Big question. How did the political, economic, and religious systems of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans compare, and how did these systems change as a result of contacts among them? Chapter 1 Content Learning Objectives



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Chapter 1: Colliding Worlds, 1450-1600 pp. 2-39

BIG QUESTION. How did the political, economic, and religious systems of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans compare, and how did these systems change as a result of contacts among them?

Chapter 1 Content Learning Objectives

1. Explain how Native American peoples structured their societies and why each society developed different economic, social, and political systems.

2. Identify the main characteristics of traditional European society.

3. Analyze the origins of slavery, and explain how the transatlantic slave trade developed.

4. Explain why European nations pursued overseas exploration and colonization.

5. Analyze how the Spanish and Portuguese invasion of the New World affected the lives of peoples in the Americas and Africa.


Key Concept 1.1 Before the arrival of Europeans, native populations in North America developed a wide variety of social, political, and economic structures based in part on interactions with the environment and each other.

Key Concept 1.2: European overseas expansion resulted in the Columbian Exchange, a series of interactions and adaptations among societies across the Atlantic

Key Concept 1.3: Contacts among American Indians, Africans, and Europeans challenged the worldviews of each group.


Chapter 1

Due: _______

Topic/Objective: On a North American continent controlled by American Indians, contact among the peoples of Europe, the Americas, and West Africa created a new world.

Name:

Period:

Date:

Political Characteristics: having to do with gaining, seeking, and organizing power; events related to the function of government such as making, enforcing and interpreting laws. Citizen rights and responsibilities. International interaction with other societies (laws, treaties, war).

Economic Characteristics: having to do with how people meet their basic material needs; the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services (agriculture and industry); domestic and international trade, monetary systems, taxation

Social/Cultural: having to do with individuals and groups, their living together (interaction of groups and people); includes gender & ethnicity issues, social classes, migration, reform movements and religion; cultural deals with tangible expressions of society’s beliefs, such as art and architecture, as well as the impact of institutions such as education, medical care and religions.

I have provided the initial samples for the questions below. Place this packet in your 3 ring binder. Continue your notes in your notebook, numbering each question, and incorporating the key terms into your notes. Many of the Key Terms are also defined in the back of the America’s History textbook.

Vocabulary:

(define key terms on separate sheet or incorporate to the right>>)

  • mesoamericans

1 The First Americans:

  1. How did the Americas come to be populated? What accounted for their population growth?

Migrants from Asia came in three waves between @15,000 and 5,000 years ago, first over a land bridge by Alaska, then by boat. Migrants pushed south over several thousand years, eventually reaching into Mesoamerica (central America) and the Andes in present day Peru. Others eventually pushed into the current USA to the eastern woodlands on the Atlantic Ocean.

Mesoamerican and Andean civilizations started to domesticate crops, especially Maize (corn) that accounted for population growth



  • tribute

2 American Empires: Dominance of the Aztecs and Incas (how and why?)

  • Social, Political and Economic structure (consider the painting on p.11 as well)

  1. Aztec Social. Divided into classes with priest and warriors at the top of the hierarchy. Aztecs saw Tenochtitlan as being the center of the cosmos, where the divine and the human worlds met. This led to human sacrifice as a way to sustain the cosmos. (p.11)

  2. Aztec Political. Capital City Tenochtitlan, 1325, population 250,000 (1500). Dwarfed London in size.

  3. Aztec Economic. Merchants forge trading routes across the empire. Trade in gold, textiles and precious minerals. Tribute – collecting goods from conquered peoples ~ Aztecs/Incas relied on tribute prior to being conquered by the Spanish. Later transformed into the Spanish encomienda system




  1. Incan Social. Incan Political. Incan Economic.


Marginal Question (MQ) page 8

(a 2-4 sentence summary statement)



3 Identify Causes: What factors allowed for the development of empires in central Mexico and the Andes?

Agricultural surpluses contributed to population growth and allowed dense populations to live together, which led to the development of populous, urbanized, and wealthy societies in Mexico and Peru. Strong, centralized empires with bureaucracies (run by priests, warrior-nobles and divine kings) and tribute states supported the Aztec and Incan Empires expansion, tied together by trade networks.




  • maize

  • Confederacy

  • Cahokia

4 Chiefdoms and Confederacies: Social, Political and Economic structure of the Mississippi Valley populations:


  • Algonquin

  • Paramount chiefdom

  • Powhatan Chiefdom

  • Iroquois Confederacy (Five Nations)

  • Matriarchal

5 Eastern Woodlands: Social, Political, and Economic structure

  • Anishinaabe




6 The Great Lakes Social, Political, and Economic structure


  • Comanche

  • Sioux

  • Mandan

7 The Great Plains and Rockies: Social, Political, and Economic structure


  • Anasazi

  • Pueblo

8 Arid Southwest and the Pacific Coast Social, Political, and Economic structure





9 Patterns of Trade:

  1. In what ways were various tribes connected via trading networks?

  2. In what ways did wealth redistribution impact relationships within tribes?




MQ, p. 15

10 How (to what extent) did landscape, climate and resources influence the development of Native American societies?


Animism


11 Sacred Power: How do the beliefs of the natives compare to that of European religions in terms of gender roles, the environment, and war?

Patriarchies

Primogeniture



12 Western Europe: The Edge of the Old World, Hierarchy and Authority, Peasant Society:

In what ways did male dominance assert itself in European society?



MQ, p. 19.

13 C/C: In what ways were the lives of European similar to and different from those of Native Americans?

Republics

Civic humanism

Renaissance

Guilds


14. Expanding Trade Networks Describe how the trade between Asia, Italy and Western Europe changed the political, social and economic structure over time.


MQ, p.20

15. Trace Change over Time. How did the growth of commerce shift the structure of power in European societies?

Christianity

Heresies (heresay)

Crusades

Islam


16. Myths, Religions and Holy WarriorsRise of Christianity & The Crusades

  1. Explain the influence of the Roman Catholic Church on social and political life.

  2. What were several effects of the Crusades on European society?

Martin Luther’s 95 Theses

Predestination

Protestant Reformation

Counter-Reformation




17 The Reformation:

  1. Ideas and importance of John Calvin.

  2. Contrast the views of Catholics and Protestants regarding colonizing the Americas




18 West and Central Africa: Origins of Slave Trade thru Trans=Saharan Trade

  1. Compare/contrast the African empires and kingdoms to those of the Aztecs & Incas in terms of social, political and economic characteristics.

  2. What opportunities did Europeans see in trading with the Western African peoples?

Caravel

Prince Henry

Vasca da Gama


19 Portuguese Expansion & The African Slave Trade.

  1. Identify the factors that allowed Portuguese exploration to eventually dominate African and Asian trade by the early 1500s.

  2. Trace the expansion of the African slave trade from Africa to the Atlantic and West Indies.



reconquista

20 Sixteenth-Century Incursions: Motivations of Ferdinand, Isabella and Columbus


conquistadors

Cortes


Moctezuma

Pizarro



21 The Spanish Invasion & Cabral and Brazil

  1. What factors enabled the Spanish to conquer the Aztecs and Incas?

  2. Why was the Portuguese establishment of sugar plantations significant?

p. 39. Key Turning Points. Respond in paragraph format to the questions.

























































Chapter 2: American Experiments, 1521-1700, pp. 40-75


BIG QUESTION In what ways did European migrants transfer familiar patterns and institutions to their colonies in the Americas, and in what ways did they create new American worlds? How did Native Americans adapt to the growing presence of Europeans among them?

Chapter 2 Content Learning Objectives

  1. Analyze the goals that the Spanish, Portuguese, French, Dutch, and English pursued in North America, and explain how these ambitions led to different settlement patterns

  2. Evaluate how the European settlements of North America affected Native American populations over time.

  3. Explain how and why a system of forced labor based on the factors of class and race emerged in the English Caribbean and Chesapeake colonies in the seventeenth century.

  4. Identify the economic, religious, political, and intellectual foundations of Puritan society in New England.

  5. Understand how colonial society in the Chesapeake region differed from that of New England.

  6. Analyze how the conflicts of the 1670s affected social, economic, and political relations among colonists, Indians, and Africans in America.


Key Concept 1.1 Before the arrival of Europeans, native populations in North America developed a wide variety of social, political, and economic structures based in part on interactions with the environment and each other.

Key Concept 1.2: European overseas expansion resulted in the Columbian Exchange, a series of interactions and adaptations among societies across the Atlantic

Key Concept 1.3: Contacts among American Indians, Africans, and Europeans challenged the worldviews of each group.











Chapter 2: American Experiments, 1521-1700

Topic/Objective: Europeans and American Indians maneuvered and fought for dominance, control, and security in North America, and distinctive colonial and native societies emerged.

Name:

Class/Period:

Date:

Essential Question(s):

1) Compare the characteristics of the three different types of colonies in the Americas: tribute (indigenous) empires, plantation colonies, and neo-European settlements.

2) How did the religious beliefs shape the economic, political, and social structure of the North American colonies?

Chattel slavery

Tribute colonies

Plantation colonies

Neo-Europes



1 American Experiments (opening section)

  1. How does the Elizabeth Key case reflect the methods by which Europeans adapted to the new world?

Encomiendas

Mestizos & mulattos

Casta system


2 Spain’s Tribute Colonies & A New American World:

  1. How did the discovery of gold and silver affect Spain economically?

  2. In what ways did the Spanish establish social, economic and political control over the Americas?


3 The Columbian Exchange:

  1. What was the effect of disease in the Americas?

  2. How did the Columbian Exchange impact Europe and the Americas?

Queen Elizabeth I
Spanish Armada

Outwork


Mercantilism

4 The Protestant Challenge to Spain: [Analyze the far-reaching consequences of Protestantism on Spain and England.]

  1. What factors prompted the rise of England as an international power during Queen Elizabeth’s reign?




5 Plantation Colonies & Brazil’s Sugar Plantations:

  1. What forced Brazil to adopt African chattel slavery?

Roanoke Colony

King James I

Virginia Company

Powhatan


John Rolfe & tobacco

Pocahontas

Opechancanough

Royal Colony

Lord Baltimore

Toleration Act (1649)




6 England’s Tobacco Colonies: Jamestown & Maryland

Jamestown:



  1. What factors contributed to the initial years of trouble in the Jamestown colony?

  2. What factors led to the growing conflict between Powhatan and the colonists that resulted in the Indian War of 1622 (Anglo-Powhatan War)?

  3. What political developments affected the colony? (House of Burgesses & Royal Colony)

  4. Compare Maryland with Virginia

Freeholds & the Headright System

Indentured Servitude




7 Plantation Life in North America & Caribbean: Indentured Servitude and African Laborers

  1. How did the shift to the Headright system contribute to the growth of large plantations?

  2. What caused the shift in labor from indentured servants to African slave labor?

  3. How did the environment negatively impact those living in N.America & the Caribbean?

  4. Why and how did African identity in the Americas change with the rise of plantation agriculture?

Robert La Salle

Jesuits


Henry Hudson


8 Neo-European Colonies: New France & New Netherland

  1. What economic motives drove both nations to establish colonies in North America?

  2. Compare / Contrast each colonies relationship with the Native Americans?

  3. Why common factors lead to these colonies lack of success?

Five Nations (Iroquois)

9 The Rise of the Iroquois:

Trace the key characteristics of the Beaver Wars.



Pilgrims

William Bradford

Mayflower Compact

Charles I

Puritans

John Winthrop, City Upon a Hill.

Joint-Stock Corporation

Predestination/the elect

Covenant of Grace

Rhode Island

Yeoman

Town Meeting




10 New England:

  1. How did New England differ from VA/Caribbean in terms of types of settlers, sex ratios and land distribution?

The Pilgrims: Explain the political developments of Plymouth.

John Winthrop and Massachusetts Bay Colony (MBC):

  1. What vision did the Puritans and John Winthrop have in establishing MBC?

  2. How did religious beliefs influence political and social development in MBC?

Roger Williams and Rhode Island & Anne Hutchinson:

  1. In what ways did Williams and Hutchison threaten the prevalent religious beliefs of MBC?

  2. What colonies emerged from those who dissented with Puritan rule?

Puritan (English) Revolution.

  1. How did the Restoration of Charles II to the throne after Cromwell’s 10 years of rule impact the MBC view of their role?

Puritanism and Witchcraft:

  1. Cite the causes and effects of the Salem Witch Hysteria

A Yeoman Society, 1630 – 1700:

  1. Describe how the New England colonies provided new political opportunities to migrants.




Praying Towns

King Philip /Metacom





11 Instability, War and Rebellion: New England’s Indian Wars – Puritan-Pequot & Metacom’s War

  1. How did religious beliefs and population growth influence Puritan-Indian relations, and lead to conflict?

  2. What were the immediate and long-term effects of these wars?

William Berkeley

Nathaniel Bacon




12 Instability, War and Rebellion: Bacon’s Rebellion:

  1. What economic & political tensions drove Virginia yeomen to attack protected Indians, then burn Jamestown, VA?

  2. How did Bacon and the yeomen justify their actions?

  1. How did Bacon’s Rebellion contribute to the growth of the African slave trade?




p. 75. Key Turning Points. Respond in paragraph format to the questions.






































































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