Biology and Ecology



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Biology and Ecology

Boyden, S. V. (1987). Western civilization in biological perspective: patterns in biohistory. Oxford [Oxfordshire], New York, Clarendon Press; Oxford University Press.

Callicott, J. B. (1987). Companion to A Sand County Almanac: Interpretive & Critical Essays. Madison, Wis., University of Wisconsin Press.

Cavalieri, P. and P. Singer, Eds. (1993). The Great Ape Project: Equality Beyond Humanity. New York, St. Martins Press.

This collection of articles presents a wealth of information on great apes, and why we as humans should be considered a part of this group which also includes gorillas, chimpanzees and orang-utans. Articles include texts describing long term research projects on great apes in the wild, on teaching them sign language, on their mental capacities, on the physical similarities between all members of the great ape category, on the definition of personhood, the current status and treatment of great apes, and what these topics say about the moral and legal status of great apes. This is an interesting book full of amazing facts about great apes that is also quite provocative ethically.

D'Silva, E. H., S. Appanah, et al. (1993). Forestry management for sustainable development. Washington, D.C., World Bank.

Dasmann, R. F. (1985). "Achieving the sustainable use of species and ecosystems." Landscape Planning 12: 211-219.

Davis, T. (2000). Sustaining the forest, the people, and the spirit. Albany, NY, State University of New York Press.

Donald, A. D. (1994). "Parasites, animal production and sustainable development." Veterinary Parasitology 54(1-3): 27-47.

Elliot, R. (1997). Faking nature: the ethics of environmental restoration. London; New York, Routledge.


[http://firstsearch.oclc.org/WebZ/DCARead?standardNoType=1&standardNo=0415111404:srcdbname=worldcat:fromExternal=true&sessionid=0.]

Gardiner, R. (2002). Oceans and seas harnessing the marine environment for sustainable development. S.l., s.n.


[http://www.earthsummit2002.org/es/issues/oceans/oceans.PDF.]

Hecht, S. B. and A. Cockburn (1989). The fate of the forest: developers, destroyers and defenders of the Amazon. London; New York, NY, Verso.

Kellert, S. R. and E. O. Wilson (1993). The Biophilia hypothesis. Washington, D.C., Island Press.

Leopold, A. (2001). A sand county almanac: with essays on conservation. New York, Oxford University Press.

Leopold, A., S. Flader, et al. (1991). The river of the mother of God and other essays. Madison, Wis., University of Wisconsin Press.

Lesser, W. (1998). Sustainable use of genetic resources under the Convention on Biological Diversity: exploring access and benefit sharing issues / W. Lesser. New York, CAB International.

Maser, C. (1990). The redesigned forest. Toronto, Canada, Stoddart.

Maser, C. (1997). Sustainable forestry: philosophy, science, and economics. Boca Raton, Fla., St. Lucie Press.


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Maser, C. and W. Smith (2000). Forest certification in sustainable development: healing the landscape. Boca Raton, Lewis Publishers.


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Melchias, G. (2001). Biodiversity and conservation. Enfield, N.H., Science.

Parikh, J. and H. Datye, Eds. (2003). Sustainable management of wetlands: biodiversity and beyond. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.

Perrings, C. and Biodiversity Programme. (1994). Biodiversity conservation: problems and policies. Dordrecht; Boston, Kluwer Academic.

Reid, W. V. (1993). "Bioprospecting: a force for sustainable development." Environmental Science & Technology 27(9): 1730-1732.

Reij, C., I. Scoones, et al. (1996). Sustaining the soil: indigenous soil and water conservation in Africa. London, Earthscan Publications.

Sandlund, O. T., K. Hindar, et al. (1992). Conservation of biodiversity for sustainable development. Oslo, Norway, Scandinavian University Press.

Smith, R. L. (1972). The ecology of man: an ecosystem approach. New York, Harper & Row.



Case Studies

Akiner, S., S. Tideman, et al., Eds. (1998). Sustainable development in Central Asia. New York, St. Martin's Press.

Alison, K., P. Newman, et al. (1998). A sustainability plan for Philadelphia: an outline of a Local Agenda 21 Plan. Philadelphia, PA, Dept. of City and Regional Planning.

Asenso-Okyere, W. K., G. Benneh, et al., Eds. (1997). Sustainable food security in West Africa. Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Badenkov, Y. "Sustainable development of the mountain regions of the USSR: the realities, the role of science, and research orientations." Mountain Research and Development 10(2): 129-139.

Baiping, Z. (1995). "Geoecology and sustainable development in the Kunlun Mountains, China." Mountain Research and Development 15(3): 283-292.

Barnhoorn, F. (1994). Sustainable development in Botswana: an analysis of resource management in three communal development areas. Utrecht, Royal Dutch Geographical Society: Faculty of Geographical Sciences Utrecht University.

Barrett, C. B. and P. Arcese (1995). "Are integrated conservation-development projects (ICDPS) sustainable? On the conservation of large mammals in Sub-Saharan Africa." World Development 23(7): 1073-1084.

Barton, H. (1996). "The Isle of Harris Superquarry: Concepts of the Environment and Sustainability." Environ metal Values 5(2): 97-122.

This article is an excellent case study analyzing the different perspectives on a proposed quarry on a small island in Scotland. Barton finds that different interpretations of the environment, shaped by cultural and historical contexts of individuals greatly influence opinions on the quarry. Barton identifies different perspectives of space, time, and what should be sustained as the critical differences among the diverse stakeholders. He proposes that a reform of the planning process is needed to give more power to the people of these islands and the freedom to develop and implement development agendas. However, he also acknowledges that local people often are not aware of, or concerned about global effects of local projects, and so he suggests that there should be an increased level in local public participation in the planning process. Finally, he advocates for the increase in resources available to the region so they will not have to rely on the outside world for jobs or decision making. Again, this article is an excellent example of the diverse positions various groups can have on one issue, with an insightful analysis as to causes of these differences.

Basiago, A. D. (1995). "Sustainable development in Indonesia: a case study of an indigenous regime of environmental law and policy." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 2(3): 199-211.

Brown, C. J., J. Tarr, et al. (2002). Sustainable development in Namibia: notes on environmental issues contributing toward sustainable development in Namibia. Windhoek, Namibia, Ministry of Environment and Tourism: United Nations Development Programme: Namibia Nature Foundation.

Bryantt, R., J. Rigg, et al. (1993). "Forest transformations and political ecology in Southeast Asia." Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 3(4-6): 101-111.

Buckwell, A. E. (1993). An agricultural strategy for Bulgaria: toward sustainable development through increased efficiency. S.l., s.n.

Byers, E. and M. Sainju (1994). "Mountain ecosystems and women: opportunities for sustainable development and conservation." Mountain Research and Development 14(3): 213-228.

Calthorpe, P. and S. Poticha (1993). The next American metropolis: ecology, community, and the American dream. New York, Princeton Architectural Press.

Cheng, X., C. Han, et al. (1992). "Sustainable agricultural development in China." World Development 20(general): 1127-1144.

Chircop, A. (1992). "The Mediterranean sea and the quest for sustainable development." Ocean Development and International Law 23(1): 17-30.

Cole, K., Ed. (1994). Sustainable development for a democratic South Africa. New York, St. Martin's Press.

Columbia University. Southern Asia Institute. (1992). Working toward sustainable development: conference report. New York, N.Y., Published by the Southern Asia Institute School of International and Public Affairs Columbia University.

Commission, B. (1995). "Bellagio statement on tobacco and sustainable development." Canadian Medical Association Journal 153(general): 1109-10.

Costanza, R., S. C. Farber, et al. (1989). "Valuation and Management of Wetland Ecosystems." Ecological Economics 1: 335-361.

Curtis, A. and T. deLacy (1998). "Landcare, Stewardship and Sustainable Agriculture in Australia." Environmental Values 7(1): 39-78.

Darkoh, M. and A. Rwomire, Eds. (2003). Human impact on environment and sustainable development in Africa. Burlington, VT, Ashgate.

Deere, C. L. and D. C. Esty (2002). Greening the Americas: NAFTA's lessons for hemispheric trade. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.

Esty, D. C. and A. Dua (1997). Sustaining the Asia Pacific miracle: environmental protection and economic integration. Washington, D.C, Institute for International Economics.

Ferraz, B. and B. Munslow, Eds. (2000). Sustainable development in Mozambique. Trenton, NJ, Africa World Press.

Fisher, W. F. (1997). Toward sustainable development? struggling over India's Narmada River. Jaipur, Rawat Publications.

Folke, C. (1988). "Energy Economy of Salmon Aquaculture in the Baltic Sea." Environmental Management 12(4): 525-537.

Foweraker, J. (1982). "Accumulation and authoritarianism on the pioneer frontier of Brazil." Journal of Pesant Studies 10(1): 95-117.

Furedy, C. (1992). "Garbage: exploring non-conventional options in Asian cities." Environment & Urbanization 4(2): 42-60.

Garavaglia, J. C. (1992). "Human beings and the environment in America: on 'determinism' and 'possibilism'." International Social Science Journal 34: 569-577.

Giaoutzi, M. and P. Nijkamp (1993). Decision support models for regional sustainable development: an application of geographic information systems and evaluation models to the Greek Sporades Islands. Aldershot, Hants, England; Brookfield, Vt., USA, Avebury.

Goldrich, D. and D. V. Carruthers (1992). "Sustainable development in Mexico? The international politics of crisis or opportunity." Latin American Perspectives 72(19(1)): 97-122.

Good, R. (1995). "Ecologically sustainable development in the Australian Alps." Mountain Research and Development 15(3): 251-258.

Grena Kliass, R. (1990). "Planning and conservation: green areas and the environmental quality of the city of Såo Paulo." Third World Planning Review 12(4): 351-360.

Gwynne, R. (1993). "Outward orientation and marginal environments: the question of sustainable development in the Norte Chico, Chile." Mountain Research and Development 13(3): 281-293.

Heroepoetri, A. (1994). Environmental impact assessment as a tool toward sustainable development in Indonesia (Indonesian and Canadian legal perspectives). Ottawa, National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada.

Ho, S. P. S. and Y. Y. Kueh (2000). Sustainable economic development in South China. New York, St. Martin's Press.

Ikejiofor, U. (1999). "The God that failed: A critique of public housing in Nigeria 1975-1995." Habitat International 23(2): 177-88.

Indonesia. Department Luar Negeri. (1993). Economic development and sustainable development: forestry management in Indonesia: issues and perspectives. Jakarta, Department of Foreign Affairs Republic of Indonesia.

Joochul, K. (1991). "Urban redevelopment of greenbelt-area villages: a case study of Seoul, Korea." Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 23(2): 20-29.

Macrae, R. J., J. Henning, et al. (1993). "Strategies to overcome barriers to the development of sustainable agriculture in Canada: the role of agribuisness." Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 6(1): 21-51.

Manitoba. Manitoba Environment. and International Institute for Sustainable Development. (1977). Moving toward sustainable development reporting.: State of the environment report for Manitoba 1997. Winnipeg, Manitoba Environment.

Minnesota Planning (Agency), Minnesota Environmental Quality Board., et al. (1998). Taking root: state agency efforts toward sustainable development in Minnesota. St. Paul, MN, Environmental Quality Board: MN Planning.

Mumme, S. P. (1992). "System maintenance and environmental reform in Mexico: Salinas's preemptive strategy." Latin American Perspectives 72(19): 1.

New Brunswick. Premier's Round Table on Environment and Economy. (2000). Toward sustainable development in New Brunswick: a plan for action: progress and recommendations. Fredericton, N.B., The Round Table.

Nhantumbo, I., S. Norfolk, et al. (2003). Community based natural resources management in Mozambique: a theoretical or practical strategy for local sustainable development? the case study of Derre Forest Reserve. Brighton, Sustainable livelihoods in Southern Africa Programme, Environment Group, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.

Nwoke, B. E., F. O. Nduka, et al. (1993). "Sustainable urban development and human health: septic tank as a major breeding habitat of mosquito vectors of human diseases in south-eastern Nigeria." Applied Parasitology 34(1): 1-10.

Nygren, A. (1998). "Environment as Discourse: Searching for Sustainable Development in Costa Rica." Environmental Values 7(2): 201-222.

This article outlines four positions related to the environment and sustainable development in Costa Rica. Environmentalists for nature focus on ecological goals and environmental care which they propose to achieve using intervening authority. The environmentalists for profit focus on economic goals and plan to value nature economically through globalization. Alternative environmentalists focus on spiritual motives and want to liberate themselves from western influences through radical populism. Environmentalism for the people focuses on humanitarian goals that could be reached through idealist grassroots organizations.

Olson, B. (1994). Toward sustainable development by smallholders of rubber in Indonesia: x, 119 leaves.

Pan American Sanitary Bureau., United Nations. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean., et al. (1998). Health, social equity and changing production patterns in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, DC, Pan American Sanitary Bureau; United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.

Perrings, C. (1996). Sustainable development and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Botswana. New York, St. Martin's Press.

Rabinovitch, J. (1992). "Curitiba: towards sustainable urban development." Environment & Urbanization 4(2): 62-73.

Ramakrishnan, P. S. (1992). Shifting agriculture and sustainable development: an interdisciplinary study from north-eastern India. Paris: UNESCO; Park Ridge, N.J., USA: Parthenon Pub. Group.

Redclift, M. R. and C. Sage (1994). Strategies for sustainable development: local agendas for the Southern Hemisphere. Chichester; New York, J. Wiley & Sons.

Chapter two, "Sustainable Development, Economics, and the Environment," is an incredibly helpful resource. This chapter suggests that the various ways that the terms "sustainability" and "sustainable development" have been used have helped promote the use of these terms. In particular, the normative/active and positive/passive juxtapositions in meanings of sustainability allow these terms to bridge the gap between the scientific concept of sustainability and the moral force necessary for social action and change. This chapter also assesses modernity's role in setting the stage for concepts of sustainability through the ideas of progress, and modernity's ability to legitimate its own practices. Thus, the authors claim that sustainable development is a product of modernism and also answers its problems. Ambiguities that arise when sustainability, a concept grounded in biology, is used are addressed as are the strengths and grave shortcomings of environmental ethics. These problems are shown to provide the shakiness at the core of the concept of sustainable development. Values are discussed, but generally in environmental terms. The chapter ends with a call to "develop a broader and deeper foundation of a realist policy agenda and one which does not subtract 'interests' from its calculus."

Other chapters include an assessment of the interlinking problems of consumption and production and several case studies of sustainable development issues in southern countries. For example, a study of the historical development of the political economy in the Philippines demonstrates how development and environmental concerns have united. A study of land degradation in northern Ghana suggests that 1) local people understand and know about the relationship between environmental degradation and their needs, but must focus on short-term survival rather than long-term preservation. 2) Indigenous peoples have a substantial amount of technical environmental knowledge that must be taken into account when assessing the sustainability of practices in the area and setting new goals and policies. 3) Local people have a commitment to tree planting and resource management, and since they are the ones able to make changes, they must be supported monetarily and legally. Assessments of Mexico, and the coca raising in Bolivia suggest that local people often distrust government sustainability projects due to past mismanagement and failures, and that strengthening the possibility of adequate rural livelihoods prevents migration to the cities and overworking the land. For example, when people must go to cities to work, they do not have time to weed fields, and so they use chemical pesticides, which eliminate fodder for animals and fuel sources, thus depleting the resources of women and children left behind on farms.

Rowledge, L. R., R. S. Barton, et al. (1999). Mapping the journey: case studies in strategy and action toward sustainable development. Sheffield, Greenleaf.

SADCC Environment and Land Management Sector. Co-ordinating Unit. (1991). Sustaining our common future. Maseru, Lesotho, SADCC Environment and Land Management Sector Coordination Unit.

Schwind, P. J. (1973). Environment and urbanization in central Oahu: a resource base analysis. Honolulu], Dept. of Planning and Economic Development.

Southgate, D. D. and J. F. Disinger, Eds. (1987). Sustainable resource development in the Third World. Boulder, Westview Press.

Stadel, C. (1991). "Environmental stress and sustainable development in the tropical Andes." Mountain Research and Development 11(3): 213-223.

Vandermeer, J. (1991). "The political ecology of sustainable development -- the southern Atlantic coast of Nicaragua." Centennial Review 35(2): 265-294.

Weiner, D. M., B.; Moyo, S. (1992). "Energy for sustainable agricultrual development in Zimbabwe." Growth and Change 23(3): 355-362.

Whitman, J., Ed. (2000). The sustainability challenge for Southern Africa. New York, St. Martin's Press in association with Global Security Fellows Initiative, University of Cambridge.

Economics

Barker, T. (1993). "Is green growth possible?" New Economy 1(1): 20-25.

Beckerman, W. and J. Pasek (1997). "Plural Values and Environmental Valuation." Environmental Values 6(1): 65-86.

Bhalla, A. S. (1992). Environment, employment, and development. Geneva, International Labour Office.

Bojö, J., K.-G. Mäler, et al. (1990). Environment and development: an economic approach. Dordrecht; Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Brecher, J. and T. Costello (1994). Global village or global pillage: economic reconstruction from the bottom up. Boston, MA, South End Press.

Brown, L. R., C. Flavin, et al. (1991). Saving the planet: how to shape an environmentally sustainable global economy. New York, W.W. Norton.

Burney, J. (2000). "Is Valuing Nature Contributing to Policy Development?" Environmental Values 9(4): 511-520.

Carnoy, M. (1993). The New global economy in the information age: reflections on our changing world. University Park, Pa., Pennsylvania State University Press.

Cobb, J. B. (1992). Sustainability: economics, ecology, and justice. Maryknoll, N.Y, Orbis.

Cole, H. S. D. and University of Sussex. Science Policy Research Unit. (1973). Models of doom; a critique of The limits to growth. New York, Universe Books.

Common, M. S. (1995). Sustainability and policy: limits to economics. New York, Cambridge University Pres.

Common, M. S., R. K. Blamey, et al. (1993). "Sustainability and Environmental Valuation." Environmental Values 2(4): 299-334.

This article is an overview of environmental economics, and particularly discusses the techniques that economists use to value the environment. It discusses willingness to pay and willingness to accept studies, cost benefit analyses, travel cost methods, and contingent valuation studies. Damage avoidance, residual value, and substitute services are also mentioned. The author also discusses the accuracy and appropriateness of pseudo market valuation methods. The major problem with such procedures are that there have been no empirical studies to validate the evaluation methods.

Costanza, R., Ed. (1991). Ecological economics: the science and management of sustainability. New York, Columbia University Press.

Costanza, R. and H. E. Daly (1992). "Natural Capital and Sustainable Development." Conservation Biology 6(1): 37-46.

Costanza, R. and L. Wainger (1991). Ecological economics: the science and management of sustainability. New York, Columbia University Press.

Daly, H. E., J. B. Cobb, et al. (1989). For the common good: redirecting the economy toward community, the environment, and a sustainable future. Boston, Beacon Press.

Daly, H. E. and K. N. Townsend (1993). Valuing the earth: economics, ecology, ethics. Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press.

Duchin, F. and G.-M. Lange (1994). The future of the environment: ecological economics and technological change. New York, Oxford University Press.

Friend, A., M. (1992). "Economics, ecology and sustainable development: are they compatible?" Environmental Values 1(2): 1992.

Defining sustainable economic development as assuming that a long term relationship exists between supply and demand of natural resources, that waste is within the assimilating capacity of the biosphere, and that productivity gains are based on decreasing inputs to production and increasing the efficiency of consumption, Friend finds that sustainable economic development is not compatible with neoclassical economics. He critiques this viewpoint with the basic principles of environmental economics. Friend also spends a bit of time noticing that the roots of household economy, political economy and ecology have a common root of oikos, but that ideas used in each of these disciplines merge in the concept of sustainable development. With this analysis he seems to imply that the neoclassical economic perspective has strayed too far from its root meanings, and is far from a useful concept when aiming for sustainable development, and so must be revised. (This article is expressly NOT an article debating whether sustainable development is in fact possible in practice.)

Frumkin, N. (2000). Guide to economic indicators. Armonk, N.Y., M.E. Sharpe.

Georgescu-Roegen, N. (1971). The entropy law and the economic process. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press.

Goodland, R. and H. Daly (1993). "Why northern income growth is not the solution to southern poverty." Ecological Economics general(85-101).

Hawken, P. (1993). The ecology of commerce: a declaration of sustainability. New York, HarperCollins Publishers.

Henderson, H. (1990). "Beyond economics: new indicators for culturally specific, sustainable development." Development 3/4: 60-68.

Henderson, H. (1991). Paradigms in progress: life beyond economics. Indianapolis, IN, USA, Knowledge Systems.

Heuting, R. (1996). "Three persistent myths in the environment debate." Ecological Economics 18: 81-88.

International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD): IISDnet: Measurement and Indicators for Sustainable Development.


[http://www.iisd.org/measure/.]

Jackson, T. and N. Marks (1999). "Consumption, sustainable welfare, and human needs -- with reference to UK expenditure patterns between 1954 and 1994." Ecological Economics 28: 421-41.

Jacobs, M. (1995). "Sustainable Development, Capital Substitution and Economic Humility: A Response to Beckerman." Environmental Values 4(1): 57-68.

This article is a part of an ongoing debate. I will review this piece when I have reviewed the earlier articles.

Lawn, P. A. (2001). Toward sustainable development: an ecological economics approach. Boca Raton, Fla., Lewis Publishers.
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MacNeill, J., P. Winsemius, et al. (1991). Beyond interdependence: the meshing of the world's economy and the earth's ecology. New York, Oxford University Press.

McWilliams, D. A. (1994). "Environmental justice and industrial redevelopment: economics and equality in urban revitalization." Ecological Law Quarterly 21(3): 705-783.

Mikesell, R. F. (1995). "The Limits to Growth: A Reappraisal." Resources Policy 21: 127-131.

Mitchell, G., A. May, et al. (1995). "Picabue-- a methodological framework for the development of indicators of sustainable development." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 2(2): 104-123.

Munda, G. (1997). "Environmental Economics, Ecological Economics, and the Concept of Sustainable Development." Environmental Values 6(2): 213-233.

Munda presents introductory article on sustainable development for the non economist that discusses the basic positions of neoclassical and environmental economists, as well as what sustainability is, including the fact that sustainability can not be discussed only from an economic or ecological point of view. Differing ideas of values and sustainability are also discussed.

Neumayer, E. (2003). Weak versus Strong Sustainability: Exploring the Limits of Two Opposing Paradigms. Northampton, MA, Edward Elgar.

This text compares weak and strong sustainability, particularly focusing on an economic point of view, including ways to measure the two kinds of sustainability. Weak sustainability assumes that man made and natural capital are substitutable for each other. The goal of weak sustainability is to keep the total amount of natural and manmade capital intact Advocates of strong sustainability argue that natural and manmade capital are not infinitely substitutable. Consequently, they hold that the stock of natural capital must be held constant and the stock of human capital must separately remain constant. To achieve this goal, renewable natural capital must be increased at the same rate that nonrenewable natural capital is decreased.

O'Neill, J. and C. L. Splash (2000). "Appendix: Policy Research Brief Conceptions of Value in Environmental Decision-Making." Environmental Values 9(4): 521-536.

The author's stated goal is to "examine the limitations of current attempts to capture ethical values within existing economic instruments and consider how these limitations might be overcome." While this is a good overview of the limitations, the article is not long or detailed enough to give a good sense of how these limitations might be overcome.

Standard economic approaches assume several things about the decision making process as it pertains to individuals and their values. First, it is assumed that one's values express one's preferences. Secondly, these preferences are ordered, transitive, reflexive, complete and continuous. Third, the strength of one's preference for small changes in a stock of goods is expressed in their willingness to pay for their satisfaction. Fourth, people have "subjective probabilities about the likelihood of different possible outcomes." Fifth, people always act to obtain the greatest expected satisfaction of preferences. These assumptions are the basis of willing to pay or willing to accept methods of incorporating values into economics as well as hedonic pricing, the travel cost method, and contingent valuation. However, all of these assumptions may be questioned.

Another view of values in economics is that certain things, particularly environmental goods and services cannot be valued economically, for to do so can be taken to be a betrayal of moral commitment to a group such as one's future offspring, or to the environment itself. This perspective is not captured adequately in adjustments to the market listed above.

The authors recognize that environmental decision making is about more than mere economics, but also involves ethical commitments and perceptions of fairness. To address these dimensions of decision-making the authors suggest that processes of decision making must involve a variety of individuals and analytical tools. A few guidelines are suggested, but are not developed.

Parker, K. (1993). "Economics, Sustainable Growth, and Community." Environmental Values 2(3): 233-245.

This article aims to provide a "regulative ideal of sustainable growth which is acceptable at the social level, and which encourages the development of genuine community." After discussing some basic economic principles, including growth and development, Parker investigates John Dewey's writings on the life of individuals. Working from Dewey's idea as the enjoyment of life as the true goal of the economic process, Parker moves to discussing how such a goal could be realized at the social level. He finds diversity of activities, and the sustainability of such activities to be important concepts to reach such a goal. Finally, he examines ethics and ecology as the basis for a conception of what concerns the good of the community.

The most interesting part of this work is the treatment of Dewey, as most of this article is not detailed enough to be very helpful in suggesting ways sustainable growth can be integrated in community life.

Pearce, D. W. (1994). Project and policy appraisal: integrating economics and environment. Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; Washington, D.C.: OECD Publications and Information Centre [distributor].

Pearce, D. W., E. Barbier, et al. (1990). Sustainable development: economics and environment in the Third World. Brookfield, VT, Gower Pub. Co.

Pearce, D. W. and J. J. Warford (1993). World without end: economics, environment, and sustainable development. New York, N.Y., Published for the World Bank [by] Oxford University Press.

Perelman, L. J. (1976). The global mind: beyond the limits to growth. New York, Mason/Charter.

Perrings, C. and Beijer Institute. (1995). Biodiversity loss: economic and ecological issues. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Pezzey, J. (1992). Sustainable development concepts: an economic analysis. Washington, D.C, World Bank.

Pirages, D. C. (1977). The Sustainable society: implications for limited growth. New York, Praeger.

Rees, W. (1996). "Revisiting carrying capacity: Area-based indicators of sustainability." Population and Environment 17(3): 195-215.

Rees, W. E. (1992). "Ecological footprints and appropriated carrying capacity: what urban economics leaves out." Environment & Urbanization 4(2): 121-130.

Rostow, W. W. (1956). "The takeoff into self-sustained growth." Economic Journal 66(261): 25-48.

Ruttan, V. W., Ed. (1992). Sustainable agriculture and the environment: perspectives on growth and constraints. Boulder, Westview Press.

Schuetz, J. (2000). "Sustainability, Systems and Meaning." Environmental Values 9(3): 373-382.

Steer, A. D., L. H. Summers, et al. (1992). Development and the environment. New York, N.Y., Published for the World Bank [by] Oxford University Press.

Tulchin, J. S. and A. I. Rudman (1991). Economic development and environmental protection in Latin America. Boulder, L. Rienner.

Turner, R. K., D. Pearce, et al. (1993). Environmental economics: an elementary introduction. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press.

Waterford, J. J. (1995). "Environment, health, and sustainable development: the role of economic instruments and policies." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 73(3): 387-395.

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