Book IV. 1-218 1 book begins with



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Book IV.1-218
1 book begins with at to show contrast between the sleep of the others vs Dido

notice all words relating to "wound" – saucia, vulnus,

3-5 4 aspects of Aeneas' character intrigue her - virtus, gentis hono, vultus, verba the very things which she later denied.

8 the elision between unanimam adloquitur shows the closeness of the two



male sane – the litotes emphasizes her lack of sanity already

13-14 dactyls then spondees show her excitement and conflict

16 spondees show her serious purpose

18 taedae – Aeneas denies this very thing later

22-23 past tenses show she is already slipping

Sin to marry Aeneas since it would be in defiance of her oath to the gods and Sychaeus.

27 pudor has many definitions – remaining faithful, having a sense of shame, a sensitivity to what is right (conscience).

apostrophe to pudor shows its importance, the tmesis of ante and quam indicates she is already separating herself from her pudor

29-30 jussives show her lack of self-control, she needs Sychaeus' help

31 rhetorical questions are the very questions which Dido is asking herself

Anna's speech is very oratorical. She tries various tactics. She appeals to her as a woman – does she want to be alone without love and children.

She appeals to pudor – does Dido really think that Sychaeus cares anymore

36-38 mix of present and past – she has succumbed to neither before Aeneas

39-44 Anna appeals to Dido's need to keep her city and people safe. They are surrounded by hostile places and people. There is also Pygmalion. Before Dido kills herself she thinks of these very things.

44 praeteritio – in not talking about him, she just has.

45-46 The gods must have wanted Aeneas and the Trojans to be there.

47-49 She appeals to her as a queen – with Aeneas she could have a great kingdom.

50 all she has to do is as the gods for forgiveness and everything will be all right

51-53 Dido also needs to think of excuses to keep Aeneas there

51 the elisions show how all the strategies are linked

53 non tractabile – litotes – Dido should emphasize the bad sailing weather.

54-55 Dido takes only 2 lines to be convinced.

56-64 Dido and Anna begin to sacrifice to the gods (which show her desire to have a happy home in the future and a good marriage

59 elisions show importance of Juno

65 spondees in the this and the next few lines show the serious of the situation and Dido's later death

66-67 fire and wound mentioned again (those of Cupid)

68-73 Simile of deer and shepherd. Hunting imagery again. The deer was caught unaware by an unforeseen arrow shot by a shepherd who really meant no harm but will kill the deer any way.

68-69 note use of uritur and furens

74-79 Dido follows Anna's instructions. She shows that she has everything which Aeneas wants.

76 alternating spondees and dactyls show her hesitation to speak

77-85 Again and again, Dido is demens as she thinks of and looks at Aeneas.

83 absens and absentem emphasize the demented state.

85 she is hoping to deceive all about what is really an infandum amorem

Dido abdicates her queenly responsibilities at which she excelled before Aeneas' arrival.

86-87 spondees show the lack of activity

90-128 Juno and Venus – Juno is her manipulative self; she wants to keep Aeneas away from Italy and believes she can use Venus' love of her son to accomplish this.

Venus knows from Jupiter that this plan will not work but she pretends otherwise.

Dido is a means to an end.

93-95 intense sarcasm, derogatory

99 elisions and chiasmus reflect the joining in marriage

Juno begins to refer to herself and Venus as "we" and uses horatory subjunctives.

101 note use of ardet and furorem

102-104 Juno first offers what she assumes everyone wants – power.

105 Venus pretends she has no idea of what is going on. She pretends to be clueless but is actually angry at Juno's deceit. Note use of "f" in lines109-110 – as if she is spitting at her.

113 Venus makes Juno responsible for the whole thing

115 Juno's tone changes; she uses imperatives and the future tense to show she is in control

126 same line in Aeolus passage – she tries again to manipulate with marriage

129 preparations for the hunt – hunting is once again a theme

numerous figures of speech – alliteration, asyndeton, zeugma, transferred epithet, synchysis – the hunt is the beginning of Dido's end

136 same line as Laocoon – both appear to be in control but aren't

140 litotes emphasizes the blending of the two nations

141-142 elisions and synchysis show the prominence of Aeneas and the fact that he is merging with the Carthaginians.

143 Frequent essay – Aeneas is compared to Apollo which recalls Dido's resemblance to Venus/Diana (I.498). Once again weapons and hunting appear.

156 Ascanius still very much a child with fantasies.

160- Recalls Aeolus and the winds (I.55) and the storm (I.124).

160-172 mostly spondees – joyful hunting scene changes to slow spondees and alliteration of "m" = future doom of Dido

165 again note word order – cave surrounds Dido and Aeneas

Dido is deceived by a hallucination. She interprets aspects of the storm to be part of a formal Roman wedding ceremony – the atmosphere is the witness, Juno and Earth are the parents, lightening = wedding torches, wail of nymphs = wedding hymn



169-172 Beginning of the end. Dido no longer conceals her feelings and pretends she is not committing a sin by calling this "marriage."

173 oh the essays on Fama – note placement of Fama between magnas urbes

174 dactyls and spondees alternate to show her hesitation at first

175- she becomes stronger and bigger as she goes

sister of the giants = hostile nature

180 as she becomes faster, meter becomes dactyls

181 elisions to show she is a horrible monster, spondees show her size and strength

182-183 note anaphora to emphasize her strength and abilities

184 she flies at night – deception often happens at night

185-187 all spondees show her force and determination. Note the vocabulary relating to height.

Rumor's story is not completely untrue but phrased so as to provoke gossip and anger.

192 synchysis joins Aeneas and Dido

198 enormity of Jarbas' devotion show his desperation to please and receive what he wants

203 note amens and accensus – perhaps Dido has reason to fear. Elisions show his strong emotion.

206-218 His irony and disgust build – he refers to Dido as a woman, homeless, could only have a tiny town which she actually had to buy (reference to the importance of ancestral lands), stupid (bought a barren shore for plowing), without him they would be barbarians since he gave them laws (perhaps he even sees them as conditions of tenure on his property).

215 Attack on Aeneas thru attack on his culture. Iarbas misinterprets the Trojan culture.

He compares him to Paris who stole Helen from Menelaus since he stole Dido from Iarbas and he will later steal Lavinia from Turnus. The first and the last caused wars.

He doesn't understand the bisexuality nor the use of perfume of hat which is a symbol of power among the Trojans.



Perhaps Juppiter isn't as powerful as they think he is. He can't even accomplish getting Dido and Jarbas together.


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