British Northern Strategy (1777) Why?



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British Northern Strategy (1777)



Why? To isolate New England (Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island) where most Patriot Activity was happening.
How? Three British armies planned to meet in Albany, New York to seize the Hudson River valley.


General Howe

Left New York, planned to move north along Hudson.

(Change of plans→ =Seize Philadelphia)

=British success

General St Ledger

Brought his forces south from the Mohawk Valley

with Mohawk chief Joseph Brant.
(Change of plans→ Retreat at Fort Stanwix.
Surrender to American General Benedict Arnold)

=British defeat

General Burgoyne

Marched from Canada with British, Iroquois, and Hessians



Continued towards Albany



Saratoga, New York

- Arrive exhausted


- Surrounded by Continental Army forces
- Continental forces attack until Burgoyne & men surrender.

=British defeat, American victory

Bemis Heights, New York

Obstacle: Continental General Horatio Gates and his men build fortifications, block Burgoyne and attack with support from Benedict Arnold.

=British defeat, American victory



Retreat…



ALBANY, NEW YORK


British Southern Strategy (1778)



Why? Believed there were more Loyalists and slaves seeking freedom in the south that would support and fight with their army.
How? Take control of important strategic points within the southern colonies and gain more men.

Charles Town, South Carolina 1780

British successfully take control and drive Continental forces out of Charles Town, the largest southern city.



British Victory

Worst Continental loss of the war
Almost entire southern army killed.

Camden, South Carolina 1780

Lord Cornwallis and his British forces defeat (Congress’ newly assigned) General Gates and his Continental forces.

British Victory

Savannah, Georgia 1778

British successfully take control of the port and continue on to conquer most of Georgia.



British Victory



Cowpens, South Carolina 1781

(Congress’ newly assigned) General Nathanael Greene and his Continental forces use formal battle tactics to defeat Cornwallis.



British Defeat, Continental Victory



Yorktown, Virginia 1781

General Washington surrounds Cornwallis’ and his men by land and the French army blocks the Chesapeake Bay.

British build redoubts for protection.

French and American cannons fire from all directions. The last battle of the war had been won.

Cornwallis and his 8,000 men surrender.

British Defeat, Continental Final Victory

Gilford, North Carolina 1781

British victory BUT Greene and his men were determined, and knew the land.



British Victory (technically but…)

Defeat (because Cornwallis realized that the Patriots outnumbered them in all colonies)

British Defeat, Continental Victory



Retreat…


Battles of the American Revolutionary War Map (10 Points)

http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/579/592970/blankmaps/coloni%7e1.gif

  1. Label each colony. Shade New England in YELLOW (Book Map P. 193)

  2. Create a number key to indicate each battle location and identify the victor.


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