Brave New World Pre-Reading Background



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Name: ________________________ Period: ____________ Date: __________________

Brave New World Pre-Reading Background
Henry Ford’s Model T

  1. What were some of the nicknames for the Model T?

  2. Why was the Model T important?

  3. What competitor stole the name of the Model U?

  4. How did Ford develop the assembly line?

  5. How did the assembly change America?

Marx


  1. What was Karl Marx’s famous book called?

  2. He is credited as the “father” of what?

  3. Marx believed that communism would replace what?

  4. What major revolution was credited to Marx?

Vladimir Lenin



  1. What is Lenin’s version of Marxism called?

  2. Lenin was the first leader of what country?

  3. What event traumatized Lenin and led him to follow a Marxist philosophy?

  4. What was the name of the Socialist revolution Lenin led?

Freud / Pavlov



  1. What are the three parts of psychological selves?

  2. He is called the “father” of what?

  3. When did Pavlov win the Nobel prize and what for?

  4. How did Pavlov study dogs?

FDR’s New Deal



  1. What are the three main components of the New Deal?

  2. What happened to the stock market to bring the New Deal about?

  3. The Period following the stock market mishap was called?

  4. What two elements of the New Deal are present today?

Aldous Huxley



  1. Where was Huxley born and where did he die?

  2. What was Huxley a critic of?

  3. What was Huxley’s grandfather and what was his nickname?

  4. Why couldn’t Huxley fight in World War I?

  5. Why did Huxley title the book Brave New World?

Aldous Huxley


Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894November 22, 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. He spent the latter part of his life in the United States, living in Los Angeles from 1937 until his death in 1963. Best known for his novels and wide-ranging output of essays, he also published short stories, poetry, travel writing, and film stories and scripts. Through his novels and essays Huxley functioned as an examiner and sometimes critic of social mores, norms and ideals. Huxley was a humanist but was also interested towards the end of his life in spiritual subjects such as parapsychology and philosophical mysticism. By the end of his life Huxley was considered, in some academic circles, a leader of modern thought and an intellectual of the highest rank[citation needed].

Biography

Early years


Aldous Huxley was born in Godalming, Surrey, England. He was the son of the writer and professional herbalist Leonard Huxley by his first wife, Julia Arnold; and grandson of Thomas Henry Huxley, one of the most prominent naturalists of the 19th century, a man known as "Darwin's Bulldog." His brother Julian Huxley was also a noted biologist.

Huxley began his learning in his father's well-equipped botanical laboratory, then continued in a school named Hillside. His teacher was his mother who supervised him for several years until she became terminally ill. After Hillside, he was educated at Eton College. Huxley's mother died in 1908, when he was fourteen. Three years later he suffered an illness (keratitis punctata) which "left [him] practically blind for two to three years".[1] Aldous's near-blindness disqualified him from service in World War I. Once his eyesight recovered sufficiently, he was able to study English literature at Balliol College, Oxford.

Following his education at Balliol, Huxley was financially indebted to his father and had to earn a living. For a short while in 1918, he was employed acquiring provisions at the Air Ministry. But never desiring a career in administration (or in business), Huxley's lack of inherited means propelled him into applied literary work.

Huxley completed his first (unpublished) novel at the age of seventeen and began writing seriously in his early twenties. His earlier work includes important novels on the dehumanizing aspects of scientific progress, most famously Brave New World, and on pacifist themes (for example, Eyeless in Gaza). In Brave New World Huxley portrays a society operating on the principles of mass production and Pavlovian conditioning. The religions of our day have been replaced by the worship of Henry Ford, marking their calendars in the year of Ford beginning in 1908 when he released his first automobile. Huxley was strongly influenced by F. Matthias Alexander and included him as a character in Eyeless in Gaza.


Middle years


During World War I, Huxley spent much of his time at Garsington Manor, home of Lady Ottoline Morrell. Later, in Crome Yellow (1921) he caricatured the Garsington lifestyle. In 1919 he married Maria Nijs, a Belgian woman he had met at Garsington. They had one child, Matthew Huxley (1920-2005), who had a career as an epidemiologist.

In 1937, Huxley moved to Hollywood, California with his wife Maria and friend Gerald Heard. At this time too Huxley wrote Ends and Means; in this work he explores the fact that although most people in modern civilization agree that they want a world of 'liberty, peace, justice, and brotherly love', they have not been able to agree on how to achieve it. Heard introduced Huxley to Vedanta, meditation and vegetarianism through the principle of ahimsa. In 1938 Huxley befriended J. Krishnamurti, whose teachings he greatly admired. He also became a Vedantist in the circle of Swami Prabhavananda, and introduced Christopher Isherwood to this circle. Not long after, Huxley wrote his book on widely held spiritual values and ideas, The Perennial Philosophy, which discussed teachings of the world's great mystics.

During this period he was also able to tap into some Hollywood income using his writing skills, thanks to an introduction into the business by his friend Anita Loos, the prolific novelist and screenwriter. He received screen credit for Pride and Prejudice, 1940, and was paid for his work on a number of other films.

For most of his life since the illness in his teens which left Huxley nearly blind, his eyesight was poor (despite the partial recovery which had enabled him to study at Oxford). Around 1939 Huxley encountered the Bates Method for Natural Vision Improvement and a teacher (Margaret Corbett) who was able to teach him in the method. In 1940, relocating from Hollywood to a forty-acre ranchito in the high desert hamlet of Llano, in northernmost Los Angeles County, Huxley claimed his sight improved dramatically as a result of using the Bates Method, particularly utilizing the extreme and pure natural lighting of the Southwestern American desert. He reported that for the first time in over 25 years, he was able to read without spectacles and without strain. He even tried driving a car along the dirt road beside the ranch. He wrote a book about his successes with the Bates Method, The Art of Seeing which was published in 1942 (US), 1943 (UK).


Later years


After World War II Huxley applied for United States citizenship, but was denied because he would not say he would take up arms to defend America. Nevertheless he remained in the United States and in 1959 he turned down an offer of a Knight Bachelor by the Macmillan government.

During the 1950s, Huxley's interest in the field of psychical research grew keener and his later works are strongly influenced by both mysticism and his experiences with the psychedelic drug mescaline, to which he was introduced by the psychiatrist Humphry Osmond in 1953. Indeed Huxley was a pioneer of self-directed psychedelic drug use "in a search for enlightenment", famously taking 100 micrograms of LSD as he lay dying. His psychedelic drug experiences are described in the essays The Doors of Perception (the title deriving from some lines in the book The Marriage of Heaven and Hell by William Blake) and Heaven and Hell. The title of the former became the inspiration for the naming of the rock band, The Doors. Some of his writings on psychedelics became frequent reading among early hippies.

In 1955 Huxley's wife, Maria, died of breast cancer and in 1956 he remarried, to Laura Archera, who was herself an author and who wrote a biography of Huxley.

In 1960, Huxley himself was diagnosed with cancer and in the years that followed, with his health deteriorating, he wrote the utopian novel Island, and gave lectures on "Human Potentialities" at the Esalen institute which were foundational to the forming of the Human Potential Movement. On November 22, 1963 Huxley drew his last breath, under the influence of LSD. He died on the same day as US President John F. Kennedy and fellow novelist C. S. Lewis.


FDR’s New Deal


The New Deal was the name President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs between 1933–1937 with the goal of relief, recovery and reform of the United States economy during the Great Depression. Dozens of alphabet agencies were created as a result. Historians distinguish the "First New Deal" of 1933 that had something for almost every group, and the "Second New Deal" (1935–37) that introduced an element of class conflict. The opponents of the New Deal, complaining of the cost and the shift of power to Washington, stopped its expansion after 1937, and abolished many of its programs by 1943. The Supreme Court ruled the National Recovery Administration unconstitutional. The main programs still important today are Social Security and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).[1]

Relief, Recovery, and Reform


The New Deal had three components: direct relief, economic recovery, and financial reform; these were also called the 'Three Rs'.

Relief was the immediate effort to help the one-third of the population that was hardest hit by the depression. Roosevelt expanded Hoover's Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) work relief program, and added the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), Public Works Administration (PWA), and (starting in 1935) the Works Progress Administration (WPA). In 1935 the social security and unemployment insurance programs were added. Separate programs were set up for relief in rural America, such as the Resettlement Administration (RA) and Farm Security Administration (FSA). These work relief programs have been praised by most economists in retrospect, including Milton Friedman, who called them "appropriate responses to the critical situation."[2]

Recovery was the effort in numerous programs to restore the economy to normal health. By most economic indicators this was achieved by 1937--except for unemployment, which remained stubbornly high until World War II began.

Reform was based on the assumption that the depression was caused by the inherent instability of the market and that government intervention was necessary to rationalize and stabilize the economy, and to balance the interests of farmers, business and labor. It included the National Recovery Administration (NRA, 1933), regulation of Wall Street (SEC, 1934), the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) farm programs (1933 and 1938), insurance of bank deposits (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 1933) and the Wagner Act encouraging labor unions (1935). Despite urgings by some New Dealers, there was no major anti-trust program. Roosevelt said that he opposed socialism (in the sense of state ownership of factories), and only one major program, the Tennessee Valley Authority (1933), involved government ownership of the means of production. Milton Friedman is typical of a majority of economists who have criticized the NRA and AAA for setting prices and wages, which distorted the market.[3]

Two old words now took on new meaning. "Liberal" no longer referred to classical liberalism but now meant a supporter of the New Deal; conservative meant an opponent. Whether the New Deal was successful in achieving the three Rs is usually approached not as a historical problem but as a current debate over whether the program should be a model for government action today. Liberals continue to battle conservatives. The term "New Deal" is also used to describe the liberal New Deal Coalition that Roosevelt created to support his programs, including the Democratic party, big city machines, labor unions, Catholic and Jewish minorities, African Americans, farmers, and most Southern whites.

By 1934, the Supreme Court began declaring significant parts of the New Deal unconstitutional. This led Roosevelt to propose the Court-packing Bill in 1937. Although the bill failed, the Supreme Court started upholding New Deal laws. By 1942, the Supreme Court had almost completely abandoned its "judicial activism" of striking down congressional laws, as accused by New Deal supporters. The Supreme Court ruled in Wickard v. Filburn that the Commerce Clause covered almost all such regulation allowing the necessary expansion of federal power to make the New Deal "constitutional".

[edit] The Origins of the New Deal


On the 29th of October, 1929, the crash of the U.S. stock market—known as Black Tuesday—reflected a trend of a worldwide economic crisis. In 1929–1933, unemployment in the U.S. increased from the original 4% to 25%, manufacturing output collapsed by approximately a third. Prices everywhere fell, making the burden of the repayments of debts much harder. Heavy industry, mining, lumbering and agriculture felt its impact. Retail and banking also felt the impact as millions of Americans lost their life savings in the stock market and became destitute. The impact was much less severe in white collar and service sectors, but every city and state was hit hard.

Upon accepting the Democratic nomination for president, Roosevelt promised "a new deal for the American people." (The phrase was borrowed from the title of Stuart Chase's book A New Deal published earlier that year.) Roosevelt entered office with no single ideology or plan for dealing with the depression. He was willing to try anything, and, indeed, in the "First New Deal" (1933-34) virtually every organized group (except the Socialists and Communists) gained much of what they demanded. This "First New Deal" thus was self-contradictory, pragmatic, and experimental. The economy eventually recovered from the deep pit of 1932, and started heading upward again until 1937, when the Recession of 1937 sent the economy back to 1934 levels of unemployment. Whether the New Deal was responsible for the recovery, or whether it even slowed the recovery, is a subject of debate.

The New Deal drew from many different sources over the previous half-century. Some New Dealers, led by Thurman Arnold, went back to the anti-monopoly tradition in the Democratic party that stretched back a century. Monopoly was bad for America, Louis Brandeis kept insisting, because it produced waste and inefficiency. However, the anti-monopoly group never had a major impact on New Deal policy.

From the Wilson administration, other New Dealers, such as Hugh Johnson of the NRA, were shaped by efforts to mobilize the economy for World War I, They brought ideas and experience from the government controls and spending of 1917-18.

And from the policy experiments of the 1920s, New Dealers picked up ideas from efforts to harmonize the economy by creating cooperative relationships among its constituent elements. Roosevelt brought together a Brain Trust of academic advisers to assist in his recovery efforts.

The New Deal faced some very vocal conservative opposition. The first organized opposition in 1934 came from the American Liberty League led by Democrats such as 1924 and 1928 presidential candidates John W. Davis and Al Smith. There was also a large loose grouping of opponents of the New Deal who have come to be known as the Old Right which included politicians, intellectuals, writers, and newspaper editors of various philosophical persuasions including classical liberals, conservatives, Democrats and Republicans.



Ivan Pavlov


Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (Russian: Иван Петрович Павлов) (September 14, 1849February 27, 1936) was a Russian physiologist, psychologist, and physician. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1904 for research pertaining to the digestive system. Pavlov is widely known for first describing the phenomenon now known as classical conditioning in his experiments with dogs.

Life and research


Pavlov was born in Ryazan, Russia. He began his higher education as a seminary student, but dropped out and enrolled in the University of St. Petersburg to study the natural sciences. He received his doctorate in 1879.

In the 1890s, Pavlov was investigating the gastric function of dogs by externalizing a salivary gland so he could collect, measure, and analyze the saliva many had in response to food under different conditions. He noticed that the dogs tended to salivate before food was actually delivered to their mouths, and set out to investigate this "psychic secretion", as he called it. He decided that this was more interesting than the chemistry of saliva, and changed the focus of his research, carrying out a long series of experiments in which he manipulated the stimuli occurring before the presentation of food. He thereby established the basic laws for the establishment and extinction of what he called "conditional reflexes" — i.e., reflex responses, like salivation, that only occurred conditionally upon specific previous experiences of the animal. These experiments were carried out in the 1890s and 1900s, and were known to western scientists through translations of individual accounts, but first became fully available in English in a book published in 1927.

Pavlov was a dexterous operator who was compulsive about his working hours and habits. He would sit down to lunch at exactly 12 o'clock, he would go to bed at exactly the same time each evening and he would always leave Leningrad for Estonia on vacation on the same day each year. This behavior changed when his son Victor died in the White Army — after which he suffered from insomnia.

Unlike many pre-revolutionary scientists, Pavlov was highly regarded by the Soviet government, and he was able to continue his researches until he reached a considerable age. Pavlov himself was not favorable towards Marxism, but as a Nobel laureate he was seen as a valuable political asset.[1][2]




Psychology and Freud

Sigmund Freud, known in some circles as the “father of psychology,” became famous for his psychoanalysis (meaning studying the mind). He believed that there was much to be learned from his patients’ dreams and believed that secretly, men and women formulate their desires subconsciously from their relationships with their mothers and fathers.

He believed that much of who we are is formed from our “id” or our subconscious, instinctual selves. Our “ego” is who we learn to be through human interaction and education. The “super-ego” is that which compensates both the “id” and the “ego.”

Firstly, the Id: The only aim of the Id is the fulfillment of its needs, no matter if others have to suffer because of them. Thus, it acts according to the “Pleasure Principle.” Moreover, he assumed that a lot of sexual energy, also known as libido, lies there.

Let us take a look at the Superego. It acts in contradiction to the Id. The Superego always tries to remind us of instructions. Of course this instance is affected by our parents who taught us what is wrong and what is right in our early childhood. So, if we do something wrong, the Superego reminds us of this, which causes a bad conscience.

The Ego acts according to the reality principle. It is always keen to keep the Id and the Superego under control, which means it is aware of the consequences of doing something wrong and tries to find a balance between the Id and the Superego. Finally, the Ego has to decide what the human being does.


Moreover, there is Freud’s theory that there are sexual needs even in a child. He divides the childhood in different parts. The first one is the oral phase. Its name comes from the fact that babies want to experience their environment with their mouth. In addition, they use their mouth to suck on their mother’s breast. In this phase little children make their first steps towards their own sexuality. The next phase is named anal stage. Babies learn to experience their genitals, which is a totally normal part of their development. Phallic phase is the time when little boys want to marry their mums and little girls their dads. At first sight, this seems crazy, but it’s usual in becoming an adult. The last phase is called genital phase and starts as soon as the child reaches puberty. Here an adolescent has his/her first sexual experiences.

As you can see, sexuality seems to play a big role for Sigmund Freud.

Freud believed that this secret desire for the mother (Oedipus Complex) or the father (Electra Complex) is instinctual in humanity. Today, many of Freud’s theories are not taken seriously, though his impact has given psychology some credibility as a science.

The Id, the Ego, and the Superego Sigmund Freud



Ford Model T

The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie and the Flivver) was an automobile produced by Henry Ford's Ford Motor Company from 1908 through 1927. The model T set 1908 as the historic year that the automobile came into popular usage. It is generally regarded as the first affordable automobile, the car which "put America on wheels"; this was due to some of Ford's innovations, including assembly line production instead of individual hand crafting, as well as the concept of paying the workers a wage proportionate to the cost of the car, so that they would provide a ready made market. (Ford also attempted a 'buy on time' program to aid sales, resembling that of the German Kdf-Wagen [the forerunner of the Volkswagen Beetle]. Ford's plan was not a success, either.) The first production Model T was built on September 27, 1908, at the Piquette Plant in Detroit, Michigan.

There were several cars produced or prototyped by Henry Ford from the founding of the company in 1903 until the Model T came along. Although he started at the Model A, there were not 19 production models; some were only prototypes. The production model immediately before the Model T was the Ford Model S [2], an upgraded version of the company's largest success to that point, the Model N. For some reason, the follow-up was the Ford Model A and not the Model U. Company publicity said this was because the new car was such a departure from the old that Henry wanted to start all over again with the letter A. As it happens, the first Plymouth car (1928), built by competitor Chrysler Corporation, was named the Model U.

In the international poll for the award of the world's most influential car of the twentieth century the Ford Model T came first.


Assembly line system


The revolutionary Model T assembly line was introduced to Ford Motor Company by William C. Klann upon his return from visiting a Chicago slaughterhouse and viewing what was referred to the "disassembly line" where animals were butchered as they moved along a conveyor. The efficiency of one person removing the same piece over and over caught his attention. He reported the idea of an assembly line to Peter E. Martin who was doubtful at the time but encouraged him to proceed. Others at Ford have claimed to have put the idea forth to Henry Ford but William "Pa" Klann's slaughterhouse revelation is well documented in the archives at the Henry Ford Museum and elsewhere making him the father of the modern automated assembly line concept. The process was an evolution by trial and error of a team consisting primarily of Peter E. Martin, the factory superintendent; Charles E. Sorensen, Martin's assistant; Harold Wills, draftsman and toolmaker; Clarence W. Avery and Charles Lewis.[2] [3] [4] When the first car was completed using the assembly line, in front of the media, onlookers and even Henry Ford himself, it was Pa Klann who drove it proudly off the line.

Karl Marx

Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, PrussiaMarch 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. Marx addressed a wide range of issues; he is most famous for his analysis of history, summed up in the opening line of the introduction to the Communist Manifesto (1848): "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles." Marx believed that capitalism would be replaced by communism.

Marx was both a scholar and a political activist, often called the father of communism. Sometimes, he argued that his analysis of capitalism revealed that capitalism was destined to end because of unsolvable problems within capitalism:





The development of Modern Industry, therefore, cuts from under its feet the very foundation on which the bourgeoisie produces and appropriates products. What the bourgeoisie therefore produces, above all, are its own grave-diggers. Its fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable. [1]



Other times, he argued that capitalism would end through the organized actions of an international working class: "Communism is for us not a state of affairs which is to be established, an ideal to which reality [will] have to adjust itself. We call communism the real movement which abolishes the present state of things. The conditions of this movement result from the premises now in existence." (from The German Ideology)

While Marx was a relatively obscure figure in his own lifetime, his ideas began to exert a major influence on workers' movements shortly after his death. This influence was given added impetus by the victory of the Marxist Bolsheviks in the Russian October Revolution, and there are few parts of the world which were not significantly touched by Marxian ideas in the course of the twentieth century. The relation of Marx to "Marxism" is a point of controversy. While some argue that his ideas are discredited, Marxism is still very much influential in academic and political circles. In his book "Marx's Das Capital" (2006), biographer Francis Wheen reiterates David McLellan's observation that since Marx's ideas had not triumphed in the West "..it had not been turned into an official ideology and is thus the object of serious study unimpeded by government controls.".




Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Улья́нов, Vladimir Il'ič Ul'janov; IPA: [vla'dʲimʲir ilj'itʂ ul'janʌf], better known by the alias Lenin (help·info) (Ленин)) (April 22, 1870January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, a communist politician, the main leader of the October Revolution, the first head of the Soviet Union, and the primary theorist of Leninism, a variant of Marxism.

Born in Simbirsk, Russian Empire (now Ulyanovsk), Lenin was the son of Ilya Nikolaevich Ulyanov and Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova. His father was a Russian official in public education who worked for progressive democracy and free universal education in Russia. The family was of mixed ethnicity, his ancestry being "Russian, Kalmyk, Jewish, German and Swedish, and possibly others" according to biographer Dmitri Volkogonov.[1] Lenin was baptized into the Russian Orthodox Church.

In 1886, Lenin's father died of a cerebral hemorrhage. In May 1887, his eldest brother Alexander Ulyanov was hanged for participating in a terrorist bomb plot threatening the life of Tsar Alexander III. His sister Anna, who was with Alexander at the time of his arrest, was banished to his family estate, the village of Kokushkino, about 40 km (25 mi) from Kazan. This event radicalized Lenin, and his official Soviet biographies describe it as central to the revolutionary track of his life. A famous painting by Belousov, "We Will Follow a Different Path", reprinted in millions of Soviet textbooks, depicted young Lenin and his mother grieving the loss of his elder brother. The phrase "We will follow a different path" refers to Lenin choosing a Marxist approach to popular revolution, instead of anarchist or individualist methods. As Lenin became interested in Marxism, he was involved in student protests and was subsequently arrested. He was then expelled from Kazan University. He continued to study independently and by 1891 had earned a license to practice law.[2] He also distinguished himself in Latin and Greek, and learned German, French and English.

He was active in the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP; РСДРП in Russian), and in 1903 he led the Bolshevik faction after a split with the Mensheviks that was partly inspired by his pamphlet What is to be Done?. This is said to be one of the most influential pamphlets in pre-revolutionary Russia, with Lenin himself claiming that 3 out of 5 workers had read it or had it read to them.[4] In 1906 he was elected to the Presidium of the RSDLP.



In 1907, he moved to Finland for security reasons. He continued to travel in Europe and participated in many socialist meetings and activities, including the Prague Party Conference of 1912 and the Zimmerwald Conference of 1915. In response to philosophical debates on the proper course of socialist revolution, Lenin wrote Materialism and Empirio-criticism in 1909, a work that became fundamental in Marxist-Leninist philosophy. Lenin was the main leader of the Zimmerwald Left. When Inessa Armand left Russia and settled in Paris, she met Lenin and other Bolsheviks living in exile, and it is believed that she became Lenin's lover during this time. Lenin later moved to Switzerland.

When the First World War began in 1914 and the large Social Democratic parties of Europe (at that time self-described as Marxist), including luminaries such as Karl Kautsky, supported their various countries' war efforts, Lenin was shocked, at first refusing to believe that the German Social Democrats had voted for war credits. This led him to a final split with the Second International, which was composed of these parties. Lenin adopted the position that what he described as an 'imperialist war' should be turned into a civil war between the classes.


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