Billington, Monroe Lee and Hardaway, Roger D., African Americans on the Western Frontier, University Press of Colorado, Niwot, Colorado, 1998



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Billington, Monroe Lee and Hardaway, Roger D., African Americans on the Western Frontier, University Press of Colorado, Niwot, Colorado, 1998

This collection of essays deals with all aspects of African Americans in the west. The chapter Buffalo Soldiers in the American West, 1865-1900 by Billington deals specifically with the Buffalo Soldiers. The essay deals with problems involving the Cheyenne, Apache, Ute, and the Sioux. Billington goes into detail about events surrounding the soldiers and how they dealt with adversity. His documentation at the end of the essay draws on numerous sources. The other essays examine the background of how African Americans coped after the Civil War on the western frontier.




Buecker, Thomas R., Fort Robinson and the American West 1874-1899, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1999

Mr. Buecker serves as the curator of the Fort Robinson Museum in northwest Nebraska. He provides an immense amount of detail on how Fort Robinson came into being and all that transpired there from 1874-1899. Camp Robinson (as it was still known in 1877) was the scene for the dramatic and tragic death of Crazy Horse in September of that year. In January 1879, Fort Robinson played host to another event. The Cheyenne imprisoned there, after taking leave of their Oklahoma reservation, attempted to break out and continue their journey to their traditional Montana homeland. The author provides a very good, concise telling of that event. He constantly reminds us that for most of the time, normal garrison duty occupied the various companies stationed there over the years. He does a good job in describing what constituted the way of life for the officers and enlisted men stationed there. In the 1880s, the garrison included the Buffalo Soldiers of the Ninth U.S. Cavalry. He also explores the complex relationship that existed between the soldiers and the Lakota of the nearby Red Cloud agency during the early years of Robinson's existence. Buecker’s information stems from a wide variety of sources, including Army and Navy Journals, District of the Black Hills, Division of the Missouri, Department of the Platte, Fort Robinson, National Archives, Nebraska State Historical Society, Office of the Chief Quartermaster, Red Cloud Agency, and Selected Documents Sioux Expedition.




Burton, Art T., Black, Buckskin, and Blue: African-American Scouts and Soldiers on the Western Frontier, Eakin Publications, 1999

Art T. Burton concentrates on men of color who helped settle America's western frontier. The book's central theme addresses African American scouts and soldiers on the frontier during the nineteenth century. Although Oklahoma is not the exclusive setting for the book, a great deal of the historical incidents contained in it did occur in Oklahoma. For instance, this book is the first book to discuss the role of black soldiers stationed in Indian Territory and their involvement in the Creek Nation tribal rebellion known as the Green Peach War of 1882. Divided into three sections, Burton's book begins with a number of profiles of little known African American frontier scouts. Among these is Frank Grouard, a black man who the author credits as being the person most responsible for the death of Indian Chief Crazy Horse. After profiling these men along with a number of fur trappers and guides, the second section of the book is devoted to the Civil War in the west. The book's third section deals with the Buffalo Soldiers of our nation's military and how their actions related to law enforcement. Burton has related a number of law enforcement actions under taken by these military units. He tells when and how the Buffalo Soldiers pursued outlaws as well as hostile Indians on the western frontier.




Chalfant, William Y., Cheyennes at Dark Water Creek: the Last Fight of the Red River War, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1997

Chalfant weaves the story of the southern Cheyenne throughout the Red River War. He tells of the lives of American Indians and military participants. Throughout the account, the Tenth Cavalry is highlighted as to their help in this set of battles. This includes an account when Companies D and M of the Tenth Cavalry were on temporary duty at the Cheyenne-Arapahoe Agency. They were dispatched to subdue the Dog Soldiers and to accompany the Indians to Fort Sill. Chalfant’s information was from a wide variety of sources including the Assistant Adjutant General, Kansas Historical Collections, Kansas Historical Quarterly and the National Archives.



Cox, Clinton, The Forgotten Heroes: The Story of the Buffalo Soldiers, Scholastic, Inc., New York, 1993

Clinton Cox has both African American and Native American ancestry. He incorporates both aspects of his ancestry, with good detail from the American Indian perspective. His juvenile book begins with a good map of Indian Territory until 1907, the Land of the Buffalo Soldiers. Even though this book is listed as a juvenile book, it goes into extensive detail. Cox tells the story of how African Americans and American Indians were on opposite sides of the war, both trying to survive. He also explores how each group was manipulated by the ruling white society. This book has extensive information about the impact of the Buffalo Soldiers on American Indians and the way that they dealt with each other. The bibliography is broad and meticulous. Cox celebrates the essential role played by the 9th and 10th US Cavalry in the Indian Wars. Cox tells how recruits signed up to escape the dangers of post-Civil War civilian life but, made were to do menial labor and sent on dangerous missions. They received only poor quality mounts and supplies; they were despised by many of the settlers they protected, and by some of their own officers. Having just won their own freedom, they were sent to subjugate a free minority. The author is nearly silent on the activities of the two regiments of black infantry created at the same time, as well as on the history of the Buffalo Soldiers after Wounded Knee; but his narrative is rich in carefully reconstructed episodes and acts of heroism.




Dobak, William A. and Thomas D. Phillips, The Black Regulars, 1866-1898, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 2001

The authors use army correspondence, court martial transcripts, and pension applications to document the lives of black soldiers, who first entered the regular army of the United States in the summer of 1866. The authors reveal how the soldiers were recruited and how their officers were selected. The regiments were to be the same, black and white, except that the black regiments were assigned a chaplain to provide instruction in “the common English branches of education” as well as to offer spiritual guidance. The authors chose to highlight the everyday lives of African American men that were peacetime army men. Most of the information was from white observers, military and civilian, as the African American soldiers did not write much during their service. The extensive bibliography used sources from the Archives, many manuscripts, newspapers and periodicals, books and a variety of articles about the black soldier.




Durham, Philip and Jones, Everett L., The Negro Cowboys, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1965

Durham and Jones are English professors that wrote this book based on histories and memoirs of historians who wrote about the American West. The book is an old reference, but has a short passage about the Buffalo Soldiers. They also chronicle events that took place between American Indians and African Americans in the move west. Since this reference is so old, much of the language is out of date. This book has an extensive bibliography and the notes are very well documented.




Equal Opportunity Office, Fort Myer Buffalo Soldiers, Fort Myer Military Community, Fort Myer, VA

This booklet was created to focus on the essential role the Buffalo Soldiers played at Fort Myer in the early days of the post and their contributions to the Fort Myer mission. This booklet is very brief, but contains many photos of soldiers throughout the years from the 9th and the 10th Cavalry. The booklet was complied from information in the National Archives, the post library, the Military History Center and personal interviews. While this booklet does not address Buffalo Soldiers in the West, it gives a good picture of the daily activities of Buffalo Soldiers. Their posting here was part of a reward for their hard service during the Pine Ridge Campaign. It is distinguished mostly because it was the first black unit to serve east of the Mississippi. The booklet includes references for further research.




Flipper, Lieut. Henry Ossian, Introduction by Quintard Taylor, Jr., The Colored Cadet at West Point, Autobiography of Lieut. Henry Ossian Flipper, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 1998

Lieutenant Henry O. Flipper was the first African American graduate of West Point. This autobiography highlights the trials and tribulations that he undergoes while attending West Point. Taylor writes of Flipper’s life after he leaves West Point. In December 1877, Flipper was assigned to Company A of the Tenth Cavalry. He was assigned to Fort Sill, Indian Territory and encountered his first civilian prejudice from local cowboys. This is the point that Flipper wrote his autobiography at the insistence of many friends. Throughout his cavalry career, he was often assigned to work in forts in Indian Territory. The only time he came under hostile fire was when his Buffalo Soldiers engaged in a five-hour battle with Victorio’s warriors on July 30, 1879.




Fowler, Arlen L., The Black Infantry in the West, 1869-1891, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, 1996

Arlen Fowler was a Professor of History at the University of Tulsa. He was also a white officer assigned in 1952 to the black Twenty-fifth Armored Infantry Battalion, the “last surviving remnant of the once proud and honorable all black Twenty-fifth Infantry Regiment”. Much of his story was taken from official records. The remaining sources are scattered newspaper items; brief regimental histories and few other book references. Fowler’s book portrays an integrated narrative of the officers and men of the Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth infantries between the years 1869 and 1891. Fowler's survey of black soldiers from 1869-91 charts the changing role of African American infantry service from its inception to 1891. Original troops saw only occasional battles against Indians and outlaws, but as combat experience increased and regiments overcame prejudice and even lynching to emerge as strong, disciplined units. An important feature about this book is the interesting stories about the Buffalo Soldiers daily life. From the dreary and wretched living conditions the soldier had to endure on a daily basis, to the evident discrimination that the Buffalo Soldier had to endure, to the loyalty and bravery that the Buffalo soldier displayed from guarding a stagecoach run, laying miles of telegraph line, fighting fierce Indians, all these accounts and more are in this book.




Hoig, Stan, The Battle of the Washita: the Sheridan-Custer Indian campaign of 1867-69, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1976

Stan Hoig does a superb job of chronicling a battle that has not been very well documented. This event followed the Sand Creek Massacre. There is only one mention of the buffalo soldiers in this campaign. The account is of the “Solomon Avengers” nicknamed because they vowed revenge for the Cheyenne murders on the Solomon and the Saline. On September 25, 1868, a troop of the 10th U.S. Cavalry led by Brevet Lieutenant Colonel L.H. Carpenter came to the support of the siege. They assisted in loading the wounded and moving the entire force back to Fort Wallace. Hoig has extensive footnotes to qualify his research and a bibliography that lists archival materials, dissertations, articles, books, newspapers, and published and unpublished government documents.




Hoig, Stan, Tribal Wars of the Southern Plains, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1993

Hoig writes a comprehensive account of Indian conflicts in the area between the Platte River and the Rio Grande, from the first written reports of the Spaniards in the sixteenth century through the United States-Cheyenne Battle of the Sand Hills in 1875. It chronicles the Indian-white wars as well as the Indian-Indian conflicts. Throughout his book, he uses maps and illustrations to help visualize and insight into the different aspects of the campaigns. He spends considerable amount of time discussing the importance of the intertribal wars that preceded the arrival of the Spaniards and continued during the next three centuries, particularly as the white invasions on the north and east forced tribes from those regions onto the Great Plains. Hoig details the numerous battles and the major treaties. He mentions the Ninth and Tenth Cavalries throughout the chapters dealing with war and peace on the Kansas Plains, the Sheridan-Custer campaign, the Kiowa resistance, and the conquest of the Cheyennes. Hoig’s bibliography uses archival materials, articles, books, dissertation, newspapers, periodicals and government documents that are published and unpublished.







Katz, William Loren, The Black West: A Documentary and Pictorial History of the African American Role in the Westward Expansion of the United States, Touchstone Book by Simon and Schuster, Inc., 1987, 1996

William Katz writes about the entire black experience in the settling of the American West, from explorers, fur traders, early settlers, slavery, California experience, the black cowboys, the homesteaders, the black infantry and cavalry, exodus to Oklahoma, the Spanish American war to the black women of the western frontier. The chapters specifically dealing with Black Infantry and Cavalry were accurate, however each encounter left the reader wanting more details. He includes many illustrations from the time-period and an extensive bibliography to support his research and explains the experience with American Indians and the Buffalo Soldiers. He gives good examples of how the Buffalo Soldiers come to the rescue time after time. He gives an especially poignant example of a ballad written by a Buffalo Soldier that commemorates the rescues.




Leckie, William H. The Buffalo Soldiers, A Narrative of the Negro Cavalry in the West. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1967

Leckie’s work was momentous for its time and continues to be an excellent primary resource in Buffalo Soldier research. He discovered a limited amount of resources on the subject. He did the majority of his research in military records at the National Archives and his bibliography and documentation is thorough. His personal experiences in World War II led him to further interest in the Buffalo Soldiers. Due to the era this volume was written, the views expressed are somewhat antiquated. He chronicles the Ninth and Tenth Calvary Regiments. He writes about the American Indian experience with the Apaches and Utes in detail.




Miller, Robert, Reflections of a Black Cowboy, Silver Burdett Press, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1991

Miller writes this book as a way of helping young adults to understand the role that Black Americans played in shaping the west. It is told in a storytelling manner, but each chapter is based on research of real soldiers in the Ninth and Tenth Cavalries. One of the chapters deals with Victorio and a few Warm Springs Apaches and Mescalero Apaches. One of the chapters deals with interactions between the Kiowas and the Buffalo Soldiers. The bibliography resources at the conclusion of the book are varied. Many books were used from well-known authors on this subject.




Nankivell, John H., Buffalo Soldier Regiment, History of the Twenty-fifth United States Infantry, 1869-1926. Introduction by Quintard Taylor, Jr. Lincoln and London, University of Nebraska Press, 2001

This volume is a resource book that documents the history of the Twenty-fifth regiment. The timeline is laid out to give sufficient detail of the formation of the first black regiment before the Civil War to the service at the border town of Nogales, Arizona in 1926. It chronicles the bicycle brigade and the reception they received in towns along the route, the war in Cuba and the Phillipines, as well as the baseball team and service in Hawaii. Nankivell writes about several important episodes with American Indian tribes. The letters and documents support the impact made on both the Buffalo Soldier unit as well as the American Indian. The events surrounding the Pine Ridge Campaign of 1890-91 are noted. This volume will be best utilized as a tool for further research opportunities.




Nye, Wilbur Sturtevant, Plains Indian Raiders: the Final Phases of warfare from the Arkansas to the Red River/ with original photographs by William S. Soule, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1968

Wilber S. Nye tells the story of the military suppression of the Plains Indians and their removal to reservations in Indian Territory. This book is divided into two parts. The first part by Nye details daily activities of troops and their quest to rid the Indians from these lands. The second portion of the book is dedicated to the photography of William S. Soule. This was the first relatively complete publishing of the entire collection. The Tenth Cavalry was highlighted in a variety of places in this account. Nye does a brilliant job of describing how ill equipped the army was. The soldiers in the Tenth had just been recruited, not even mustered into service to the United States in this capacity. The activities of the Tenth Cavalry focused mostly on scouting, protecting the railroads and building. The author does not highlight many interactions between the Buffalo Soldiers and the Indians, but does detail activities on the plains during these turbulent times. The bibliography included books, post records, government documents, manuscripts, maps and various periodicals.




Reef, Catherine, Buffalo Soldiers: African American Soldiers, Twenty-First Century Books, New York, 1993

This juvenile book portrays men in the U.S. Armed Forces throughout the last two centuries. The information is general in nature, but portrays soldiers’ lives. She focuses on the Buffalo Soldiers in this book, but refers to other African Americans in service. Reef does discuss the impact of the Buffalo Soldiers on the American Indian tribes involved in the various wars and struggles of the late 19th century. Her focus is on the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry. Reef includes a good chronology and a small bibliography that documents her sources.




Savage, W. Sherman, Blacks in the West, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, 1976

Savage writes about blacks in the westward expansion movement. He deals specifically with the migration of blacks to the west; the slavery issue; blacks in the military; blacks in principal western industries; black businesses, professions, and occupations; the fight for civil rights; politics; education and social life. His chapter on blacks in the military is well researched and a very thorough look at where and when the two infantry and cavalry units were operating. He uses information from many other noted authors on Buffalo Soldiers. He highlights specific historical figures throughout his narrative. It is easy to find and follow the movement of troops throughout Indian Territory, Kansas, Texas and other points west. He highlights officers stories as well as general troops. His documentation and bibliography is extensive and includes sources from other authors, personal correspondence between officers and the army, the National Archives and the Office of Indian Affairs. Although this work is older, it is a valuable reference in relationship to the black experience during the Indian Wars and the settlement of the west.




Schlissel, Lillian, Black Frontiers: A History of African American Heroes in the Old West, Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, New York, 1995

Lillian Schlissel is a noted author of adult literature about life on the western frontier. This book is juvenile literature, but lays information out in an understandable manner. The chapter on the Buffalo Soldiers is brief, but full of photos of soldiers and their regiments. She also addresses Black Indians and their issues in the West. She mentions the Seminole Negro Indian Scouts and their efforts to patrol the areas in the West. The text has detailed notes and the bibliography and picture credits are thorough. Schlissel provides exciting coverage of black frontiersmen, a group neglected by many historians. Photographs and pictures dating from 1852 to 1948 show black men prospecting for gold, riding bucking broncos, and serving in the military.




Schubert, Frank N., Black Valor, Buffalo Soldiers and the Medal of Honor, 1870-1898, Scholarly Resources, Inc, Wilmington, Delaware, 1997

This book is a collected biography of Buffalo Soldiers who were awarded the Medal of Honor from 1870-1898. He offers a perspective that is rarely written about, the interactions between the Buffalo Soldiers and the American Indians. This is epitomized by the Ute song quoted; “Soldiers with black faces, You ride into battle behind the white soldiers; But you can’t take off your black faces, And the white-face soldiers make you ride behind them.” In an interview with Caleb Benson, he stated that “the Indians never shot a colored man unless it was necessary. They always wanted to win the friendship of the Negro race, and obtain their aid in campaigns against the white man.” His writing is in depth and covers many aspects of each soldier’s character and responses to the situation. Schubert documents all of his sources with notes throughout the text. His notes are thorough and the bibliography is extensive. Sergeant Emanuel Stance was the first African American recipient of the Medal of Honor for his decisive and bold leadership in the Ninth Cavalry, which consisted mainly of former slaves, in battles with Indians. Many stories that are more remarkable are told in this collected biography of the African American recipients of the Medal of Honor.






Schubert, Frank N., Outpost of the Sioux Wars A History of Fort Robinson, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 1993

Schubert makes clear the vital importance of Fort Robinson during the Sioux Wars and he blends social analysis with military history in his concern for the families of soldiers and civilians. As an army historian, he brings a unique perspective on the triumphs and trials of black soldiers in the frontier period. Because Fort Robinson housed black troops for many years, race relations formed a significant part of the post’s history. The Ninth and Tenth Cavalry spent several years on the post. Portions of the Ninth garrisoned the fort from 1885 to 1898. The Tenth came later, from 1902 to 1907. He highlights the discrimination practiced by post authorities as well as the response of townspeople to the black garrisons. In this, he examines not only the post itself, but also the impact on the neighboring town of Crawford, Nebraska. His endnotes are extensive. This book is also well indexed for ease of finding specific information about a wide variety of topics. It was originally published as Schubert, Frank N., Buffalo Soldiers, Braves and the Brass-The Story of Fort Robinson, Nebraska, White Mane Publishing Company, Shippensburg, PA, 1993




Schubert, Frank, On the Trail of the Buffalo Soldier: Biographies of African American in the U.S. Army, 1866-1917, Scholarly Resources, Inc., Wilmington, Delaware, 1995

Frank Schubert created this book of biographies to help others in the research that he began in the 1960’s. This book represents a starting point for research on the Buffalo Soldier group that contributed significantly to the nation’s development. The entries are arranged alphabetically and range from complete life histories to sketchy details about the individual. Each entry lists the name, rank, and unit with any other information that he was able to piece together from a wide variety of sources. The eleven pages of cited works include books, articles, periodicals, newspapers, U.S. government publications and documents, unpublished manuscripts and documents, archival collections, military records, and Veterans Administration pension files. In the course of the Tenth Cavalry's early clashes with the tribes of the southern plains, the men of the regiment came to be called "buffalo soldiers". The buffalo became a prominent element of the Tenth's regimental crest and, before long, the Ninth's troopers also became known as buffalo soldiers and ultimately infantrymen as well. This book provides biographical information on about 8,000 African American soldiers who served in the army in the 50 years between the Civil War and World War I, a little-known group that contributed significantly to the nation's development. A bibliography of sources consulted is followed by a number of appendixes that list the number of blacks in the four regiments from 1867 to 1916, the number of soldiers killed in action, those that received the Medal of Honor, and the locations of regimental headquarters.




Schubert, Frank N., Voices of the Buffalo Soldier, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 2003

Voices of the Buffalo Soldier draws on a wide variety of periodicals, military records, and letters. Through documentation, Schubert brings to life the thoughts and actions of Buffalo Soldiers and the communities surrounding them. The Buffalo Soldiers were African Americans who served in the Regular Army between the Civil War and World War I and fought in some of the most difficult wars against western Indians. The book is written in chronological sequence. Schubert documents the first encounter of Buffalo Soldiers with Indians in the Kansas Territory. During the battle, a Cheyenne Indian cursed at the soldiers saying, “Come here, come here, you sons of bitches, we want to fight, we don’t want to fight the niggers, we want to fight you white sons of bitches, & etc.” This is an indication of how Indians viewed African Americans. Many of the documents contain first person accounts of African American soldiers, officers and chaplains. Several others featured views from white officers who served with the African American soldiers. Schubert left most of the documents as he found them, adding interest and glimpses into what life really was like for the Buffalo Soldiers. This collection of documents highlights brave and courageous Americans fighting during a very tumultuous time in United States history.





Stovall, TaRessa, The Buffalo Soldiers, Chelsea House Publishers, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1997

An account of the stirring achievements of the black U.S. Army regiments that distinguished themselves during numerous campaigns and played a vital role in the settlement of the American West. This juvenile book has a large amount of photos about the Buffalo Soldiers and the American Indians that they affected. The information is straightforward and easy to follow and understand. The impact of the Buffalo Soldiers is discussed. Stovall discusses American Indian treaties and how the Buffalo Soldiers were sent to help stop the violence between tribes and to stave off the threat of open warfare between the Native Americans and whites. The numerous photos are credited and the author provides a list of further reading to learn more about the Buffalo Soldiers. There is not a bibliography that credits her sources.




Taylor, Quintard, In Search of the Racial Frontier, African Americans in the American West, 1528-1990, W.W. Norton and Company, New York, 1998

Taylor moves the reader with history from the Spanish origins in 1528 all the way through the Civil Rights Movement in 1970. One entire chapter is devoted to the Buffalo Soldiers in the West, 1866-1917. The saga begins with a quote from a Tenth Cavalry Private, Henry McCombs, “We made the West, [we] defeated the hostile tribes of Indians; and made the country safe to live in,” Taylor draws a picture of how the Buffalo Soldiers had to defeat racism within the military, as well as in the realm of the western frontier. Taylor highlights the quote by Private W. H. Prather who wrote about the Ghost Dance and the after effects. After being left to face the Dakota winter with the American Indians, he said, “The Ninth, the willing Ninth, [who] were the first to come, will be the last to leave, we poor devils, and the Sioux are left to freeze.” He highlights the segregation of the state of Texas and how the African American soldiers were assigned to the farthest reaches of western Texas. He accurately describes the origins of the African American regiments, and their white and African American leaders. Taylor made the case that statistically, black soldiers were less frequently involved in conflict with Native Americans than their numbers in the West suggested. African American soldiers constituted about twenty (20) percent of the effective strength of the army, they were only engaged in about five percent of the 2,704 Native American engagements.




Timanus, Rod, An Illustrated History of Texas Forts, Republic of Texas Press, Plano, Texas, 2001

This guide presents over one hundred Texas forts and camps in the order that they came into being, and illustrates their history with period drawings, plans, and maps. Timanus references three different forts where Buffalo Soldiers were active, Fort Davis, Fort Stockton and Fort Griffen. The fort listings are divided by time-periods, from the Spanish Presidio Period to U.S Army Period (1866-Present). The division makes finding the fort references extremely easy. Timanus does write some detail about the impact of the Buffalo Soldiers on the American Indian. He also writes about the Kiowas and Comanches. Since this is a recent book, the bibliography even cites on-line resources for information about Texas.




Tucker, Philip Thomas, Cathy Williams: From Slave to Female Buffalo Soldier, Stackpole Books, 2002

Phillip Thomas Tucker tells the remarkable tale of Pvt. William Cathay of Company A, 38th U.S. Infantry, who in fact was a big-boned, 5' 7" black woman named Cathy Williams. Cathy was born in Jackson County, MO, also known as “Little Dixie”. Tucker gives a snapshot history around the events of her life. Tracing Williams through often-spotty records from her birth as a slave near Independence, MO, to her final days as a businesswoman in Trinidad, CO, Tucker extends the narrative to include broad perspectives, sweeping from a West African background to the expanse of the post-Civil War West. He focuses on Williams's service from 1866 to 1868 with the famed Buffalo Soldiers as they patrolled the historic 900-mile Santa Fe Trail. Tucker casts Williams as an inspirational champion against the odds, brimming with testaments to personal initiative, desire to succeed, strength, and resiliency. He also touts the Buffalo Soldiers' roles as guardians of the frontier on the vanguard of Western development. Philip Thomas Tucker is a military historian. He only deals specifically with her experience as a soldier in a few chapters. He writes about her campaigns while being a soldier. She was forced to travel with the 8th Indiana Volunteer Infantry that was later led by General Sheridan. Tucker discusses a campaign against the Apaches in detail. He details the events that are happening to the Apaches in the time-period. His notes are well documented and he lists both primary and secondary sources for material.




Wright, Mike, What They Didn’t Teach You About the Wild West, Presidio Press, Novato, California, 2000

Mike Wright has several books about “What They Didn’t Teach You” involving many periods of history. This book deals with amusing anecdotes of life in the Wild West, including a chapter about the Black West experience. Wright mentions Isaiah Dorman, a U.S. Army scout of Sioux and Afro-American ancestry who served with Custer at Little Big Horn. A Cheyenne brave described his death on the battlefield: “I went riding over the ground where we had fought the first soldiers during the morning of the day before. I saw by the river, on the west side, a dead black man. He was a big man. All of his clothing was gone when I saw him, but he had not been scalped nor cut up like the white men had been. Some Sioux told me he belonged to their people but was with the soldiers.” His other information about the Buffalo Soldiers includes commonly known information as well as an unusual story about the 25th Infantry doing an experiment involving bicycles and traveling in the west in 1896. The book has an extensive bibliography that cites modern works, early works, magazine articles, newspapers and unpublished materials.







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