charles defeated the Elector of Saxony at the bloody battle of Mühlberg 1547. He then fought a bitter war with Henry II, followed by the religious peace of Augsburg, in which he recognised the co-existence of Roman Catholicism and Lutheranism in Germany - granting each German prince the right of choice of religion in his state.
The Thirty Years War (1618-48), a series of merciless, bloodthirsty battles, was fought between the Roman Catholic Emperor Charles and other Catholic princes and states, in a furious vicious contest against a network of Protestant towns and principalities. Germany was devastated, lost large parts of her population and her empire's borders were reduced and narrowed.
However, at the Peace of Westphalia 1648, Germany's feudal princes gained full sovereignty. After the Thirty Years War, came the beginning of the Brandenburg-Prussia rise to pre-eminence amongst German states. In 1701 Frederick lst, Elector of Brandenburg, took the title of King of Prussia, crowning himself at Königsberg.
Frederick William I (1713-1740), son of Frederick I, established a formidable army, based on military strict training and discipline. He laid the foundation of the future power of Prussia, backed by strong war machine, thoroughly trained for immediate, powerful action. Frederick II, the Great (1740-86) of Prussia, expanded Prussian strength and military might, enlarging Prussian territories, making Prussia the second most powerful German kingdom after Austria. He became well-known for building a formidable army of military strength, discipline and ferocity.