Blood on the river



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BLOOD ON THE RIVER
Carbone
One –
What prophecy was delivered to Chief Powhatan by his trusted priests in 1607? That a tribe would come by way of the Chesapeake and it would be the end of the Powhatan kingdom
London, England, 1606
How did Samuel know he was at the right pawn shop? The sign had 3 gold balls on it
What did Samuel steal from the pawn shop that should have been his? His mom’s locket
How did Samuel and his mum make ends meet when they lived at the poorhouse? Making nails in the nailery
Where did Samuel sleep the night he stole the locket back from the pawn shop? Near the London Bridge
How did Samuel’s father used to punish him? By slapping him so hard he blacked out
Two –
Who was at the orphanage when the magistrate delivered him there? Reverend Hunt
What was Reverend Hunt’s favorite saying? Make decisions based on love, not on anger
What was the only way Samuel knew to settle arguments? With his fists
Who at the orphanage did Rev. Hunt decide to take with him to the New World? Richard and Samuel
Who would the boys serve? Richard would serve Rev. Hunt, Samuel would serve Capt. John Smith
Why was Rev. Hunt going to the New World? To bring the good news of Christ to the native people in Virginia
What are the three ships that will sail to the New World? Susan Constant, Godspeed, Discovery
“The investors of the Virginia Company were raving mad when they chose the men for this journey.” John Smith to Rev. Hunt
Why did Rev. Hunt tell Richard and Samuel to be extra polite to Sir Edward Wingfield? He was a member of the Virginia Company
Who is the one-armed captain? Captain Newport
Three –
What is the ‘tween deck? The place between the hold and the deck. The place the gentlemen and common men use for their bunkhouse
When do the passengers get to leave the ‘tween deck? To empty slop buckets or get stew pots
Why can’t the gentlemen quit their adventure and go back to England? They signed a 7 year agreement with the Virginia Company
Why have the three ships been anchored off England’s shores for weeks? The winds and storms have prevented them from sailing
Why don’t the gentlemen like Captain Smith? He’s a commoner and he thinks the gentlemen know nothing about survival
Four –
“Travel south until your butter melts, then turn right.” Old British axiom on how to get to the New World
How did Samuel describe his feverish state? He felt like his soul was trying to leave his body
Why do the travelers have to head south toward the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa both heading west to the West Indies? The winds are favorable that way
How does Captain Newport explain the route the travelers will take? As a circle
What kind of animals are aboard the Susan Constant? Cats, dogs, rats, chickens, roosters
How does Samuel take care of the contents of the slop buckets? Throws them overboard
What is in the mess pot for the travelers? Oatmeal
“A pig has more royal blood than you do!” John Smith to Master Wingfield
Why is Captain Smith put in irons the first time? Master Wingfield has accused him of being a traitor

Five –
Where do the sailors go ashore to get fresh water? Gran Canaria, one of the Canary Islands


Who taught Samuel to read? His mother
Who had given Samuel’s mother the silver locket? The son of their gentleman landlord
“When Julius Caesar was put in prison, he wrote. So I shall do the same.” Smith to Samuel
What did the boys hear about the Carib Indians? That they eat people
Why was Samuel so aghast when he finally saw what the sailors on deck were shouting about as they approached the first of the Caribbean islands? The people were naked, the women did have tattoos, the men’s hair was long
Instead of manning the cannons, Captain Newport opted to fetch Captain Smith. Why? To speak to the natives
What was the large pinecone shape item the Indian man held up? A pineapple
What other things did the natives bring to the travelers? Mangoes, papayas, plantains, potatoes, tobacco
What did the voyagers give the natives in return? Knives, hatchets, beads, copper
What did Samuel take for Captain Smith’s raw ankles? Tallow
How did Captain Smith know the Algonquin language? Form word lists brought back by Roanoke settlers
Six –
What fish did Smith point out to Samuel? A whale, a thresher, a swordfish
“You might have been born the biggest fish in the sea, but the skill and perseverance of those lower born can take you down and destroy you.” Smith to Samuel about the whale and the gentlemen
What did cook show the boys about scrubbing pots? Use sand to make them really clean
Why does Smith tell Rev. Hunt not to pick up the hatchet? It has sap from the manchineel tree
What do the natives use the sap of machineel trees for? To poison their arrows because it burns
What does Capt. Smith show Samuel how to clean? His sword with a rag and sand
What has been built on the island, so Master Wingfield can keep his promise? A gallows to hang Smith
Seven –
What did Rev. Hunt want in return for convincing the gentlemen that without Smith, they would perish in Virginia? Respect from Smith for the gentlemen
When the gentlemen went fishing on the island of Mona, what did they get while hunting? 2 boars, several iguanas, and Edward Brookes – he died of heat exhaustion
Eight –
Why is Samuel so easily annoyed with James? He cries a lot and always has a runny nose
How does Captain Smith deal with Samuel’s fighting with Richard? He chains him to the wall of the ship
What message does Smith try to convey to Samuel after his fight with Richard? The only way the colony in Virginia will survive is if they stand on many legs, not just their own
“Don’t let your anger get the best of you. Learn to channel it, and it will become your strength rather than your weakness.”
What does Master Wingfield want to do as soon as the settlers anchor in Virginia? Look for gold
How are muskets kept ready for firing? With slow matches
What is pease porridge? Pork and peas in water with sea biscuits
What was Thomas Wotton’s job aboard the Godspeed? Doctor
What happened to the first exploration party sent ashore? They were attacked by the natives
Nine –
What was in the box carried aboard the ships, sent by the Virginia Company, that was to be opened only when the exploration reached Virginia? Who the leaders of the colony would be
Whose was the last name on the governing list? Smith
What were some of the orders of the Virginia Company? Up river for settlement, don’t offend the natives, write only encouraging news back to England
What is a shallop? A small boat used for exploring
Point Comfort is a point of land with deep water all around.
The settlers named their first stopping place Cape Henry.
After seventeen days, the explorers have chosen a place to settle.
What did the settlers name the river? James River in honor of King James of England
What did the settlers name their settlement? James Town
Who was elected the first president? Master Wingfield
What are two products the settlers immediately load back onto their ships to take to England for sale? Clapboard and sassafras root
What is sassafras root used for in England? Medicine
What does wingapo mean? My beloved friend
What did the 2 natives bring the first time to the colonists? Berries and bread
What do the natives value as much as the colonists value gold? Copper
Why do the native people like the beads? They are like gems
How do these people wear their hair? Long on one side and no hair on the other. A ridge down the middle
Smith announced the natives were planning an attack and suggested they build what to protect the settlement? A palisade
Why does the river water taste salty? It mixes with the ocean water at high tide
Where does little James say he’ll go in the event of an Indian attack? To the ship
Ten –
When Captain Newport leaves to explore, who does he take along as interpreter? Smith
What are the settlers searching for? Gold, silver, and a passage to the Orient
What does Samuel think is killing the young plants? The salty river water
During the attack, where did Samuel tell the boys to hide? Under the mattress
Why did James bite Samuel? So he could run for the ship
Who was the only person who died in the Indian attack? James
Eleven –
What did Captain Newport say was the name of the land and river? Powhatan
What did Wingfield finally consent to make for protection? A palisade
Whose armor did Captain Smith give to Samuel? Master Clovell
Who is John Laydon? A carpenter
What does Smith teach Samuel? How to use a sword
“It is a dance of death with you opponent. You mirror his steps until you see a weak spot.” Smith to Samuel
“The student has impaled the teacher.” Smith to Samuel
Twelve –
What is the Algonquin word for chief? Werowance, literally he is wealthy
Samuel thought Smith was going to teach him to shoot a musket. What did Smith bring Samuel instead? A book written by Thomas Harriot
What animal name was James unfamiliar with in Harriot’s book? Raccoon
Once he started training with Smith, when is Samuel allowed to have his breakfast? After sword practice and learning two new Algonquin words
When Captain Newport set sail for England, besides sassafras root and clapboard, what else did the ship hold? Rock they hoped contained gold
Who did Samuel overhear telling about all the food Master Wingfield had? Henry and Abram
“Choose the path of love and not of fear. The choice you make out of love will always be the right one.” Rev. Hunt to Samuel
Thirteen –
Who does Samuel confide in that Master Wingfield is hording food? Captain Smith
Who replaced Wingfield as president? Captain Ratcliffe
Who does Samuel teach about sword fighting? Richard
How did Capt. Smith make armor fit Richard? Had the blacksmith cut some down
What have the Indians come to trade for the harvested food? Copper, hatchets, swords, muskets
What valuable information do the natives give to Capt. Smith? The invaders hide in the tall grass around the fort – cut it down!
Fourteen –
In addition to being in charge of trading, what else is Smith in charge of? Building houses
Who teaches the colonists how to make wattle and daub houses? The carpenters
What river did Smith and the other colonists think led to the Pacific Ocean? The Chickahominy River
Why did the English want to find a way to the Orient over the ocean going west? The Turks controlled trade to the east and charged high prices
What sort of contest do Richard and Samuel have when the exploration party returns (without Capt. Smith)? Skipping stones
Where has Smith been? With the Pamunkey’s

Fifteen -


What had the gentlemen done because they were sick of living in James Town? Stolen the Discovery and all the food and tried to leave
Who shows up just in the knick of time! Smith!
Why had the native men come back with Smith to James Town? To get the cannons
When the natives men can’t lift the cannons, what does Smith give them instead? Class beads, bells, mirrors, and large copper pot
When, in Smith’s story, he was presented to the Great Powhatan, what did the native chief look like? He was sitting on a throne covered with raccoon skins
In a great show of feasting and then wanting to kill Smith, Chief Powhatan is apparently thwarted for killing him by whom? A little girl
This time why was Smith arrested? The gentlemen felt it appropriate for Smith to pay for the lives of Robinson and Emry with his life (they quoted Leviticus!)
How does Samuel react to Smith being imprisoned again? Throws a rock at and hits Master Archer
Sixteen –
Who rescues Samuel from Master Archer’s wrath at having been hit with a rock? Richard? God? Rev. Hunt
Who arrived in time to save Captain Smith from certain death? Capt. Newport
How did Samuel and Richard react to the English ship coming down the river? That Rev. Hunt’s prayers for a miracle had worked!
Seventeen –
What are some of the things Captain Newport has returned to James Town with? New colonists, dogs, hogs, chickens, good food
Who was the little girl in the native canoe? Amonute
Because she is called playful one, what is her other name? Pocahontas
What does Pocahontas challenge the boys to? Running races
When the men go off in search of more gold, what happens to James Town? A fire
Eighteen –
Who helps out the colonists after the fire at James Town? Powhatan’s people
Why do the Powhatan help out? Because Smith is now one of their countrymen
The palisades are rebuilt, but this time instead of three walls, how many are there? 5
Who comes to live at James Town in trade for Thomas Savage? Namontack, Powhatan’s servant
What is Namontack’s village? Werowocomoco
Why did Namontack say his tribe was better than Samuel’s? they had women
Who tells Samuel that the “story” Smith told about almost being killed by the Powhatan was a ritual accepting him into Powhatan’s empire? Namontack
Namontack refers to Smith as James Town’s werowance
Samuel understands now why there is peace – Powhatan considers them one of his tribes
Who is Captain Newport taking back to England? Masters Wingfield and Archer and Namontack
What did Powhatan give Namontack to count the people living in Europe? A stick to make marks on
What is the summer sickness likely caused from? Mosquitoes
When Captain Ratcliffe is fired from the presidency, who gets the nod? Smith
Nineteen –
“He that will not work shall not eat.” John Smith
How did Namontack show Samuel and Richard to plant? Plant corn and beans in the same mound
When Captain Newport docked in James Town, why were the colonists so surprised at the cargo? There were 2 women aboard Mrs. Thomas Forrest and her servant girl, Ann Burras
Namontack is also aboard. Samuel asks him about his population stick! What did he do with it? Threw it in the river

How does Namontack explain the world’s creation? The Great Hare did it


Was there any gold in the rocks taken back to England? No
What does the Virginia company want the colonists to try? Sending their resources! - pitch, tar, soap ashes, and glass
What has the Virginia Company ordered Captain Newport to do with Chief Powhatan? Make him an English subject and put a crown on him, making him a prince under King James
Why did Namontack think Powhatan was better than King James? The king is short, weak, fat, has no teeth or hair, and he stinks
Why does King James not bathe? His doctors told him it caused the plague
“Power is like weights in a balance. No one gains power without someone else losing power.” Smith to Samuel about Chief Powhatan
Why does Mistress Forrest work Ann so hard? She’s afraid she’ll find a beau and get married
Twenty –
What gifts did Namontack get in England? A cassock, a pewter chalice, an ivory tooth scraper
What was John Laydon making before Samuel left for Namontacks’s home? A small wooden box for Ann
How far over land is it to Werowocomoco? 12 miles
What is the Algonquin word for wonder and awe? Wow
Twenty One –
What has King James sent to Powhatan as gifts? A bed, furniture, a copper pot, wash basin and pitcher, a red cloak, crown
How were the colonists going to get the gifts to Powhatan because he refuses to come get them? By barge
How far is it to Werowocomoco by water? 100 miles
In Samuel’s last opportunity to speak with Rev. Hunt, what does he say? “Thank you for teaching me and treating me like I was worth something.”

Twenty Two –


In trade for food, what does Chief Powhatan want? A house, swords, muskets, copper, beads, grindstone, hen and a rooseter
On the way to Werowocomoco, Smith and the others stop at a nearby Indian village. Why does he leave Samuel there? To learn the native ways in order to help at James Town
Kainta, the chief’s son, becomes Samuel’s mentor and friend
What is the first thing Kainta teaches Samuel to make? A bow and arrow
In the village, what is men’s work? Fishing and hunting
What are the women’s chores? Planting, weeding, harvesting, making pots, cooking, making clothes
What does Samuel keep the knife Kainta showed him how to make in? a buckskin pouch
How did Smith escape the trap Powhatan had set for he and his men? Pocahontas warned him to leave
How does Kainta’s mother cut Samuel’s hair? With two mussel shells
Why do the Algonquin men wear their hair long on one side and have no hair on the other? So it doesn’t get caught in their bow strings
What do the Algonquin use to keep away the mosquitoes? Bear grease mixed with puccoon root
Why did Smith send the James Town settlers to different locations? The rats ate the rest of their food, so they are being farmed out
Twenty Three –
Ann is pregnant.
Twenty Four –
How is Captain Smith injured? The slow match burns his leg while he’s napping
Who is to accompany Smith back to England? Richard
What does Smith do with Samuel? Releases him from being a sevant
In order that no gentleman scooped up Samuel, what did Smith do? Apprenticed him to John Laydon
What does Ann name her baby girl? Virginia
Twenty Five –
Where is Master Percy going to take Samuel and some of the others to build homes and start a settlement? Upriver at Point Comfort
How is Samuel going to get Ann and the baby to come to Point Comfort with he and John? Steal Virginia
Twenty Six –
How does Samuel get the baby out of the cabin? Offers to take her for a walk in the fresh air
How does Samuel care for a new baby when he takes her in the canoe to Point Comfort? A bed of soft blankets, a spoon for sweet water, and a rag to suck on
What does Samuel trade Nathaniel for not telling on him about the baby once he’s at Point Comfort? His meat ration for a month
How is Samuel rewarded for stealing baby Virginia? He’s put in jail
What happened to the party going to Werowocomoco to trade for food? They were ambushed
Twenty Seven –
Why does Samuel owe Ann his life? She begged Capt Davies to retract the sentence for stealing Virginia
Who is Samuel living with at Point Comfort? John and Ann and Virginia
What is the fort at Point Comfort called? Fort Algernon
Afterword –
The Powhatan continued to attempt to ravage James Town by not trading with them and killing their food supply.
The settlers in James Town had no food, so were forced to eat collars, shoes leather, even dead settlers.
The winter of 1609-1610 in James Town became known as the Starving Time
In the spring of 1610, Sir Thomas Gates finally arrived. He’d been shipwrecked in Bermuda for 9 months. Just as James Town was being abandoned, a messenger brought word that Sir Thomas West, Lord de la Warr, was on his way with ships, 150 new settlers and food for a year.
Pocahontas was taken prison by the colonists. Her father wouldn’t make the ransom. She met John Rolfe (the tobacco guy) and they were married. Pocahontas and John had a son named Thomas. She died in England a few years later.
The first Africans arrived in 1619.
John Smith was not ever able to return to James Town, but continued writing about it.
In 1644, the Powhatan empire died.
In the first 100 years of European exposure in America, over 90% on the native population died from war or diseases brought in.
Author’s note –
Historical fiction about a well-loved story.
How did the author get her information about the James Town story? From visiting the recreated Jamestown and Powhatan village, the original Jamestown site, and reading the journals of actual settlers.
Because there were no spelling rules for the English language, the author had to standardize them herself.
Because there are so many different interpretations for the same incident, the author took creative license to use the one she liked best!
All the characters after the group left England were real people.
Descendents of the Powhatan still live in Virginia today.
There are 8 recognized tribes in Virginia.


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