December 5, 2006
Partners have operational national development strategies
Coherent long-term vision with medium-term strategy derived from vision
A long-term vision study, “Burkina 2025”, was completed in December 2005. The study was conducted by a Groupe opérationnel d’experts de l’étude prospective, established by the Government in 2003 with UNDP support, led by a civil society representative and composed of about 60 members representing the country’s society. The study identifies possible scenarios for Burkina Faso’s long-term development and updates a Letter of Intent for Sustainable Development Policy, completed in 1995. The Letter of Intent has been the Government’s long-term development vision. It has provided a conceptual framework for the country’s medium-term strategies, focusing on human security, defined as economic security, access to education and health, food security, environmental security, and lastly, individual and political securities. The Letter of Intent built on a consultative process, stemming from a tradition of participatory, long-term sector planning dating back to the 1980s. In March 2006, the Government organized a national workshop with 100 participants from the public sector, NGOs and broader civil society in order to disseminate the findings of the “Burkina 2025” study.
Burkina Faso’s sole ongoing medium-term strategy is the Cadre Stratégique de Lutte contre la Pauvreté (CSLP) II for 2004-06, Burkina Faso’s second PRS.1 The CSLP II is the instrument to operationalize the long-term vision and incorporates preliminary findings of the “Burkina 2025” study. It furthers implementation of the CSLP for 2001-03 and includes a Priority Action Program (PAP) for 2004-06 translating strategic directions into sequenced actions and strengthening results-based monitoring and evaluation of the CSLP II. The PAP is revised yearly to help reflect CSLP II priorities in the government budget.
Ten-year development plans, developed in parallel to the first CSLP in sectors like basic education, health, and budget expenditure reform, are ongoing and fed into the CSLP II. The Government has recently completed thirteen regional development plans tailored to fit the specific circumstances of each region. With the full communalization of the country introduced by the 2004 decentralization law, it is expected that these regional plans will be updated to build on communal plans. In turn, the regional plans will serve as a basis for updating the national strategy.
Country specific development targets with holistic, balanced, and well sequenced strategy
The CSLP II pursues the MDGs as well as other country-specific objectives, such as agriculture-led growth and development of rural infrastructure. The MDGs are tailored to country-specific circumstances and their achievement is linked to the four priority sectors of the CSLP: education, health, drinking water, and agriculture and livestock. Yearly reviews allow for adjustments to the targets in accordance with lessons learned and the availability of resources. For example, deadlines for the attainment of universal education, poverty reduction and the elimination of gender disparities in education have been updated to extend beyond 2015 due to a low starting base and limited capacity.
The CSLP II rests on the same four pillars as the first CSLP: accelerated and equitable growth, better access to social services for the poor, increased employment opportunities and good governance. The strategy was fine-tuned to place greater emphasis on cross-cutting issues like gender integration, particularly in education, also regional integration, small business development, and the environment. Further progress is warranted for the development of a gender strategy and the promotion of small business and regional integration.
Capacity and resources for implementation
The Government has linked the strategy to the budget by adopting a three-year rolling MTEF, which is now integrated with the budget cycle. For the first time, the 2003-05 MTEF was prepared in time for its attachment to the budget circular, prior to the finalization of the 2003 budget. Subsequent MTEFs, including for 2007-09, have also been finalized, with links to the PAP. A sectoral MTEF guides public expenditures for health and similar MTEFs are planned in the finance, water and transport sectors. Budgetary allocations have been consistent with the CSLP; poverty-reducing social expenditures increased from 4.8 percent of GDP in 2002 to 5.8 percent in 2004. The 2006 budget furthers this trend, with nearly half of all domestic revenue funding priority-sector social spending on education, health, employment, and social security. However, the MTEF is not yet fully appropriated at the sectoral level; it still needs to be complemented by results-based program budgets at the sectoral level and disbursements are not yet linked closely to outcomes. The finalization of a Health MTEF in 2005, an Education MTEF in 2006 and the new PAP are positive steps in that direction. Yearly CSLP reviews have also brought improvements to the MTEF exercise, and line ministries are starting to prepare prioritized sector plans in line with the CSLP. The Government is also planning to use these CSLP reviews as a benchmark for the preparation of the MTEF and the draft annual budget.
Capacity to implement the strategy falls short of formulation capacity. Cross-cutting issues such as capacity development, civil service reform and decentralization need to be addressed more strongly to facilitate implementation of sectoral policies and strategies. Central ministries involved in sector and thematic groups are building capacity to develop and implement projects to achieve CSLP goals. However, they often have insufficient technical and financial resources to effectively implement policies and programs. Civil society and the private sector have capacity for implementation and could absorb additional resources to help achieve CSLP goals. The central government is strengthening local governments as part of an initiative to decentralize, also in accordance with the objectives of the CSLP. Efforts to improve budget control systems need to be pursued and strengthened. Yearly CSLP reviews have pointed to the need to develop more realistic revenue projections.
Participation of national stakeholders in strategy formulation and implementation
There is a Ministerial Steering and Monitoring Committee, chaired by the Prime Minister, to provide overall guidance on CSLP II implementation. All ministries participate in the Steering and Monitoring Committee which meets twice a year. The impact of the Steering and Monitoring Committee on inter-ministerial coordination and budget preparation is currently limited. There are also six Sectoral Commissions, chaired by the heads of ministerial departments, which assess progress in implementing sectoral policies, prepare implementation status reports, and ensure that sectoral policies are in line with the national strategy. They report to a unit in the Ministry of Economy and Development, the Direction Générale de l’Économie et de la Planification (DGEP), in charge of coordinating the preparation of CSLP Progress Reports. The sectoral commissions are operational, although only two of them produced reports which fed into the 2005 CSLP Progress Report. The remaining commissions have reviewed preliminary reports prepared by the DGEP. The Government and external partners are discussing recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the sectoral commissions. This inter-ministerial coordination structure builds on intensive dialogue conducted by the Ministry of Economy and Development in 2003 and 2004 with all line ministries during CSLP II formulation, to clarify the link between sectoral policies and the national strategy.
There is a Secrétariat Technique pour la Coordination des Programmes de Développement Economique et Social (STC-PDES) to facilitate continuous involvement of stakeholders in CSLP implementation. Consultations for formulation of the first CSLP and its progress reports, led by the Ministry of Economy and Development, were inclusive, but inconsistent. Consultations for CSLP II took place over a period of seven months, and ranged from review of the old strategy, to final review of the draft CSLP II. CSLP II formulation was enriched by thirteen regional consultations for the creation of the regional strategies that fed into the national strategy. However, participation of stakeholders was limited during PAP formulation. Yearly participatory CSLP revisions are to take place at the national and regional levels, and regional councils serve as a permanent venue for dialogue with stakeholders. Existing provincial and communal representative bodies also participate in this dialogue. While the Government envisages involving in CSLP implementation the representative bodies of the 300 rural communes elected in April 2006, the modalities of such involvement are yet to be defined. The Government is planning to hold regular dissemination workshops on the main tenets of the “Burkina 2025” study before updating the CSLP and the PAP.
NGOs, women’s groups and academics participated in all the consultations for the CSLP II. NGOs held workshops in 2003 to discuss possibilities for increased participation in CSLP implementation, and their conclusions were included in CSLP II. Civil society representatives participated in the Groupe opérationnel d’experts de l’étude prospective which prepared the “Burkina 2025” study. However, CSOs involvement in CSLP implementation is uneven across sectors, with stronger participation in the education, health and rural sectors. Civil society also maintains dialogue with the Government through representatives in the Economic and Social Council, an advisory government body. Civil society involvement has proven difficult to accomplish in a sufficiently representative fashion.
Private sector participation is increasing as the Government has expressed greater interest in adding the private sector’s inputs to the strategy. Private sector representatives participated in the Groupe opérationnel d’experts de l’étude prospective which prepared the “Burkina 2025” study. Agricultural producers’ groups and other members of the private sector participated in consultations for the CSLP and in the workshops to review the updated strategy. The Government met exclusively with the Chamber of Commerce and other business associations to discuss priorities for private sector growth to include in the CSLP II. The Economic and Social Council has various private sector representatives who were involved in CSLP formulation. The Government has also established a Competitiveness Committee, including government and private sector representatives to support private sector participation in the design and implementation of policies conducive to private sector development. While the Committee meets only occasionally and has not yet been involved in CSLP implementation, some action is being taken to strengthen its role in shaping policies, with support from external partners. For example, the Competitiveness Committee is participating in a steering committee for the preparation of a Trade Study conducted by the World Bank, to help the design of policies to increase and diversify exports.
The Constitution requires parliamentary approval of national development plans, and allows for their previous review by the Economic and Social Council. Upon completing CSLP II, the Government submitted it to the Economic and Social Council for review and comments. It then submitted it to the National Assembly for approval. The National Assembly does not discuss Progress Reports, but the Government transmits Progress Reports to the National Assembly, which approves the budget. While there are no formal discussions on progress in implementing the CSLP, line ministries provide information on progress in implementing policies and programs during the annual budget session. The planned use of yearly CSLP reviews as a benchmark for the preparation of the annual budget is expected to further strengthen the flow of development information to the National Assembly. In addition, members of the National Assembly can submit information requests to line ministries on budget implementation.
Reliable country systems
Significant progress has been made in strengthening country systems. Since 2002, the Government has been implementing a budget reform plan, the Plan de Réforme de la Gestion Budgétaire, in order to strengthen the transparency, reliability and efficiency of the budget process in line with the first CSLP. The Plan is succeeding in progressively de-concentrating budget preparation and payment orders to line ministries and strengthening oversight through the establishment of an autonomous Supreme Audit Institution, the Cour des Comptes, to which annual budget execution reports are submitted. The Cour des Comptes conducts budget audits of the public sector which includes the central Government, the sub-national Governments and the public enterprises. With support of external partners, the Government is strengthening the oversight function of the Cours des Comptes through implementation of the Plan de Réforme de la Gestion Budgétaire. There is greater ongoing analysis of budget implementation and execution of program budgets in relation to priority sectors, including tracking of ministry expenditures. However, the Cours des Comptes is understaffed and has insufficient financial resources to effectively carry out its mandate. There is a considerable backlog of budget audits and the Cours’ reports are currently being published with external partner funding. A computerized expenditure management system (CID) is in place. The Government is rolling out an integrated administrative and payroll information system (SIGASPE) to cover both central and local government, as well as a computerized system for debt management (SYGADE). It is also establishing an integrated revenue system. The 2005 World Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) performance criterion that assesses the quality of budgetary and financial management places Burkina Faso at 4 on a scale of 1 (very weak) to 6 (very strong).
In 2002 and 2003, the Government reviewed the laws and regulations guiding public procurement with the view to strengthen transparency and efficiency, and introduced a new Procurement Code. It also established a national procurement reform commission, the Commission nationale de coordination et de suivi de la reforme des marchés publics, composed of government and stakeholder representatives, to coordinate and monitor procurement reform. Since then, procurement functions have been de-concentrated to ministerial finance and planning units, as well as local governments, thus streamlining procedures. A cash management system is in place to ensure that procuring units have sufficient resources.
However, capacity and structural bottlenecks remain. Administrative units’ capacity to implement the Procurement Code remains limited. For example, in 2005 only five percent of procurement contracts were audited. In early 2006, the Government adopted an action plan to strengthen the procurement system based on the recommendations of a 2005 Country Procurement Assessment Review conducted by external partners. The action plan includes the creation of a regulatory agency for public procurement, the Agence de régulation des marchés publics, and the revision of the attribution, composition and functioning of the Central Directorate for Public Procurement, the DCMP. It also envisages the creation of specialized procurement units for principal contracting authorities/administrations with defined attributions and functions.
Since 2002, a High Authority for the Coordination of the Fight Against Corruption coordinates anti-corruption initiatives. A civil society network against corruption, the National Anti-Corruption Network, has been instrumental in raising awareness among citizens. In May 2006, the Government also approved a National Anti-Corruption Strategy. To implement the strategy, the High Authority for the Coordination of the Fight Against Corruption is preparing an action plan. However, the High Authority has a limited mandate to prosecute corruption cases and has insufficient means to carry out its mandate. Burkina Faso ranks 79th of 163 in the 2006 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index; on a scale from 0 (highly corrupted) to 10 (highly clean), it received a score of 3.2. Corruption is perceived as a major issue and there are high expectations that implementation of the anti-corruption strategy will help fight it.
Aid flows are aligned on national priorities
Government leadership of coordination
The Government has made efforts to take the lead in development assistance coordination, particularly after launching CSLP II. The Ministry of Finance leads coordination of all development assistance. A unit within the Ministry, the Direction Générale de la Coopération (DG COOP), maintains electronic databases with information on externally financed projects and disbursements, and prepares an annual report on development assistance. The report is widely circulated but is released with a significant time lag. There are a number of sectoral working groups, the Cadres de Concertation, chaired by line ministries to coordinate external partner support in budget support, agriculture, education, energy, health, water and sanitation, vocational education and training, and transport. These working groups are formalized, with an annual work plan and regular mechanisms for exchange of information. To facilitate coordination, the Government has identified lead agencies in a number of sectors. With UNDP, the Government co-chairs Roundtable meetings to coordinate assistance from various multilateral and bilateral partners; the last meeting took place in March 2004 in Ouagadougou, where the Government presented the updated CSLP II and PAP to external partners.
Because of external partners’ different financial, legal and institutional requirements, important challenges remain to facilitate government leadership of coordination and strengthen harmonization and alignment. In 2006, UNDP, the EC and the World Bank established a Technical Secretariat for Aid Effectiveness to identify and analyze obstacles and possibilities to support the Government to strengthen harmonization and alignment.
The Government is taking steps to consolidate strong public/private partnerships through the institutionalization of a framework for private sector/civil society involvement. With the private sector in particular, the Government is studying legal reforms to facilitate their participation in expanding economic opportunities. The Government also envisions a partnership with civil society, and intends to provide capacity building for local organizations in order to increase their effectiveness. CSOs are active in the implementation of sector strategies, particularly education. The government continually encourages CSOs to organize on a national level and get involved in the implementation of other sector strategies.
Partners’ assistance strategy alignment
Overall, external partners have aligned their assistance with the CSLP. The five major external partners are the World Bank, France, the EC, the Netherlands and the AfDB, accounting for approximately 77 percent of gross ODA in 2003-04. Austria is also active. Net ODA accounted for 12.7 percent of GNI in 2004.2 The Government has identified the CSLP as the single framework for all external partners’ budgetary and project support. Since 2000 the World Bank’s Country Assistance Strategies have supported CSLP implementation and the Country Assistance Strategy FY06-09 continues to do so by stemming directly from the CSLP II. It builds on a results matrix clarifying the link between World Bank-supported activities and CSLP objectives. The EC’s and the Netherlands’ assistance strategies are based on the CSLP. AFD activities for 2005-07 support CSLP objectives. Austria Development Agency’s country strategy for 2005-07 is based on the CSLP. The UN Development Assistance Framework for 2006-10 draws on the CSLP and supports CSLP implementation. The Threshold Program, launched by the MCC and USAID in July 2005, to help Burkina Faso work toward MCA Compact funding eligibility, focuses on primary education and is aligned with the Government’s education strategy and the CSLP II. In November 2005, Burkina Faso also became eligible to compete for MCA Compact funding for FY06. The Government is preparing a proposal for MCA Compact funding aligned with CSLP II priorities.
External partners are undertaking initial efforts to decentralize their operations through a more substantial country presence, thus improving their daily interactions with the Government and each other. Efforts are underway to strengthen the World Bank’s Country Office, whose Country Manager is stationed in Ouagadougou. The World Bank Country Director is based in Accra, Ghana. World Bank sector leaders for environment, rural development, education and HIV/AIDS are based in Ouagadougou; a sector leader for transport is based in the World Bank’s Country Office in Dakar, Senegal. UNDP has decentralized its decision-making to its Country Office. The AFD program is managed by an office in Ouagadougou. Other partners including the EC, the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland Austria and Sweden have decentralized technical experts who facilitate their participation in working groups. Institutional links between development assistance agencies’ staff responsible for policy dialogue on harmonization and alignment and those responsible for program implementation need to be strengthened to ensure a coherent approach to harmonization and alignment.
Enhanced dialogue among external partners is also facilitating innovative partnership arrangements. For example, the World Bank and the Netherlands established a silent partnership for the education sector; the Netherlands acts on behalf of the World Bank for basic education, while the World Bank acts on behalf of the Netherlands for secondary and higher education.
Strengthen capacity by coordinated support
Coherent and coordinated capacity support
A progressive move toward budget support is helping the Government and external partners strengthen coordinated capacity support around country needs and priorities. In January 2005, the Government approved a Memorandum of Understanding for joint budgetary support, the Cadre général pour l’appui budgétaire (CGAB), along with nine external partners: the AfDB, France, Denmark, the EC, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the World Bank. The CGAB provides for coordination of all participating partners’ capacity building activities to strengthen public financial management. External partners also committed to rely on national expertise to conduct analytical work related to public financial management. The CGAB builds on previous efforts to coordinate support for public financial management. For example, the EC, UNDP, France and the AfDB had already aligned capacity development for public financial management around the Plan de Réforme de la Gestion Budgétaire. The Government is also taking action to coordinate capacity building efforts across sectors.
Use of country systems
Donor financing relying on country systems
Country systems are relied upon through a progressive shift toward budget support, which accounts for approximately 30 percent of ODA. External partners supporting SWAps have also started relying on country systems. To support a health and HIV/AIDS SWAp, France, the Netherlands, Sweden and UNFPA rely on national procurement for both National and International Competitive Bidding through a pool of funds, managed by the Ministry of Health. The World Bank also participates in the pool and relies on national procurement for National Competitive Bidding, but continues to rely on World Bank procedures for International Competitive Bidding (ICB). As national procurement capacity for ICB strengthens, the World Bank is also expected to fully rely on national procurement. All external partners supporting the health and HIV/AIDS SWAp agreed on a list of 35 indicators to monitor progress, of which a subset is used to monitor CSLP II implementation. They rely on routine health services data, collected by health districts, to monitor implementation. To support an education SWAp, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, Sweden and the World Bank rely to the extent possible on national procurement and financial management through a pool of funds, while strengthening fiduciary arrangements within the Ministry of Education. They also rely on the Ministry of Education’s M&E system to assess progress, while providing support to strengthen the Ministry’s capacity to conduct M&E. The EC also provides budget support for the education sector, thus relying on national procedures. Stand-alone projects financed by external partners do not yet rely on national procurement or financial management.
PIUs progressively phased out
The Government and external partners are making some effort to progressively integrate PIUs into country structures. The Government requires that all PIUs report to the general secretary of the ministry responsible for the project. External partners are increasingly relying on single PIUs which coordinate multiple projects for a sector, including community driven development, transport, water and rural development. The size of PIUs is being progressively scaled down. Their role and functions are shifting from project execution to capacity building and coordination. However, projects and programs financed by external partners continue to rely on semi-parallel implementation structures, which are established to address perceived weaknesses in the country’s management structures. More concerted efforts by external partners are needed to ensure that implementation structures are better integrated into country structures.
Aid is more predictable
Disbursements aligned with annual budgetary framework
Nearly half of all public expenditures are financed through external flows, increasingly provided as direct budget support. In 2005, most partners providing budget support made multi-year commitments, thus increasing predictability. However, only one-third of them made their commitment before the budget was presented to the National Assembly. SWAps are also helping the Government and external partners align disbursements with the annual budgetary framework and ensure that external financing is reflected in the budget. For example, to support the education SWAp, external partners conduct joint reviews in synch with the preparation of the budget; forthcoming disbursements are committed on the basis of an annual action plan prepared by the Ministry of Education, which then inform the budget for the following year. The Government and external partners monitor timeliness of disbursements.
Aid is untied
All multilateral aid and most bilateral aid is untied. United aid may increase through expected increases in funding from bilateral partners that as a policy provide only untied aid. Bilateral partners are not yet monitoring untied aid at the country level.
Use of common arrangements or procedures
Financing is being coordinated among external partners in key priority sectors like education, vocational education and training, water and sanitation and health mainly through sectoral approaches. When a sectoral approach is not in place, however, external support is not yet fully coordinated. External partners are progressively moving toward joint implementation mechanisms through joint budget support, pooling and basket funding. The CGAB identifies a common framework for assessing budget support based on macroeconomic performance, public sector resource management and implementation of the CSLP II. The Government and external partners also prepared a joint performance matrix building on the PAP. An external partner, designated on a rotating basis, leads all technical discussions with the Government. The sixth World Bank PRSC builds on this framework and presents a policy matrix aligned with the joint performance matrix. It is envisaged that for the next PRSC the policy matrix will be fully based on the joint performance matrix.
A number of external partners support SWAps in education, health and HIV/AIDS, and water and sanitation, through joint implementation mechanisms. Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, Sweden and the World Bank conduct joint performance reviews for the education SWAp. France, the Netherlands, Sweden, UNFPA and the World Bank conduct joint performance reviews for the health and HIV/AIDS SWAp. Twelve partners, the AfDB, AFD, the Arab Bank for Economic Development, EIB, the EC, IsDB, the OPEC Fund, the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development, the West African Development Bank, the World Bank, support a water and sanitation SWAp and conduct joint annual reviews. They rely on a single consulting firm to supervise project implementation. Denmark, German Cooperation, IFAD and the World Bank are working jointly with the Government to launch an agriculture SWAp and envisage channeling their financial support through a joint mechanism. External partners coordinate parallel financing for vocational education and training through the Cadre de Concertation sur l’Enseignmement Technique et la Formation Professionnelle. However, external partners continue to support a number of stand-alone projects and activities that are only marginally coordinated and do not take full advantage of potential sectoral synergies.
Encouraging shared analysis
a. Joint missions
Building on SWAps and joint budget support, external partners are consolidating missions and moving toward conducting them jointly. External partners carry out joint missions in the education, health and HIV/AIDS and water and sanitation sectors. External partners providing joint budget support agree on an annual calendar of joint activities and coordinate missions. External partners conduct joint bi-annual review missions for the water and sanitation sector. The Government has not yet developed a system to track missions and record whether they are carried out jointly.
b. Analytical partnership
While analytical work is mostly carried out separately, some effort is being made to conduct joint analytical work. The 2005 Country Procurement Assessment Review was conducted jointly by the AfDB and the World Bank. AFD and the World Bank also supported two environmental impact assessments in the power sector and relied on them to launch parallel operations. In 2002, a joint World Bank/SPA Country Financial Accountability Assessment was completed along with other partners like Belgium, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the IMF. In 2004, the World Bank and the IMF worked jointly to update the Accountability Assessment and Action Plan on the tracking of poverty expenditures under the HIPC Initiative. The World Bank joined France, Germany and the UK to carry out a study on Operationalizing Pro-Poor Growth in several countries, including Burkina Faso. The FY06 analytic work on Determinants of Child Malnutrition is being jointly conducted by a number of partners including the World Bank, UNICEF, the World Food Program, and the WHO. The World Bank is also preparing a Labor Market Study, in close collaboration with the ILO. The World Bank worked with other external partners in Ouagadougou to establish a steering committee for the implementation of the Trade Study, which is expected to be completed in FY07. In FY07, at the initiative of the EC, external partners will also support the Government in assessing the quality of financial management through the PEFA framework. External partners have posted 30 documents on the Country Analytic Work website as of October 2006.3
Managing for results
Results oriented frameworks
Quality of development information
The Government is taking action to improve its systems for data collection. The National Institute of Statistics and Demographics (NISD) is the lead statistics agency, and is responsible for coordination between line ministries and the Poverty Observatory. The NISD conducted three Living Standards Measurement Surveys, in 1994, 1998 and 2003. The World Bank and AFRISTAT aided in the creation of a statistical master plan, and the Government has completed a national statistical development strategy, with the support of a multi-donor Trust Fund for Statistical Capacity Building, managed by the World Bank. A World Bank-financed Statistical Capacity Building Project is supporting implementation of the national statistical development strategy, which is helping the NISD align statistical outputs with CSLP monitoring. However, the strategy is not yet fully funded, and this is hampering its implementation. The EC has also provided support to the NISD.
Stakeholder access to development information
The Government is implementing a CSLP II communication strategy which was completed in 2005. Dissemination of the CSLP II was widespread during consultations, partly by way of media coverage and partly by way of CSOs and their exposure to the CSLP II at various stages. A copy of the CSLP II is available on the website of the Prime Minister’s Office.4 Budget data are not yet readily available. The Ministry of Finance has posted posts the 2005 budget on its website, but the 2006 budget is not yet posted.
Coordinated country-level monitoring and evaluation
Some progress is being made in developing a country-level M&E system. The PAP succeeded in narrowing down CSLP indicators to include 24 core indicators—including a number of country-specific MDG indicators—among a more comprehensive set of 5 sectoral performance and 19 supplementary sectoral indicators. The core indicators derive from existing national and sectoral statistical systems and were chosen on the basis of their relevance as well as the relative reliability of data. The CSLP II and the Priority Action Program include baselines and targets for most core indicators.
CSLP M&E builds on the M&E system in place from Conditionality Reformulation Test Exercises, initiated in 1997, that focused on health, education, and budget management. The National Poverty and Sustainable Human Development Observatory (ONAPAD) and Employment and Occupational Training Observatory were created with assistance from UNDP to monitor poverty reduction indicators in priority sectors. In particular, ONAPAD is in charge of the design of the M&E system, building on past systems. The STC-PDES within the Ministry of Finance is responsible for coordinating all M&E activities, and consolidating reports from regional and sectoral groups for progress report formulation. The STC-PDES submits yearly reports to the Inter-ministerial Steering Committee for CSLP II and PAP yearly revisions. These reports are transmitted to Parliament for information. Data from sectoral M&E feed into STC-PDES yearly reports. Operational links between CSLP monitoring and the monitoring of sectoral programs, including those which pre-existed the introduction of the CSLP, have improved but remain weak and need strengthening.
Development effectiveness assessment frameworks
A progressive move toward joint budget support is facilitating the establishment of mutual assessment frameworks. The Government and the external partners providing budget support agreed to conduct independent performance reviews. In February 2006, the first of such reviews was undertaken by a team composed of local and international consultants, who evaluated and ranked external partners and government institutions against a set of agreed criteria.
Burkina Faso signed the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. The Technical Secretariat for Aid Effectiveness is preparing an action plan to strengthen aid effectiveness. The Government is expected to join the Technical Secretariat and participate in the preparation of the action plan for effective implementation of the Paris Declaration.
Burkina Faso also participates in the African Peer Review Mechanism to ensure that polices and practices conform to the principles of the Declaration on Democracy, Political, Economic and Corporate Governance. A Review is being launched after delays due to budgetary constraints; planning and timetable for the Review were determined in a June 2006 meeting co-chaired by the President and UNDP.
AFD (2004), L’activité du groupe de l’Agence Française de Développement au BURKINA FASO. Paris.
AfDB and World Bank (2005), Rapport analytique sur le système de passation des marchés publiques au Burkina Faso.
Alonso Terme, Rosa (2005), PRSPs and Budget Linkages: The Case of Burkina Faso.
Austria Development Agency (2005), Burkina Faso Landesprogramm 2005-2007. Vienna.
______________ (2005), Burkina Faso Formation Professionnelle 2005-2007. Vienna.
Celasun, O. and J. Walliser (2006), ‘Predictability of Budget Aid: Recent Experiences’ in: S Koeberle, Z. Stavreski, J. Walliser (eds.), Budget Support as More Effective Aid? Recent Experiences and Emerging Lessons. Washington DC.
Constitution du Burkina Faso, Adoptée par le Référendum du 02 Juin 1991. Ouagadougou.
EIU (2006), Burkina Faso Country Report (March). London.
Government of Burkina Faso (2000), Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Ouagadougou.
__________ (2003), Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Progress Report, 2000-2002. Ouagadougou.
__________ (2004), Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Progress Report 2003 . Ouagadougou.
__________ (2005) Cadre stratégique de lutte contre la pauvreté (English version). Ouagadougou.
__________ (2005), Remise des résultats de l’étude Prospective « Burkina 2025 » au Premier Ministre. Ouagadougou.
___________ (2005), Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper 2004 Implementation Report. Ouagadougou.
_________ (undated), Produits d’étape de l’exécution de l’étude nationale Prospective Burkina 2025 disponibles. Ouagadougou.
Government of Burkina Faso and Development Partners (2002), Evaluation de l' obligation de rendre compte de la gestion des finances publiques et des pratiques de la comptabilite du secteur prive. Country Financial Accountability Assessment. Ouagadougou.
GTZ (2004), National Monitoring of Sustainable Poverty Reduction Strategies/PRSPs, Volume 2: Country Study Burkina Faso. Eschborn.
IMF and World Bank (2004), Burkina Faso: JSA of Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Progress Report. Washington DC.
____________ (2006), Annual Progress Report on the Poverty Reduction Strategy Joint Staff Advisory Note. Washington DC.
ODI (2003), Country Case Study 2: Assessment of Burkina Faso’s MTEF. London.
__________ (2003), Results-Oriented Expenditure Management: The Case of Burkina Faso. London.
Protocole de Financement Commun entre le Ministère des Finances et du Budget du Burkina Faso, et les Partenaires Techniques et Financiers du Fonds Commun concernant le Plan Décennal de Développement de l’Éducation de Base (September 20, 2005).
SPA (2006), Survey of Budget Support, 2005. A Report of the SPA Budget Support Working Group.
UN (2005), Plan Cadre des Nations Unies pour l’Aide au Développement UNDAF 2006-2010 Burkina Faso. Ouagadougou.
VENRO (2004), PRSP-Watch. Länderprofile: Burkina-Faso (Oktober). Berlin.
World Bank (2003), Evaluation of the Comprehensive Development Framework (CDF): Burkina Faso Case Study. Washington DC.
__________ (2004), Burkina Faso-Fourth Poverty Reduction Support Credit Project. Project Document. Washington DC.
__________ (2004), Burkina Faso-Poverty Reduction Support Credit Project. Implementation Completion Report. Washington DC.
_________ (2005), Country Assistance Strategy for Burkina Faso. Washington DC.
_________ (2005), Burkina Faso Country Brief. Washington DC.
_________ (2005), Effective States and Engaged Societies: Capacity Development for Growth, Service Delivery, Empowerment, and Security in Africa: The Case of Burkina Faso. Washington DC.
_________ (2006), Harmonization and Alignment in Burkina Faso. DRAFT.
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Aid Harmonization and Alignment: Initiatives for Burkina Faso
Austrian Development Agency: Burkina Faso
Canadian Embassy in Ouagadougou
Danish Embassy in Ouagadougou
Dutch Embassy in Ouagadougou
French Embassy in Ouagadougou
Government of Burkina Faso
GTZ Burkina Faso
Millennium Challenge Corporation: Burkina Faso
Ministry of Economy and Development
Transparency International: Corruption Perception Indexes
UNDP Burkina Faso
World Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA)
World Bank: Burkina Faso