Location and boundaries: ancient china virtually isolated from the surrounding world by such natural barriers as the Gobi Desert, the Tibetan mountain plateau, and the Pacific Ocean. Chinese cultural patterns of relative homogeneity developed within this context
Topography: Of China’s land surface, one-fifth consists of coastal and river plains; the remaining four-fifths of mountains, plateaus and hills. Not suitable for agriculture, the mountainous terrain contributes little to China’s food output
Important Rivers: Hwang He (Yellow River) & Yangtze
Elements of culture in late Bronze Age Middle East
Hyksos invasion of the Middle Kingdom: A Semitic people who invaded Egypt and ruled it during the 17th and 16th centuries B.C. They introduced the horse and chariot into Egypt.
New Kingdom of Egypt: (1580 to 1090 B.C.E.) The New Kingdom was noted for its territorial expansion and richness of art and architecture under rulers such as Rameses II.
Pharaoh Hatshepsut Queen of Egypt (1503-1482) who on the death of her husband, Thutmose II (c. 1504), became regent for her son Thutmose III. She bestowed the title of pharaoh on herself and adopted all the pharaonic customs, including the wearing of a false beard.
Pharaoh Akhenaten (1375?-1358? B.C.E)
Pharaoh Tutankhamen (c. 1358 B.C.)
PharaohRameses II (1304-1237 B.C.E): Known as “Rameses the Great.” King of Egypt whose reign was marked by the building of numerous monuments. He was probably king during the Jewish exodus from Egypt.
Kush: An ancient kingdom of Nubia in northern Sudan. It flourished from the 11th century B.C. to the 4th century A.D., when its capital fell to the Ethiopians
Nubia: A desert region and ancient kingdom in the Nile River valley of southern Egypt and northern Sudan. After the 20th century B.C. it was controlled by the rulers of Egypt, although in the 8th and 7th centuries an independent kingdom arose that conquered Egypt
Linear B: A syllabic script used in Mycenaean Greek documents chiefly from Crete and Pylos, mostly from the 14th to the 12th century B.C.E.
Troy: An ancient city of northwest Asia Minor near the Dardanelles. Originally a Phrygian city dating from the Bronze Age, it is the legendary site of the Trojan War and was captured and destroyed by Greek forces c. 1200 B.C. The ruins of Troy were discovered by __________________ in 1871.