Barque Celte, Havre to New York City, 1837 Passenger Records and Notes



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Barque Celte, Havre to New York City, 1837

Passenger Records and Notes
Steve Bower, Richmond VT

1 September 2013


Contents


Passenger Lists for the Barque Celte, July-September 1837 1

Passengers on the Bark Celte 1

Table of Passenger Listings 3

Map of Passengers’ Towns of Origin 9

Le Havre ca 1837 12

Tons Burthen – Unit of Cargo Capacity 13

Notes on Havre Records for the Barque Celte, Jul-Nov 1837 14




Passenger Lists for the Barque Celte, July-September 1837


Port of New York, Arrival 12-Sep-1837

Ancestry.com

New York, Passenger Lists, 1820-1957

http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=7488

Enter a date of 12-Sep-1837, see images #2 and #3.

National Archives Microfilm Series M237, Roll 35

Same images as on Ancestry.com, easier to navigate, on-line or PDF.

"Registers of Vessels Arriving at the Port of New York from Foreign Ports, 1789-1919"

http://archive.org/details/passengerlistsof0035unix - Images 234-236

Le Havre, Departure 9-Jul-1837, Round-Trip to New York

http://recherche.archivesdepartementales76.net/?id=viewer&doc=accounts%2Fmnesys_ad76%2Fdatas%2Fir%2Fserie_P_inscription_maritime%2FFRAD076_IR_P_inscription_maritime.xml&page_ref=11645&lot_num=1&img_num=615

Total of 6 images for the barque Celte. For notes on these records see the section below on “Notes on Havre Records for the Barque Celte, Jul-Nov 1837”.

Pamphlet on Microcopy 237 : http://www.archives.gov/research/microfilm/m237.pdf

Full Index to “Free Online New York Passenger Lists, 1820-1897”, Microcopy M237



https://familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Free_Online_New_York_Passenger_Lists,_1820-1897

Passengers on the Bark Celte


The following table has passengers listed in the two passenger listings for the Havre departure and the New York arrival. The passengers are listed in the order of the New York arrival listing.
The Havre listing provides the head-of-family name only, plus numbers of adults and children. The totals are 58 adults and 38 children, for 96 total passengers. U.S. law limited a ship of this capacity to 96 passengers. However, there were also four additional crew taken on, three of whom were from the Kirch family (see notes for Kirch in the table below), and one Frenchman. All four were recorded as having abandoned ship once they arrived in New York. This clearly seems to have been a way to subvert the 96-passenger limit, so there were perhaps actually 100 passengers. The three Kirch crew were listed as passengers in the New York passenger listing.
Overall, the Havre listings do not correlate well with the New York passenger listing, based on the passenger names and numbers of adults and children. The New York arrival listing apparently has quite a few errors, perhaps due to language barriers – though both listings could have errors. Note that where a family appears in both listings the number of travelers in the Havre listing generally differs from the number of people listed in the New York listing (the Bauer family being an exception, correctly listing 5 adults and 4 children, though the family name is incorrectly listed as “Fache”).
The Havre listing of 58 adults and 38 children matches fairly well with the New York total of 94 passengers, of which 38 are age 19 and under. The New York listing has just 94 passengers instead of 96, but it is possible that the microfilm image did not show all names of the original document.


Table of Passenger Listings


Havre Listing

New York Listing

German Records

(FamilySearch.org)

US Records

(Ancestry.com)

Name

# of Adults

# of Child-ren

New York Arrival Listing

Prisius, Adam

8

4

Adam Prizeur (46), Barbara (47), Phillipina (20), Madeline (18), Bartarad (15), Elizabeth (7), Christian (5), Barbara (12)

Possible match: The following have parents Johannes Adam Pritzius and Barbara Krapp, b. Kriegsfeld, Bavaria (20 km from Steinbach am Donnersberg):

  • Katharina Margaretha ch. 3 Mar 1813 (link)

  • Philippina Pritzius ch. Oct 1815 (link)

  • Margaretha Pritzius b. May 1818 (link)

  • Balthasar Pritzius b. Apr 1822 (link)

  • Johannes Pritzius b. Nov 1820 (link) – not listed, died or stayed behind?

  • Adam Pretzeus - 1840, Bucks OH, same page as Henry A Wolf and John Wolf (image 3)

  • Balthazar Pretzeus

  • Wife Catharine Hothem arrived abt 1834

Also found:

  • Jacob Pretzeus – 1840, Bucks (image 5), b. 1791 (prob Bavaria) per 1860 census.

  • German records: Jakob Pritzius m. Margaretha Schenk Nov 1829, Ranswiler. Margaretha Schunk d. 1843, Bisterschied (b. 1802).

Frey, Laurent

4

4

Huirent? Frey (50), Margaret (21)


Possible match:

  • Christjane Margarethe Frey b. May 1816, Parents Wilhelm Henrich Frey, Susanne Friedrike Wilch, Kirchheimbolanden (13 km from Steinbach am Donnersberg) (link)

  • Wilhelm Heinrich Frey, b. 1771 (so 55), Kirchheimbolanden (link)

Not found

Bickert, Michel

4

3

Michael Becket (60), Angeline (61), Ladorer (26), Elizabeth (16)

Possible match:

  • Ludewig Bickert b. 1810 Kriegsfeld, Bavaria (Evangelisch), parents Michael & Anglelica (link). Kriegsfeld is 20 km from Steinbach am Donnersberg.

  • Elisabetha Margaretha Bickert, b. 1806 (she would be 21, not 16, but could be a sister), Kriegsfeld, parents Michael & Angelica (link)

Not found.
Found other Beckerts in Zanesville: Andreas 1807-1859 (link)

Knecht, Nicholas

4

4

Nicholas Pfernech/Phernech (47), Phillipini (47), Joseph (20), Louis (17), Carl (14), Jean (11), Charlotte (6)

None found




Wolf, Adam

5

4

Adam Wolf (36), Elizabeth (28), Piere (3), Henry (5), Elizabeth (1)

Definite match: Parents Heinrich Adam Wolf and Elisabetha Fruehhahn/Frühahn from Ransweiler, Bayern, Germany (23 km from Steinbach am Donnersberg):

  • Peter Wolf, b. 18 Sep 1828 (8 on 12-Sep-1837, so 9 instead of 3, but listed before Henry) (link)

  • Heinrich Wolf b. 27 Oct 1831 (link)

  • Elisabetha Wolf b. 19 May 1836 (link)

Found in Bucks, Tuscarawas Co., Ohio, 1850 census (saved to “Non-Family PRIVATE” tree).

Messaged user NettieK, “our DNA Wolf ; Need Help to Connect” tree, 25-Aug-2013 (link) – No good info, not related.

Messaged user Clysandrou1, “Dead Relatives Collected” tree (link). Left a comment on her tree for Peter Wolf (link).

Messaged user Marg4W, “Ley Family Tree” (link)

Messaged user julianavanhorn, “Van Horn Family Tree” (link).

Where are the photos of Henry Wolf and Eliz Croft from?



Haas, Adam

5

3

Adam Hause (36), Catharine (36), Adam (6), Catharine (3), Margarete (66)

Good match:

  • Johann Adam Haas (parents Heinrich Haas & Margaretha Kraus) m. 1829 Catharina Barbara Schmidt (parents Ludwig & Dorothea Stark) Ransweiler (23 km from Steinbach am Donnersberg) (link)

  • Johann Adam Haass b. 6-Jan-1831, parents Adam Haass & Catharina Schmidt, Ransweiler. (link)

  • Catharina Haass, b. July 1833 (would be 3 or 4) (link)

Definite match:

  • Adam Haas (Jr) b. Jan 1831 Bavaria – 1860 in Strasburg, Tuscarawas, OH. 1880 in Dover, Tuscarawas, OH. 1900 in Franklin, Tusc, OH (arrived 1837).

  • See Adam Haas’ bio below this table, which confirms he was on the Celte.

Possible match:

  • Adam Haas ba. 1797 Bavaria & Catharine Haas ba. 1800 Bavaria – Berlin, Delaware, OH (near Columbus) , living next to John Haas ba. 1839 (link)

Schworm, Henry

6

2

Henry Sthame (32), Frederick (34?), Jacob (?), Frederick (3), Jean (12)







No match







Carl Reiman (34)







Bug, Michel

4

2

Margarete Bug (28)




Not found

No match







Henry? Fache (24)

Possible Match:

Heinrich Jacob Fuchs b. 20-Sep-1810, ch. Odernheim (Odernheim am Glan is 40 km from Steinbach) (link)



Henry Fox found in Tiverton 1850 & 1860 living with Phillip Wagner, and 1870 living with John Wagner.

On the 1872 Tiverton land map, “H Fox” and “P Fox” each have a 40-acre lot next to John Wagner. P Fox is presumably Phillip Fox, m. Philopena, b. Rhine per Hill, 1881.



No match







Sheuler? Henry? (24), Jean (22), Adam (19)







Wagner, Philippe

5

4

Michel Vangues? (24), Phillipe (34), Barbary (27), Catherine (7), Jean (4), Anne (1)

Possible matches: All from Kriegsfeld (20 km from Steinbach am Donnersberg).

Father Phillip Wagner, mother Barbara:



  • Katharina Wagner christened 10 Jan 1830 (link)

  • Philipp Wager christened Dec 1832 (link)

  • Johannes Wagner christened Dec 1835, so would be 1 instead of 4 (link)

Father Philipp, mother Sophia:

  • Elisabetha Wagner christened Sep 1832 (link)

  • Konrad Wagner christened Nov 1834 (link)

  • Valentin Wagner christened Apr 1837 (link)

Father Philipp, no mother listed:

  • Peter Franz Wagner christened Oct 1824 (link)

No parents listed:

  • Johann Wilhelm Wagner christened Jun 1825 (link)

  • Jacob Wagner born Sep 1834 (link)

Phillip & Barbara Wagner are in Tiverton in 1850, on the page after John & Catharine Bower/Bauer.
Messaged JuMason10 (link)


No match







Charle Fache (25), Margarete (23)

Not found.

Searched for Fuch, Fuchs



Not found.

Searched for Fuch, Fuchs, Fox



Bauer, Jean

5

4

Jean Fache (49), Catherine (52), Jacob (25), Elizabeth (23), Carl (20), Margaret (18), Jean (16), Adam (14), Phillipine (7)

Bauers of Steinbach am Donnersberg:

Anna Elisabetha (link), Carl (link), Anna Margaretha (link), Johannes (link), Joh. Adam (link), Philippine (link), Magdalena (link)



Johannes “John” Bauer & Katharina “Catherine” Klein, in Tiverton, Ohio (1840, 1850, 1860)

No match







Elizabeth Pfisinger (19), Christrophe (32)







No match







Michael Weber? (36), Michael Weber (40)







No match







Jacob Rupp (25), Catherine (20)







No match







Henry Stomple (24)







No match







Pierre Weber (26)







No match







Jean Ackel (52), Margarete (22), Elizabeth (15), Jean (13), Pierre (18)







Kirch, Jean
Taken on as crew, all from Mehlingen, 2 km from Sembach & Alsenborn:

Jacob Kirch, 30

Peter Kirch, 28

David Kirch, 14



2

2

Jean Kirch (60), Catharine (55), Jacob (27), Piere (29?), Elizabeth (19), Louisa (16), Jean (27), Catharine (14), Henry (25), Piere (24), Guillaume (21), Bijan? (28), Elizabeth (20), Henry (3 months), Susanne (30), David (15)

Definite match

  • Johann Jacob Kirch (father) b. Nov 1776, Sembach, Bavaria (link).

  • Johannes Kirch m. Catharina Rossett 1805, Alsenborn (link)

The following all have parents Johannes Kirch and Catharina Rossett, b. either Sembach or Alsenborn (both ~16 km from Steinbach am Donnersberg):

  • Johann Jacob Kirch b. 1807 (link) – so 30, not 27

  • Peter Joh. Kirch b. 1809 (link)

  • Heinrich Kirch b. 1811 (link)

  • Wilhelm Kirch b. 1814 (link) – so 23, not 21 (Guillaume)

  • Elisabetha Kirch b. 1818 (link)

  • Louisa Kirch b. 1821 (link)

  • David Kirch b. 1823 (link)

  • Katharina Kirch b. Dec 1825 (link) – so 11, no 14

  • Sussana Mack b. 1801, m. Heinrich Kirch (link)

Not found. Some possible matches, but none that tie together, and most ages differ by several years.
John Kerch Jr. – 1880 non-census, Dour, Tuscarawas, OH (link). ba. 1819 Bavaria per 1860, 1870, 1880 census. NY listing would be ba. 1810.
Order obit of Peter Kirch from Coshocton Library, link – he’s in Hemlock



No match







Adam Hartman (50 or 60), Adeline (48), Margarite (15), Barbara (13), Adam (11), Jean (6)

Good match: The following have parents Adami Harmann & Otiliae, from Kriegsfeld (20 km from Steinbach):

  • Joannes Adamus Hartmann b. Feb 1826 (link)

  • Joannes Hartmann b. Sep 1832 (link)

  • Margaretha & Barbara not found

Possible match: 1850 census, NYC:

Adelia Hartman 51 (should be ~61)

Adam Hartman 26 (should be ~24)

John Hartman 18 (should be ~19), Pedler



Schworm, Michel

2

0

No match







Ritzmann, Henry

4

2

No match







Total

58

38

94






Bio of Adam Haas from “The History of Tuscarawas County, Ohio”, 1884, p. 748.

The information about the voyage to Ohio via Havre and New York is consistent with other records

about the voyage.





Map of Passengers’ Towns of Origin


The Barque Celte

Ship master Jean Marie Lesidaner


  • Possible reference, 1857 : http://bloggenealonet.pessiot.net/?p=153

“Barque” in Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barque

  • A barque has at least 3 masts, with fore-and-aft sails (in line with the keel) on the rear-most mast, and square sails (perpendicular to the keel) on all other masts. Barques were the workhorse of the Golden Age of Sail up to the mid-19th century as they attained passages that nearly matched full rigged ships (with square sails on all masts) but could operate with smaller crews.

Dimensions

Cargo space: 239 and 59/94 tons burthen (a “ton” is a measure of cargo capacity, equivalent to a barrel of wine – see the section below on “Tons Burthen – Unit of Cargo Capacity”)

Length: from stem to sternpost about 91 or 92 feet (based on comparable ships, below).

Beam: width at the widest point as measured at the ship’s nominal waterline about 24 feet (based on the formula for tons burthen).

Number of Passengers Allowed (per the Act Regulating Passenger Ships and Vessels 1819):

Max of 2 passengers per 5 tons => 95.9 passengers

The voyage

Departed July 8 or 9, arrived Sept 11 or 12 (difference may be days sitting in the harbor).

If we assume July 9 to Sept 12 inclusive: 66 days, or 2 months 4 days, or 9 weeks and 3 days.

The Northern Atlantic hurricane season occurs from June 1 to November 30, sharply peaking from late August through September; the season’s climatological peak of activity occurs around September 10 each season (Wikipedia, accessed 15 Aug 2013).

At least 7 hurricanes and tropical storms were recorded in the North Atlantic during the time the Barque Celte was at sea (Wikipedia, accessed 15 Aug 2013). We don’t know if the Barque Celte confronted any of these storms, but it seems likely that the ship encountered rough seas, if not a hurricane, at some point in their 2-month voyage.

Passengers disembarked 14-Sep-2013.

Comparable Ships to the Barque Celte

Barque Cygnet (link, accessed 20 Jul 2013),



  • Built 1827, 239 tons, image at right. Looks like the Wikipedia image above. Length 91’.

  • The emigrants’ accommodation was in the between-decks. That was the area below the main deck where third class passengers sailed. They were housed in dormitory style accommodation and ate and slept in the same shared quarters. The height between decks was 1.8 meters (5 ft. 11 inches) but that height was interrupted by the timber beams that supported the upper deck. They were 30 centimeters (12 inches) wide and reduced the height for passengers to 1.5 meters (4 ft. 11 inches).

Fanny Fisher, Barque Rigged, 239 tons, Length 92.2’, 1847 (Wikipedia)

http://www.red-duster.co.uk/BIBBY7.htm



Name

Built

Burthen tons

Length

Notes

Friends

1793

63

67’




Mentor

1799

150

73’




L’Harmonie




124

79’




Sally




130

71’




Benjamine & Elizabeth

1798

283

93’




Mary




208

80’




Lucretia

1796

242

89’




Margaret

1802

222

84’




Mary Bibby

1825

299

104’

3 masts

18th & Early 19th Century Sailing Vessels

http://www.lib.mq.edu.au/all/journeys/ships/vessels.html

Merchant Ships

Sea-going merchant ships were generally built on the same principles as warships, with the same system of framing and planking, and similar principles of rigging. Vessels of more than about 250 tons were generally ship rigged, with three masts. For vessels between 80 and 250 tons, the brig rig was favoured. Smaller vessels generally used either the sloop rig, with a single fore and aft-rigged mast, or the schooner rig, fore and aft with two or more masts.

Unidentified French barque leaving Marseille – dated 1872 (watercolor)

http://www.spurlingandrouxwatercolours.com/imagepdf/picspdf27.gif


Le Havre ca 1837


A Look at Le Havre, a Less-Known Port for German Emigrants (link)

“The accommodation of emigrants awaiting departure is a serious problem. The less fortunate sleep in the street, on the floor, or up makeshift tents on the banks of the streets and sidewalks of St. Francis and Notre Dame. Others took refuge in shacks close to the fortifications or in the plain with their baggage. In 1840, the “Revue du Havre” wrote that “the city is crowded with the poorest Bavarian immigrants... The floating population began to camp out on the ramparts of the east. They takes shelter under the elms; excavations in the thickness of slope ditches serve as their home ... Those who have two francs a day, can find accommodation among innkeepers of St. Francis and Our Lady, who specialize in taking care of immigrants. There are a dozen in 1850.* As the Commissioner of the emigration noted, the high price of rents in the city of Le Havre force the landlords to establish themselves in the narrow streets in areas that are dirty and wet ... “ Andre Corvisier

* Conflicts with this being written in 1840.

“Le Havre, port des émigrants”

Citation from above link : “Le Havre, port des émigrants” (p. 205-215). Je vous donne quelques extraits des pages 206-207: Legoy, Jean Hier, Le Havre. Tome II Histoire du Havre et de l’estuaire de la Seine / sous la dir. de André Corvisier. – [Éd. mise à jour]. – Toulouse : Privat, 1987. – 335 p. – (Pays et villes de France).

http://gghsm.forumpro.fr/t8353p90-hier-le-havre-par-jean-legoy?highlight=michel

See extract in “Referenced Documents”

Le Havre as Emigration Port, Part 1: 1817-1860 (link) – has photo to right, 1841.

“Its function as an emigration port took on a new quality after the end of the Napoleonic wars, when mass movement once again became possible. ... German disunity and the resulting multiple tariffs imposed on Rhine river traffic made it cheaper to do this overland, across France. ...

In 1818, passage from Le Havre to America was 350-400 francs; in the early 1830s it was 120-150 francs.

At first, it was necessary for emigrants to make arrangements for passage directly with the captains. During the sailing season there were thus always several thousand persons waiting to leave. They could be obliged to wait for weeks, partly in lodging houses, partly outdoors. A German colony of innkeepers, shopkeepers and brokers appeared to service them. Agents began meeting the emigrants on the road to Le Havre to sign them up. After the French government required in 1837 that Germans present a valid ticket at the French border, local offices began to be opened in Switzerland and the German states. Again, as elsewhere, French authorities did not want large numbers of indigent would-be emigrants stranded in the port. Previously, the only document required to cross the border had been a passport.

[Table with emigrants by year] ...

http://www.progenealogists.com/germany/articles/gdepart.htm

General info on various ports used by German emigrants

Le Havre


L’émigration allemande par le port du Havre au XIXe siècle (1984).pdf

Statistics and descriptions relevant to 1837

Drawings

Emigrants in Le Havre seaport. Created by Charton, published on Magasin Pittoresque, Paris, 1844

123RF link ($20 for 20 credits, need 3), Shutterstock Link ($29 for 2 images)

Historical Images of Le Havre (Wikimedia)

800pxHavre_de_Grace_engraving_by_William_Miller_after_C_Stanfield 1836 (link)

Saved to “Images”- good one

Port du Havre 1817 (Wikimedia)

Saved to “Images”- good one


Tons Burthen – Unit of Cargo Capacity


Builder’s Old Measurement, or Tons Burthen (Wikipedia)

Is the method used in England from approximately 1650 to 1849 for calculating the cargo capacity of a ship. It is a volumetric measurement of cubic capacity and NOT of weight. It estimated the tonnage* of a ship based on length and maximum beam.



*Tonnage: A measure of the size or cargo carrying capacity of a ship.

From http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/MARINERS/2002-05/1021711228


Tons burthen is an estimate of the weight of cargo that can be carried.
Firstly, the burthen tonnage was an official figure and used not only for commercial purposes but also, for example, to calculate port dues. It arose from survey and is what is found on 18th century ship registration documents. It was originally a measure of the number of tuns of wine that could be carried but centuries ago was calculated by formula:
Burthen = length x max beam x depth of hold (in feet)

100
In 1694 this was modified, such that the product of the dimensions was divided by 94.



In 1773 this was again modified with a new formula (which also redefined length), and which subsequently became known as “Builders Old Measurement”.

In official documents these figures continued to be referred to as “tons burthen”:


(length – 3/5 beam) x beam x ½ beam (in feet)

94

This worked well for wooden sailing ships, but not for the new-fangled iron ships which had longer finer hulls, so in the mid-19th century it was changed again. The total volume of the ship below the upper deck was calculated in cubic feet and then divided by 100. For traditional sailing ships, with very little crew accommodation below deck, this gave an

acceptable measure of carrying capacity; however for steam ships it included all the space taken up with the engine, boiler and coal bunkers. So the concept of “gross” and “net” tonnage appeared, with the latter smaller figure excluding the non-earning spaces (including crew accommodation, though that was often above the deck so for many sailing vessels the gross and net tonnages were identical).
However, none of these measures are of “displacement” (i.e. the actual weight of the vessel – the volume of water she displaces when afloat), and such figures do not appear in shipping registers for merchant ships. Nowadays registers do also contain the figure for “deadweight”, roughly the maximum weight of cargo the ship can carry.
David Asprey

Notes on Havre Records for the Barque Celte, Jul-Nov 1837


Source of images (6 pages):

http://recherche.archivesdepartementales76.net/?id=viewer&doc=accounts%2Fmnesys_ad76%2Fdatas%2Fir%2Fserie_P_inscription_maritime%2FFRAD076_IR_P_inscription_maritime.xml&page_ref=11645&lot_num=1&img_num=615


Image 615: Armement (fitting out, equipping)

Le Celte (3 masts) going to New York, constructed in 1835 in St. Malo

239 and 59/94 tonneaux (barrels) – the fraction is due to the equation used to calculate tons burthen (a measure of cargo space, not weight)

Under the command of Captain Jean Marie LeSidaner

At the top left it is written:

(1) mettre ici l’une de ces trois indications:

A LA PART; Parti du Havre le 9 Jet [Juillet] [Departed Havre 9 July]

AU MOIS; De retour au dit lieu le 21 9bre 1837 [Returned to said place 21 Nov 1837]

AU VOYAGE.

Image 615-16: List of 11 planned crew members (as approved 3 July)

Image 617: Additional 4 crew members

The ship could only legally carry 96 passengers (see below)

Includes 3 Kirch’s from Mehlingen, which is 18 km from Steinbach am Donnersberg

Amazingly, these extra crew members all deserted in New York on 14 Sept, 2 days after arrival (the ship could only legally carry 96 passengers)

“Tous les passagers ont été débarqués a New York le 14 Septembre 1837. Le Consul Général de France à New York, L. Delaforce.”

Image 618: Passenger list showing head of household only:

96 total, 58 adults, 38 children (19 and under – the New York list had 38 age 19 and under). Youngest was 3 months. Sixteen passengers (1 in 6) were under 10 years old.

Jean Bauer listed, party of 5 adults and 4 children

A ship of this capacity was allowed to bring 95.6 passengers into the USA (2/5 of 239 and 59/94 tons burthen)

Image 619: List of crew members

At the bottom : “Expédié le 8 Juillet 1837” with 15 crew and 96 passengers.

Image 620: Arrived NY 11 Sept with 15 crew and 96 passengers.

The New York listing showed an arrival of 12 Sept - maybe they arrived the 11th and came ashore the 12th

The voyage was thus 66 days (presumably including a day or two sitting in port), or 9 weeks 3 days

No recorded deaths during the voyage

Departed NY 18-Oct-1837 with 11 crew members and no (sans) passengers.

Arrived Le Havre 21 Nov with 10 crew members and one passenger.

Note: The last four months of the year had special abbreviations:



    • "7bre" = "septembre"

    • "8bre" = "octobre"

    • "9bre" = "novembre"

    • "Xbre" = "décembre"

The Celte also appears in this record of commerce (also uses the Jet abbreviation for Juillet):

Images 41 (Juillet 1837) and 65 (Fevrier 1838):



http://recherche.archivesdepartementales76.net/?id=viewer&doc=accounts%2Fmnesys_ad76%2Fdatas%2Fir%2Fserie_P_inscription_maritime%2FFRAD076_IR_P_inscription_maritime%2Exml&page_ref=5552&lot_num=1&img_num=1&index_in_visu=





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