Battle of Hastings From Wikipedia and uk battlefields Resource Center Vocabulary



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Battle of Hastings

From Wikipedia and UK Battlefields Resource Center

Vocabulary


heir


The person who inherits from one who dies

http://hairsalonmiamibeach.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/salon-miami-beach-will-the-royal-heir-have-fiery-hair-300x204.jpg

deployed


Sent troops to battle; spread them around

http://images.military.com/media/military-life/deployment/deployment6.jpg

claim

To say you own something

http://www.traveljournals.net/pictures/l/8/83477-i-claim-this-land-in-the-name-of----er------bolivia-uyuni-bolivia.jpg

formidable

Tough to beat

http://genoneventures.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/picture-0572.jpg

breached

went over

http://perrysheroes.free.fr/img/jpg/pg2012_ses_g3_5.jpg

housecarls

English nobleman; also called earl

http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/algernon-percy-th-earl-northumberland-engraving-english-military-leader-engraved-t-dean-published-portraits-33070753.jpg

Your words:




































King Harold II of England is defeated by the Norman forces of William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings, fought on Senlac Hill, seven miles from Hastings, England. At the end of the bloody, all-day battle, Harold was killed--shot in the eye with an arrow, according to legend--and his forces were destroyed. He was the last Anglo-Saxon king of England.

Just over two weeks before, William, the duke of Normandy, had invaded England, claiming his right to the English throne. In 1051, William is believed to have visited England and met with his cousin Edward the Confessor, the childless English king. According to Norman historians, Edward promised to make William his heir. On his deathbed, however, Edward granted the kingdom to Harold Godwine, head of the leading noble family in England and more powerful than the king himself. In January 1066, King Edward died, and Harold Godwine was proclaimed King Harold II. William immediately disputed his claim.

Support your answer with evidence and details from the text.

Who answers:

Who asks for clarification:

Who is Edward the Confessor?

B

A

Who is Harold II?

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B

Who is William?

B

A

What is William angry about?

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B

On September 28, 1066, William landed in England at Pevensey, on Britain's southeast coast, with approximately 7,000 troops and cavalry. Seizing Pevensey, he then marched to Hastings, where he paused to organize his forces. On October 13, Harold arrived near Hastings with his army, and the next day William led his forces out to give battle.

The battle of Hastings was fought on the morning of the 14th October 1066. The English army, led by King Harold, deployed on Senlac hill, where the Abbey and town of Battle now stand, but William's army had already marched north from Hastings and it is said that he engaged before Harold's troops were fully deployed.



Contemporary accounts suggest it was a close run thing. William attacked with cavalry as well as infantry, something the English rarely if ever did. In contrast, Harold's well trained troops all fought on foot in the traditional English manner. Formed up behind a shield wall in such a good defensive location, they proved formidable opponents for the Normans. It is claimed that the fighting continued for most of the day.

Support your answer with evidence and details from the text.

Who answers:

Who asks for clarification:

Who did better planning for this battle?

B

A

Add more details about who did better planning.

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B




B

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Finally, after reversals on both sides, William breached the shield wall. The collapse of the English defence may have been as a direct result of Harold himself being killed, for medieval armies so often lost their resolve once their leader was dead. Once their carefully organised formation was broken they were vulnerable, particularly to cavalry attack. Despite a possible attempt to hold the Norman pursuit at a site described as the 'Malfosse', the English forces were routed, fleeing northward towards the woods of the Weald.

Support your answer with evidence and details from the text.

Who answers:

Who asks for clarification:

Who are the Anglo-Saxons?

B

A

Who are the Normans?

A

B

What are some of the significant outcomes of this battle?

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After his victory at the Battle of Hastings, William marched on London and received the city's submission. On Christmas Day, 1066, he was crowned the first Norman king of England, in Westminster Abbey, and the Anglo-Saxon phase of English history came to an end. French became the language of the king's court and gradually blended with the Anglo-Saxon tongue to give birth to modern English. William I proved an effective king of England, and the "Domesday Book," a great census of the lands and people of England, was among his notable achievements. Upon the death of William I in 1087, his son, William Rufus, became William II, the second Norman king of England.

Though other forces remained undefeated across the country, having lost their leader and most of the housecarls the English never again mounted a serious challenge. Victory at Hastings had given William one of the greatest prizes in Europe and saw the English people subjugated by an oppressive foreign aristocracy.



1066 is the best known date in English History. The battlefield also has, arguably, the most impressive of all battlefield monuments: Battle Abbey, which was built by the Conqueror in recognition of his victory and in memory of those who had fallen in battle. Despite the laying out of the Abbey and the town of Battle on Senlac hill, and various subsequent changes including the modern expansion of the town, much of the battlefield remains undeveloped. A visit can be an enjoyable and rewarding experience which has been improved by the opening of a new visitor centre and the provision of an excellent audio tour.

Support your answer with evidence and details from the text.

Who answers:

Who asks for clarification:

What are some differences in battle then and battle now?

B

A

What were the strategies that helped William win?

A

B

What would have happened if Edward had won?

B

A

What else would have happened if Edward had won?

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B

**Disclaimer --- this particular text is for use in this workshop, and is not intended to resemble an assignment for students, except in form and strategies. Use or adapt text for your grade level. -- DI
 




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