The following table has passengers listed in the two passenger listings for the Havre departure and the New York arrival. The passengers are listed in the order of the New York arrival listing.
The Havre listing provides the head-of-family name only, plus numbers of adults and children. The totals are 58 adults and 38 children, for 96 total passengers. U.S. law limited a ship of this capacity to 96 passengers. However, there were also four additional crew taken on, three of whom were from the Kirch family (see notes for Kirch in the table below), and one Frenchman. All four were recorded as having abandoned ship once they arrived in New York. This clearly seems to have been a way to subvert the 96-passenger limit, so there were perhaps actually 100 passengers. The three Kirch crew were listed as passengers in the New York passenger listing.
Overall, the Havre listings do not correlate well with the New York passenger listing, based on the passenger names and numbers of adults and children. The New York arrival listing apparently has quite a few errors, perhaps due to language barriers – though both listings could have errors. Note that where a family appears in both listings the number of travelers in the Havre listing generally differs from the number of people listed in the New York listing (the Bauer family being an exception, correctly listing 5 adults and 4 children, though the family name is incorrectly listed as “Fache”).
The Havre listing of 58 adults and 38 children matches fairly well with the New York total of 94 passengers, of which 38 are age 19 and under. The New York listing has just 94 passengers instead of 96, but it is possible that the microfilm image did not show all names of the original document.
Table of Passenger Listings
New York Listing
# of Adults
# of Child-ren
New York Arrival Listing
Adam Prizeur (46), Barbara (47), Phillipina (20), Madeline (18), Bartarad (15), Elizabeth (7), Christian (5), Barbara (12)
Possible match: The following have parents Johannes Adam Pritzius and Barbara Krapp, b. Kriegsfeld, Bavaria (20 km from Steinbach am Donnersberg):
Katharina Margaretha ch. 3 Mar 1813 (link)
Philippina Pritzius ch. Oct 1815 (link)
Margaretha Pritzius b. May 1818 (link)
Balthasar Pritzius b. Apr 1822 (link)
Johannes Pritzius b. Nov 1820 (link) – not listed, died or stayed behind?
Adam Pretzeus - 1840, Bucks OH, same page as Henry A Wolf and John Wolf (image 3)
Wife Catharine Hothem arrived abt 1834
Jacob Pretzeus – 1840, Bucks (image 5), b. 1791 (prob Bavaria) per 1860 census.
German records: Jakob Pritzius m. Margaretha Schenk Nov 1829, Ranswiler. Margaretha Schunk d. 1843, Bisterschied (b. 1802).
Christjane Margarethe Frey b. May 1816, Parents Wilhelm Henrich Frey, Susanne Friedrike Wilch, Kirchheimbolanden (13 km from Steinbach am Donnersberg) (link)
Wilhelm Heinrich Frey, b. 1771 (so 55), Kirchheimbolanden (link)
Michael Becket (60), Angeline (61), Ladorer (26), Elizabeth (16)
Ludewig Bickert b. 1810 Kriegsfeld, Bavaria (Evangelisch), parents Michael & Anglelica (link). Kriegsfeld is 20 km from Steinbach am Donnersberg.
Elisabetha Margaretha Bickert, b. 1806 (she would be 21, not 16, but could be a sister), Kriegsfeld, parents Michael & Angelica (link)
Found other Beckerts in Zanesville: Andreas 1807-1859 (link)
Nicholas Pfernech/Phernech (47), Phillipini (47), Joseph (20), Louis (17), Carl (14), Jean (11), Charlotte (6)
Adam Wolf (36), Elizabeth (28), Piere (3), Henry (5), Elizabeth (1)
Definite match: Parents Heinrich Adam Wolf and Elisabetha Fruehhahn/Frühahn from Ransweiler, Bayern, Germany (23 km from Steinbach am Donnersberg):
Peter Wolf, b. 18 Sep 1828 (8 on 12-Sep-1837, so 9 instead of 3, but listed before Henry) (link)
Heinrich Wolf b. 27 Oct 1831 (link)
Elisabetha Wolf b. 19 May 1836 (link)
Found in Bucks, Tuscarawas Co., Ohio, 1850 census (saved to “Non-Family PRIVATE” tree).
Messaged user NettieK, “our DNA Wolf ; Need Help to Connect” tree, 25-Aug-2013 (link) – No good info, not related.
Messaged user Clysandrou1, “Dead Relatives Collected” tree (link). Left a comment on her tree for Peter Wolf (link).
Messaged user Marg4W, “Ley Family Tree” (link)
Messaged user julianavanhorn, “Van Horn Family Tree” (link).
Where are the photos of Henry Wolf and Eliz Croft from?
Adam Hause (36), Catharine (36), Adam (6), Catharine (3), Margarete (66)
Johann Adam Haas (parents Heinrich Haas & Margaretha Kraus) m. 1829 Catharina Barbara Schmidt (parents Ludwig & Dorothea Stark) Ransweiler (23 km from Steinbach am Donnersberg) (link)
Johann Adam Haass b. 6-Jan-1831, parents Adam Haass & Catharina Schmidt, Ransweiler. (link)
Catharina Haass, b. July 1833 (would be 3 or 4) (link)
Adam Haas (Jr) b. Jan 1831 Bavaria – 1860 in Strasburg, Tuscarawas, OH. 1880 in Dover, Tuscarawas, OH. 1900 in Franklin, Tusc, OH (arrived 1837).
See Adam Haas’ bio below this table, which confirms he was on the Celte.
Adam Haas ba. 1797 Bavaria & Catharine Haas ba. 1800 Bavaria – Berlin, Delaware, OH (near Columbus) , living next to John Haas ba. 1839 (link)
Henry Sthame (32), Frederick (34?), Jacob (?), Frederick (3), Jean (12)
Carl Reiman (34)
Margarete Bug (28)
Henry? Fache (24)
Heinrich Jacob Fuchs b. 20-Sep-1810, ch. Odernheim (Odernheim am Glan is 40 km from Steinbach) (link)
Henry Fox found in Tiverton 1850 & 1860 living with Phillip Wagner, and 1870 living with John Wagner.
On the 1872 Tiverton land map, “H Fox” and “P Fox” each have a 40-acre lot next to John Wagner. P Fox is presumably Phillip Fox, m. Philopena, b. Rhine per Hill, 1881.
Sheuler? Henry? (24), Jean (22), Adam (19)
Michel Vangues? (24), Phillipe (34), Barbary (27), Catherine (7), Jean (4), Anne (1)
Possible matches: All from Kriegsfeld (20 km from Steinbach am Donnersberg).
Father Phillip Wagner, mother Barbara:
Katharina Wagner christened 10 Jan 1830 (link)
Philipp Wager christened Dec 1832 (link)
Johannes Wagner christened Dec 1835, so would be 1 instead of 4 (link)
Father Philipp, mother Sophia:
Elisabetha Wagner christened Sep 1832 (link)
Konrad Wagner christened Nov 1834 (link)
Valentin Wagner christened Apr 1837 (link)
Father Philipp, no mother listed:
Peter Franz Wagner christened Oct 1824 (link)
No parents listed:
Johann Wilhelm Wagner christened Jun 1825 (link)
Jacob Wagner born Sep 1834 (link)
Phillip & Barbara Wagner are in Tiverton in 1850, on the page after John & Catharine Bower/Bauer.
Messaged JuMason10 (link)
Charle Fache (25), Margarete (23)
Searched for Fuch, Fuchs
Searched for Fuch, Fuchs, Fox
Jean Fache (49), Catherine (52), Jacob (25), Elizabeth (23), Carl (20), Margaret (18), Jean (16), Adam (14), Phillipine (7)
Bauers of Steinbach am Donnersberg:
Anna Elisabetha (link), Carl (link), Anna Margaretha (link), Johannes (link), Joh. Adam (link), Philippine (link), Magdalena (link)
Johannes “John” Bauer & Katharina “Catherine” Klein, in Tiverton, Ohio (1840, 1850, 1860)
Elizabeth Pfisinger (19), Christrophe (32)
Michael Weber? (36), Michael Weber (40)
Jacob Rupp (25), Catherine (20)
Henry Stomple (24)
Pierre Weber (26)
Jean Ackel (52), Margarete (22), Elizabeth (15), Jean (13), Pierre (18)
Taken on as crew, all from Mehlingen, 2 km from Sembach & Alsenborn:
Jacob Kirch, 30
Peter Kirch, 28
David Kirch, 14
Jean Kirch (60), Catharine (55), Jacob (27), Piere (29?), Elizabeth (19), Louisa (16), Jean (27), Catharine (14), Henry (25), Piere (24), Guillaume (21), Bijan? (28), Elizabeth (20), Henry (3 months), Susanne (30), David (15)
Johann Jacob Kirch (father) b. Nov 1776, Sembach, Bavaria (link).
Johannes Kirch m. Catharina Rossett 1805, Alsenborn (link)
The following all have parents Johannes Kirch and Catharina Rossett, b. either Sembach or Alsenborn (both ~16 km from Steinbach am Donnersberg):
Johann Jacob Kirch b. 1807 (link) – so 30, not 27
Peter Joh. Kirch b. 1809 (link)
Heinrich Kirch b. 1811 (link)
Wilhelm Kirch b. 1814 (link) – so 23, not 21 (Guillaume)
Elisabetha Kirch b. 1818 (link)
Louisa Kirch b. 1821 (link)
David Kirch b. 1823 (link)
Katharina Kirch b. Dec 1825 (link) – so 11, no 14
Sussana Mack b. 1801, m. Heinrich Kirch (link)
Not found. Some possible matches, but none that tie together, and most ages differ by several years.
John Kerch Jr. – 1880 non-census, Dour, Tuscarawas, OH (link). ba. 1819 Bavaria per 1860, 1870, 1880 census. NY listing would be ba. 1810.
Order obit of Peter Kirch from Coshocton Library, link – he’s in Hemlock
Adam Hartman (50 or 60), Adeline (48), Margarite (15), Barbara (13), Adam (11), Jean (6)
Good match: The following have parents Adami Harmann & Otiliae, from Kriegsfeld (20 km from Steinbach):
Joannes Adamus Hartmann b. Feb 1826 (link)
Joannes Hartmann b. Sep 1832 (link)
Margaretha & Barbara not found
Possible match: 1850 census, NYC:
Adelia Hartman 51 (should be ~61)
Adam Hartman 26 (should be ~24)
John Hartman 18 (should be ~19), Pedler
Bio of Adam Haas from “The History of Tuscarawas County, Ohio”, 1884, p. 748.
The information about the voyage to Ohio via Havre and New York is consistent with other records
about the voyage.
Map of Passengers’ Towns of Origin
The Barque Celte
Ship master Jean Marie Lesidaner
Possible reference, 1857 : http://bloggenealonet.pessiot.net/?p=153
“Barque” in Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barque
A barque has at least 3 masts, with fore-and-aft sails (in line with the keel) on the rear-most mast, and square sails (perpendicular to the keel) on all other masts. Barques were the workhorse of the Golden Age of Sail up to the mid-19th century as they attained passages that nearly matched full rigged ships (with square sails on all masts) but could operate with smaller crews.
Cargo space: 239 and 59/94 tons burthen (a “ton” is a measure of cargo capacity, equivalent to a barrel of wine – see the section below on “Tons Burthen – Unit of Cargo Capacity”)
Length: from stem to sternpost about 91 or 92 feet (based on comparable ships, below).
Beam: width at the widest point as measured at the ship’s nominal waterline about 24 feet (based on the formula for tons burthen).
Number of Passengers Allowed (per the Act Regulating Passenger Ships and Vessels 1819):
Max of 2 passengers per 5 tons => 95.9 passengers
Departed July 8 or 9, arrived Sept 11 or 12 (difference may be days sitting in the harbor).
If we assume July 9 to Sept 12 inclusive: 66 days, or 2 months 4 days, or 9 weeks and 3 days.
The Northern Atlantic hurricane season occurs from June 1 to November 30, sharply peaking from late August through September; the season’s climatological peak of activity occurs around September 10 each season (Wikipedia, accessed 15 Aug 2013).
At least 7 hurricanes and tropical storms were recorded in the North Atlantic during the time the Barque Celte was at sea (Wikipedia, accessed 15 Aug 2013). We don’t know if the Barque Celte confronted any of these storms, but it seems likely that the ship encountered rough seas, if not a hurricane, at some point in their 2-month voyage.
Passengers disembarked 14-Sep-2013.
Comparable Ships to the Barque Celte
Barque Cygnet (link, accessed 20 Jul 2013),
Built 1827, 239 tons, image at right. Looks like the Wikipedia image above. Length 91’.
The emigrants’ accommodation was in the between-decks. That was the area below the main deck where third class passengers sailed. They were housed in dormitory style accommodation and ate and slept in the same shared quarters. The height between decks was 1.8 meters (5 ft. 11 inches) but that height was interrupted by the timber beams that supported the upper deck. They were 30 centimeters (12 inches) wide and reduced the height for passengers to 1.5 meters (4 ft. 11 inches).
Sea-going merchant ships were generally built on the same principles as warships, with the same system of framing and planking, and similar principles of rigging. Vessels of more than about 250 tons were generally ship rigged, with three masts. For vessels between 80 and 250 tons, the brig rig was favoured. Smaller vessels generally used either the sloop rig, with a single fore and aft-rigged mast, or the schooner rig, fore and aft with two or more masts.
Unidentified French barque leaving Marseille – dated 1872 (watercolor)
A Look at Le Havre, a Less-Known Port for German Emigrants (link)
“The accommodation of emigrants awaiting departure is a serious problem. The less fortunate sleep in the street, on the floor, or up makeshift tents on the banks of the streets and sidewalks of St. Francis and Notre Dame. Others took refuge in shacks close to the fortifications or in the plain with their baggage. In 1840, the “Revue du Havre” wrote that “the city is crowded with the poorest Bavarian immigrants... The floating population began to camp out on the ramparts of the east. They takes shelter under the elms; excavations in the thickness of slope ditches serve as their home ... Those who have two francs a day, can find accommodation among innkeepers of St. Francis and Our Lady, who specialize in taking care of immigrants. There are a dozen in 1850.* As the Commissioner of the emigration noted, the high price of rents in the city of Le Havre force the landlords to establish themselves in the narrow streets in areas that are dirty and wet ... “ Andre Corvisier
* Conflicts with this being written in 1840.
“Le Havre, port des émigrants”
Citation from above link : “Le Havre, port des émigrants” (p. 205-215). Je vous donne quelques extraits des pages 206-207: Legoy, Jean Hier, Le Havre. Tome II Histoire du Havre et de l’estuaire de la Seine / sous la dir. de André Corvisier. – [Éd. mise à jour]. – Toulouse : Privat, 1987. – 335 p. – (Pays et villes de France).
Le Havre as Emigration Port, Part 1: 1817-1860 (link) – has photo to right, 1841.
“Its function as an emigration port took on a new quality after the end of the Napoleonic wars, when mass movement once again became possible. ... German disunity and the resulting multiple tariffs imposed on Rhine river traffic made it cheaper to do this overland, across France. ...
In 1818, passage from Le Havre to America was 350-400 francs; in the early 1830s it was 120-150 francs.
At first, it was necessary for emigrants to make arrangements for passage directly with the captains. During the sailing season there were thus always several thousand persons waiting to leave. They could be obliged to wait for weeks, partly in lodging houses, partly outdoors. A German colony of innkeepers, shopkeepers and brokers appeared to service them. Agents began meeting the emigrants on the road to Le Havre to sign them up. After the French government required in 1837 that Germans present a valid ticket at the French border, local offices began to be opened in Switzerland and the German states. Again, as elsewhere, French authorities did not want large numbers of indigent would-be emigrants stranded in the port. Previously, the only document required to cross the border had been a passport.
Builder’s Old Measurement, or Tons Burthen (Wikipedia)
Is the method used in England from approximately 1650 to 1849 for calculating the cargo capacity of a ship. It is a volumetric measurement of cubic capacity and NOT of weight. It estimated the tonnage* of a ship based on length and maximum beam.
*Tonnage: A measure of the size or cargo carrying capacity of a ship.
Tons burthen is an estimate of the weight of cargo that can be carried.
Firstly, the burthen tonnage was an official figure and used not only for commercial purposes but also, for example, to calculate port dues. It arose from survey and is what is found on 18th century ship registration documents. It was originally a measure of the number of tuns of wine that could be carried but centuries ago was calculated by formula:
Burthen = length x max beam x depth of hold (in feet)
In 1694 this was modified, such that the product of the dimensions was divided by 94.
In 1773 this was again modified with a new formula (which also redefined length), and which subsequently became known as “Builders Old Measurement”.
In official documents these figures continued to be referred to as “tons burthen”:
(length – 3/5 beam) x beam x ½ beam (in feet)
This worked well for wooden sailing ships, but not for the new-fangled iron ships which had longer finer hulls, so in the mid-19th century it was changed again. The total volume of the ship below the upper deck was calculated in cubic feet and then divided by 100. For traditional sailing ships, with very little crew accommodation below deck, this gave an
acceptable measure of carrying capacity; however for steam ships it included all the space taken up with the engine, boiler and coal bunkers. So the concept of “gross” and “net” tonnage appeared, with the latter smaller figure excluding the non-earning spaces (including crew accommodation, though that was often above the deck so for many sailing vessels the gross and net tonnages were identical).
However, none of these measures are of “displacement” (i.e. the actual weight of the vessel – the volume of water she displaces when afloat), and such figures do not appear in shipping registers for merchant ships. Nowadays registers do also contain the figure for “deadweight”, roughly the maximum weight of cargo the ship can carry.
Notes on Havre Records for the Barque Celte, Jul-Nov 1837