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BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY

International Relations: Caribbean (IR 230)

Spring Semester 2002
Professor: Hilbourne A. Watson: hawatson@bucknell.edu

Office: 110 Coleman Hall Telephone: 577-3568

Class: MW 3:00-4:22 [Coleman 024]

Office Hours: M 2:00-3:00 & TR 11:00-12


INTRODUCTION
International Relations: Caribbean (IR 230) situates the contemporary Caribbean in the global arena. It combines themes from international relations (IR) and international political economy (IPE) and emphasizes theoretical and empirical issues and problems. The main topics include colonialism, decolonization, the nation-state, sovereign autonomy, foreign policy/decision-making, globalization, regionalization, neoliberalism, post-cold war security issues, human rights problems, gender and related issues, and other selected topics.
The course approaches the Caribbean as a diverse region in terms of its population, history, geography, culture, political systems, decolonization experience, the role of extra-regional powers, international linkages, and other factors. While there is a tendency to generalize about a number of processes that have shaped the development of the modern Caribbean, (e.g. colonialism and anti-colonialism, slavery, imperialism and anti-imperialism, migration, and so on), it is necessary to provide concrete analyses of concrete situations, when examining the experiences of any given part of the Caribbean.
The Caribbean region is an integral part of the modern world. The Caribbean played an important part in the making of the modern world. The Caribbean is a very modern region: it has played key roles in helping to shape concepts of the modern state, sovereignty, property, law, race, human rights, freedom struggles, and concepts about human nature and culture. Historically, the Caribbean served as a testing ground for strategies of colonization, imperialism, international economic and commercial specialization, foreign investment strategies, outsourcing of production and, more recently, neoliberal structural adjustment programs, financial globalization, and so on. This reality bears directly on the evolution of modern international relations, diplomacy, security issues, and the international political economy. This reality contradicts the habit of seeing the Caribbean as a so-called peripheral area.
The course provides students with ample opportunities to examine and test any number of claims about the place and role of the Caribbean in the global arena.
REQUIRED TEXTS:
Alvin O. Thompson, The Haunting Past: Politics, Economics and Race in Caribbean Life.

Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers, 1997.

Joseph S. Tulchin and Ralph Espach Eds. Security in the Caribbean Basin: The Challenge of Regional Cooperation. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2000.

Andres Serbin, Sunset Over the Islands London: Macmillan Education Limited, 1998.

Aaron Gamaliel Ramos and Angel Israel Rivera Islands at the Crossroads: Politics in the Non-Independent Caribbean. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers, 2001.
IMPORTANT POINTS TO NOTE:
CLASS ATTENDANCE:
Students are expected to attend class on a regular basis. Please be punctual!

RESEARCH PAPERS:


Three papers will be required for this class with due dates in February (February 25), April (April 1) and May (May 9). The first two papers must be 5-6 typed double-spaced pages each. The third paper will be the term/research paper and should be 10 typed double-spaced pages. In addition there will be three quizzes based exclusively on the geography and political economy of the Caribbean. In other words, the quizzes will not test knowledge of the general reading material for the course. These projects are designed to help students acquire a fuller appreciation of the Caribbean region. They will involve identifying basic data and information about the different countries with respect to their size, populations, membership in international organizations, political status and culture, and economic specializations. The quizzes will count for 15% of the final grade.
RESEARCH PAPER PROPOSAL AND RESEARCH PAPER:
The third paper will serve as the research paper for the course. The research paper has a research proposal requirement. Each student has to write/submit a research paper proposal in order to get her/his research topic approved. The research project has to be based on issues addressed in the course, which means it must have direct relevance to the course. Approval is based on the following:
Each student must submit a typed research paper proposal of about two to three pages, including the following components:

  1. Paper title (this is very important, as it is impossible to tell what you are planning to write about without a title).

  2. Proposed table of contents with headings and subheadings to inform the proper organization of the research paper.

  3. Descriptive statement (narrative) about the proposed research paper, indicating relevance to the course, the hypothesis or main argument you plan to test around the issues (problems) you intend to research.

  4. Working bibliography that reflects some of the sources you intend to examine in your research.


A research paper proposal must contain these components to be deemed acceptable.

I will review and evaluate the research paper proposal to provide a basis for discussing each student's project with her/him in a conference. When I am satisfied each student has a viable project, I will approve the topic. The proposal is due on Friday, April 5.

The research paper accounts for 30 percent of the course grade. The research paper proposal must demonstrate a level of activity that indicates thoughtful and careful reflection.
ORGANIZATION OF THE RESEARCH PAPER:
I. A title and title page with student’s name, course title, professor’s name, and semester.

II. A table of contents showing headings/subheadings to reflect the organization of the argument.

III. The main body of the paper: i.e. the argument organized in a logical, coherent and systematic manner that follows the organization of the Table of Contents.

IV. Footnotes or endnotes (you may cite sources in the body of the text, but explanatory footnotes or endnotes should be included where necessary). There must be documentation: i.e. you must cite sources of information in an accurate manner, relying mainly on scholarly sources. It is not acceptable to rely heavily on newspapers or magazines for the bulk of your sources.

V. Bibliography: all sources used in the research paper must be included in your bibliography. Please do not pad your bibliography with sources you have not used in the research. Keep extensive or elaborate quotes to a minimum. Interpretation of an author’s argument(s) is better than relying on an author(s) to make your argument for you. Use a "12 pitch" font and use single spacing for any quoted passages!
PLAGIARISM:
Do not plagiarize! Plagiarism is a very serious offense. Plagiarism is the “act of using another person’s ideas or expressions in your writing without acknowledging the source…” thereby fostering the misleading “impression that you have thought something that you have in fact borrowed from another” (Bucknell Faculty Adviser Handbook, Bucknell University, August 1998, p. 7). My policy is to report any act of plagiarism to an appropriate Bucknell University official such as a dean.
DETERMINATION OF COURSE GRADE
Class Participation/Quizzes 20%

Papers:


February 25 25%

April 1 25%

May 9 30%

Total 100%



COURSE OUTLINE
JANUARY 16-21
1. BACKGROUND TO THE CARIBBEAN
Readings:
Norman Girvan, "Creating and recreating the Caribbean" (handout);

Alvin O. Thompson, The Haunting Past: Politics, Economics and Race in Caribbean Life, chap. 1 (January 16)


Alvin O. Thompson, The Haunting Past: Politics, Economics and Race in Caribbean Life, chapters 2 & 7 (January 21)
JANUARY 23:

II. THEORETICAL ISSUES OF THE HISTORICAL NATION-STATE


Readings:
Charles Tilly, "The European State System" in C. Tilly, Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 992-1992. (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1992), chapter 6 (handout).
JANUARY 28-30:
III. THE HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMATIC IN THE CARIBBEAN
Alvin O. Thompson, The Haunting Past, chap. 4 (January 28)

Alvin O. Thompson, The Haunting Past, chap. 5-6 (January 30)


FEBRURY 4
IV. FOREIGN POLICY ISSUES IN THE COMMONWEALTH CARIBBEAN
Readings:
J. A. Braveboy-Wagner, "Caribbean Foreign Policy: Goals and Strategies" pp. 24-34 (handout)

J. A. Braveboy-Wagner, "Caribbean Foreign Policy: Evaluation" pp. 220-229 (handout)


FEBRUARY 6:
V. CONTEXT OF SECURITY ISSUES IN THE WIDER CARIBBEAN
Readings:
Alvin O. Thompson, The Haunting Past, chapter 3, “The Politics of Violence”

Tulchin & Espach Security in the Caribbean Basin, pp. 1-22



FEBRUARY 11:
VI. NONTRADITIONAL DIMENSIONS OF SECURITY ISSUES IN CARIBBEAN
Lilian Bobea "Migration and Regional Security" in Tulchin & Espach, pp. 119-135

Ivelaw Griffith, "Drugs and the Emerging Security Agenda in the Caribbean," in Tulchin & Espach, pp. 137-150.



FEBRUARY 13:
VII. COOPERATION AS N ISSUE IN TH CARIBBEAN SECURITY AGENDA
Readings:
Francisco Rojas-Aravena "The New Security Agenda in the Caribbean…" in Tulchin & Espach, pp. 65-81

Rafael Hernández, "Cooperation in the Caribbean: The Cultural Dimension" in Tulchin & Espach, pp. 83-93.

…………………….First Quiz February 18…………………..
FEBRUARY 18:
VIII. PRACTITIONERS' PERSPECTIVES ON COOPERATIVE SECURITY FRAMEWORK
Readings:

Brigadier General Rudyard Lewis "Initiatives for Cooperative Regional Security: Eastern Caribbean Regional Security System," in Tulchin & Espach pp. 177-83.

Brigidier General Thomas Keck "A Cooperative Agenda of U.S. Armed Forces in the Caribbean" in Tulchin & Espach pp 185-88.

General José Noble Espejo " A Call for the Redefinition of Regional and National Interests" in Tulchin & Espach pp. 193-95

Wattie Vos, "The New Caribbean Security Agenda" in Tulchin & Espach pp. 189-91.

Captain Randy Beardsworth, "Maritime Counternarcotics Agreements: The Cop on the Beat" in Tulchin & Espach pp. 197-202.


FEBRUARY 20:
IX. CUBA IN CARIBBEAN SECURITY CONTEXT
Isabel Jaramillo Edwards "Initiatives for Cooperative Regional Security: Reintegrating Cuba into Regional Projects" in Tulchin & Espach pp. 151-57

Joseph Tulchin & Ralph Espach "Looking Ahead: Regional Relations in the Post-Cold War Era" in Tulchin & Espach pp. 205-210.


FEBRUARY 25:
X. BEYOND THE LOGIC OF THE REGIONAL SECURITY PROJECT IN THE CARIBBEAN
Hilbourne A. Watson, “The Shiprider Solution: Post-Cold War Imperialism and the Ontologies of State/Sovereignty in the Caribbean” (handout)

Humberto García-Muňiz, " The United States and the Caribbean at Fin de Siècle" in Tulchin & Espach, pp. 45-64


………………….FIRST PAPER DUE FEBRUARY 25……………………
FEBRUARY 27:
XI. THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OF NON-INDEPENDENT CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES: SELECTED CASE STUDIES
Readings:
A. PUERTO RICO:

Aarón Gamaliel Ramos "Caribbean Territories at the Crossroads" in Ramos and Rivera pp. xii-xxi.

Aarón Gamaliel Ramos and Angel Israel Rivera, "Puerto Rico: Regional Transformations and Political Change" in Ramos and Rivera pp. 1-27.
MARCH 4:
B. FRENCH ANTILLES:
Readings:
Justin Daniel "The Construction of Dependency: Economy and Politics in the French Antilles" in Ramos and Rivera pp. 61-79.

Fred Constant "The French Antilles in the 1990s: Between European Unification and Political Territorialization" in Ramos and Rivera pp. 80-94.


MARCH 6:
C. DUTCH ANTILLES & British West Indies:
Readings:
Rita Giacalone " The Political Status of Curacao at the End of the Twentieth Century" in Ramos and Rivera pp. 95-105.

Armando Lampe "The Recolonization of Aruba" in Ramos and Rivera pp.106-114

John Connell "Eternal Empire: Britain's Caribbean Colonies in the Global Arena" in Ramos & Rivera pp. 115-135.
MARCH 18:

……………………Second Quiz………………….


D. THE NON-INDEPENDENT CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES AND THE UNITED NATIONS
Readings:
Carlyle Corbin " Direct participation of non-Independent Caribbean Countries in the United Nations: A Method for self-Determination" in Ramos & Rivera pp. 136-59.

MARCH 25:

XIII. GLOBALIZATION & THE RECONFIGURATION OF CARIBBEAN REGIONAL AND GLOBAL IDENTITY


Readings:
Andres Serbin, Sunset over the Islands, chaps. 1-2
MARCH 27-April 1:
XIV. GLOBALIZATION AND REGIONALIZATION IN THE CARIBBEAN
Readings: Andres Serbin, Sunset over the Islands, chap. 3 (March 27)

Andres Serbin, Sunset over the Islands, chaps. 4-5 (April 1)


……………….. SECOND PAPER DUE APRIL 5……………………
APRIL 3:
XII. GLOBALIZATION, REGIONAL INTEGRATION AND THE QUESTION OF POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY IN THE CARIBBEAN
Reading: Peter Wickham, "Towards Recapturing Popular Sovereignty through Caribbean Integration" in Beyond Law, vol. 6, no. 20, December 1998, pp. 109-138 (handout).

APRIL 8-24:


  1. CONTRADICTIONS OF NEO-LIBERAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE CARIBBEAN: GENDER, SEX TOURISM, INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, & POLITICAL ECONOMY

…………………..Third Quiz April 10…………………


A. Theoretical and Conceptual Issues (April 8-10)
Readings:
Jessica Byron and Diana Thorburn, "Gender and International Relations: A Global Perspective and Issues for the Caribbean" in Feminist Review, Number 59, Summer 1998: 211-32 (April 8), (handout).

Kamala Kempadoo, Continuities and Change: Five Centuries of Prostitution in the Caribbean" in Kamala Kempadoo, ed. Sun, Sex, and Gold: Tourism and Sex Work in the Caribbean. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littelfield 1999 (April 10) (handout).


B. Sex Tourism in the Caribbean: Barbados, Jamaica, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic
Readings:


  1. Barbados/Jamaica:

Joan L. Phillips, Tourist-Oriented Prostitution in Barbados" in Kamala Kempadoo, ed. Sun, Sex, and Gold: Tourism and Sex Work in the Caribbean. Lamham, MD: Rowman & Littelfield 1999 (April 15) (handout).

Beverley Mullings, "Globalization, Tourism and the International Sex Trade" in Kamala Kempadoo, ed. Sun, Sex, and Gold: Tourism and Sex Work in the Caribbean (April 17) (handout).


  1. Cuba/Dominican Republic:

Readings:



Coco Fusco, "Hustling for Dollars" in Kamala Kempadoo and Jo Doezema, Eds. Global Sex Workers: Rights, Resistance, and Redefinition. London: Routledge (April 22) (handout)

Amalia Cabezas ""Women's Work is Never Done: Sex Tourism in Sosúa," in Kamala Kempadoo, ed. Sun, Sex, and Gold: Tourism and Sex Work in the Caribbean (April 24) (handout)
April 29:
XIV. FILM: LIFE & DEBT (Jamaica under Neoliberal Globalization)

..…………………….RESEARCH PAPER DUE MAY 9……………………………




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