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Common Core Social Studies Learning Plan Template
Lesson Title: Robbers or Captains?






Author Name: Trevor Moffat
Contact Information: tmoffat@washoeschools.net
Appropriate for Grade Level(s): 7/8
History Standard(s): H1.[9-12].2 Discuss the influences of American industrialists on the rise of corporate capitalism.

H1.[9-12].3 Assess the impact of technological innovations and urbanization on society‘s social and economic development.

H1.[9-12].15 Analyze the cultural, social, and economic changes that occurred as a result of industrialization.

H2.[6-8].22 Describe the effects of industrialization and new technologies on the development of the United States.

H3.[9-12].2 Describe the rise of corporations and analyze working conditions in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

H3.[9-12].3 Analyze the contributions of inventors and innovators that led to a change in society.
Applicable CCSS(s) (RI, W, S&L, L): CCSS.R.6-8.1, CCSS.R.6-8.2, CCSS.R.6-8.4, CCSS.R.6-8.8, CCSS.W.6-8.1, CCSS.W.6-8.4, CCSS.W.6-8.9, CCSS.SL.8.1, CCSS.SL.8.3, CCSS.SL.8.4, CCSS.L.8.4
Type of Lesson: Structured Academic Controversy
Student Readings (list): Students will read ONE of the two attached readings (either side A or side B)
Total Time Needed: 3-6 60 minute class periods
Essential Question: Should the industrialists of the late 19th and early 20th century be known as “captains of industry” or “robber barons?”
Lesson Summary: This lesson is the culmination of a unit on the 2nd Industrial revolution. For this lesson, students work cooperatively to evaluate an argumentative essay over the essential question: Should the industrialists of the late 19th and early 20th century be known as “captains of industry” or “robber barons?” After working collaboratively, students then will share their answers in an organized discussion strategy called a structured-academic controversy.
Lesson Outline:

Time Frame

(e.g. 15 minutes)

What is the teacher doing?

What are students doing?

30 minutes

Teacher prep



Depending on level, students should be heterogeneously grouped in fours by reading level. Each group of four should be assigned either Essay A or Essay B




30-60 minutes

Teacher prep



Teachers should make color-coordinated copies of the articles. Essay A (two pages) and the table labeled side A (pages 10-12 of attachment) should be the same color. Essay B and the table labeled side B (pages 13-15 of attachment) should be a different color. The annotation guide (page 9) should be provided to all students




10-15 minutes

Teacher should assign the groups, pass out the article and annotation page and clarify expectations as groups read their assigned essay. Groups are to annotate article using annotation guide and then work collaboratively to fill out the FRONT PAGE of their table.

Listening to expectations for groups

90-120 minutes

Teacher is monitoring progress of the group, using annotations to check for understanding and re-teaching groups when necessary.

Students are working in groups of 4, annotating the document paragraph by paragraph. When done, they then fill out the FRONT of the table.

5 minutes

Teacher provides instructions on how the structured-academic controversy will work (page 16 has explanation)

-Two members of each group will rotate to the opposite essay.

-Then, each side will have approximately 2 minutes to teach the first component of their essay to the other side (body paragraph 1). Students present the REASON the author mention, summarize the EVIDENCE, and provide their RATING for the paragraph. Other side is writing down this information ON BACK of their table page

-Side B then has 1 minute to summarize/clarify information they heard

-Roles are then SWITCHED. Side B has to present body paragraph 1 for two minutes as side A writes.


Students listen to directions

20 minutes

Teacher monitors and gives points for students presenting their assigned essay to the other side

Students take turns presenting their essay, paragraph by paragraph

20 minutes

Consensus time: After sharing each side, groups must look at evidence and determine the single best piece of evidence/reasoning for each essay. Then, groups must reach a consensus on the essential question, creating an ALTHOUGH statement:

Example: Although the industrialists of the late 19th century did use questionable business tactics, their intelligence and commitment to bettering society makes them Captains of Industry.



Students work on Although statements

30 minutes

Teach writes down although statements for class to see

Each group presents their although statements to the class

60-120 minutes

Teacher monitors student progress as students write

Students outline and then write a paragraph taking sides on the essential question (pages of the attachment


Description of Lesson Assessment: Students will complete an argumentative paragraph where they must take a side. For this, they will be provided with both essays and will use the information from the Structured Academic Controversy to choose the side that was more convincing. They first will fill out the outline and then will transfer the outline to the paragraph page. Before turning the final paragraph in, students will highlight their claim, evidence and reasoning so it is clear all components were included (and easier for the teacher to understand).
How will students reflect on the process and their learning? Reflection is accomplished through the whole-group discussion where the consensus statements are shared. Students also reflect on the final question of the Structured-Academic Controversy handout, where they are expected to identify what they did well and something they would like to improve on for the next discussion.
Possible extension or introductory activity: Relate the industrialists of the early 19th and 20th century to the leaders of silicone valley today. Use Newsweek article at http://mag.newsweek.com/2012/03/11/the-robber-barons-of-silicon-valley.html as a reference.
Key Vocabulary

Bessemer Process: A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.

Capitalism: an economic system in which private businesses run most industries.

Carnegie, Andrew: American industrialist/philanthropist who used vertical integration in steel industry

Corporation: businesses that sell portions of ownership called stock share.

Gould, Jay: Railroad developer and land speculator

Hill, James: Railroad executive in late 1800's

Horizontal integration: owning all businesses in a certain field.

Labor union: an organized group of workers formed to protect their rights and interests

Monopoly: total ownership of a product or service

Morgan, J.P.: American financer and banker during late 1800's and early 1900's

Philanthropy: the generous donation of money to good causes

Price wars: competition in which retailers cut prices to increase share of market

Rockefeller, John D.: American Industrialist/philanthropist who used horizontal and vertical integration in oil business

Second Industrial Revolution: period of rapid growth in U.S. manufacturing in the late 1800's.

Strike: The refusal of workers to perform their jobs until employers meet their demands.

Vanderbilt, Cornelius: American railroad and water transport industrialists during late 1800's.

Vertical integration: Ownership of businesses involved in each step of a manufacturing process.

Name_________________________

Industrialist Essay: A

During the late 19th and early 20th century, America experienced a wave of industrialism, or an increase in manufacturing, that was pushed by a group of men known as industrialists. There is no doubt that these individuals were driven by one motive—MONEY; however, historians and others debate the title to be bestowed on these men—should they be known as “captains of industry” or “robber barons?” Through hard work, ingenious strategies, and an overall contribution to society, these men were captains of industry who helped to transform all aspects of American life.

The industrialists of the late 19th century were both creative and hard-working, leading to their success in business. For example, Andrew Carnegie invested thousands of dollars in the Bessemer process, years before this process became commonplace in the steel industry. This foresight helped his companies to gain a distinct advantage over his competitors. These leaders also knew how to run an efficient business. John Rockefeller was able to save thousands of dollars a year simply by having his workers at an oil can factory use 39 drops of sealant compared to 40 drops. A minute detail such as this would be overlooked by the majority of people, but literally nothing got past these men. Railroad man James Hill realized that his railroad was only as good as his customers. Based on this, Hill provided free seed, cattle, and farming education to his customers, helping them, and in the process himself, to be successful. These industrial leaders rose to prominence in society through hard work and dedication, not through handouts.

At the end of the day, industrialists provided a much better product to consumers while also providing a better life for their workers. America is a capitalist society—businesses that survive have proven to be the strongest and best products, if the products were bad, consumers would not buy the product. Through Rockefeller’s work with the oil industry, a cheap method of illuminating houses was brought to the masses. Carnegie’s steel company helped build stronger bridges and buildings, helping to bring America into the 21st century. Studies show that American’s earnings rose more than 60% between the years of 1870-1900. This evidence clearly demonstrates how industrialists helped to make American’s everyday lives better.

Another role of leadership the industrialists of the late 19th century took was evident in what they did with their wealth. Through their philanthropy, the industrialists made sure to give back to the system that had treated them so well. By the time of his death, Andrew Carnegie had donated more than half of his wealth (over $350 million) to help establish libraries, schools, and universities (including a library in downtown Reno). During the Panic of 1893, J.P. Morgan loaned the United States treasury $65 million in order to avoid a further economic crash. Morgan realized how much this would devastate the average worker and took steps to ensure it did not happen. Lastly, John Rockefeller, through his Rockefeller foundation, donated over $500 million in aid of medical research and universities. With this money, huge advances were made in medical fields, and the child mortality rate (number of infants under one who died) dropped each decade. Far from being Robbers, these caring figures looked out for the well-being of the country they loved so dearly.

In the end, the Industrialists of the late 19th and early 20th century were absolutely captains of industry. Without their hard work, creativity, care, and financial support, America would never have developed into such a strong nation, a nation that was able to produce more than Germany, France, and Great Britain combined. Although these leaders might have used some questionable business tactics, they did so at a time when the rules and procedures of business were just being developed. Through the experiences of this time, stronger structures of how business should be run became clearer. The greatness of these men is best evidenced by the millions of immigrants who traveled to America during this time period, many of whom were enticed by the better life that the Captains of Industry created.


Name________________________________

Industrialist Essay B

During the late 19th and early 20th century, America experienced a wave of industrialism, or an increase in manufacturing, that was pushed by a group of men known as industrialists. There is no doubt that these individuals were driven by one motive—MONEY; however, historians and others debate the title to be bestowed on these men—should they be known as “captains of industry” or “robber barons?” Due to questionable business practices, exploitation of workers, and greed, these figures should be remembered as Robber Barons.

The industrialists of the gilded age literally cheated their way to the top. One dirty tactic used by many of them was price wars. Cornelius Vanderbilt used this tactic in the shipping industry, where he slashed his prices so low his competitors had no choice but to go out of business. This lowering of the rates was only temporary, as soon as the competition was gone Vanderbilt, and other Robber Barons, raised their prices to make more money for themselves, which demonstrates they only cared about money. Industrialists also used the mere threat of their power to bully their own to the top. For instance, John Rockefeller would refuse to use certain railroad lines (which would devastate the companies) unless the lines charged him a lower rate than his competitors, providing him with an unfair advantage. A final example can be seen with how Robber Barons used their money and influence to buy politicians. Jay Gould, for example, secured a board membership in the Erie Canal railroad for a political figure in exchange for favorable legislation to be passed for his company. Collectively, these tactics provided industrialists with an unfair advantage compared to other companies.

Industrialists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries amassed huge fortunes at the expense of their workers, whose hard work built the product but who failed to share equally in the result. During the time period between 1870 and 1910, the number of child workers (workers under than age of 15), increased from 700,000 to 1,630,000. If these men were truly industrial “leaders” they would have used their enormous political clout to prevent child labor, not benefit from a system that embraced it. Most of these figures also resisted unions. Even Andrew Carnegie, a man who has viewed as largely supportive of his workers, was involved in a tragedy when his workers went on strike. In the Homestead riot, Carnegie supported his branch manager over striking workers, and his protection of the replacement workers with hired detectives contributed to violence and resulted in the deaths of 10 people. A simple comparison between the average worker during this time period and an industrial leader helps to show the huge disparity between the owners and workers. In 1890, the average yearly income for a worker in America was $380. That same year, Andrew Carnegie made $25,000,000! If these men truly cared about their workers they would have increased their wages, ended child labor, and supported workers during conflict.

The overall greed of the Robber Barons can best be highlighted with what they chose to do with their money. At a time when the average worker lived in dirty, rundown tenements, these leaders built opulent estates to flaunt their wealth. A couple of these spoiled men left their entire fortunes to their families, leaving little or none for the betterment of society. Jay Gould, one of the shadiest of all of these figures, left his entire $72 million dollar fortune to his family. Cornelius Vanderbilt, another rich and devious business leader, only donated $1 million of his estimated $100 million dollar fortune. These men cheated their way to the top and did not even have the common decency to better the country they themselves benefitted from! Others, like John Rockefeller, donated money simply to make themselves look better. They did not do this out of caring for others, instead they did so to quiet the complaints about the questionable ways in which they achieved their wealth. Want to quiet your critics, build a hospital, church, university, or library! These men violated moral and ethical codes of business, took advantage of the less fortunate and hoarded their tainted money.

There is little doubt the industrialists of the late 19th and early 20th century were Robber Barons. Although these men helped to make America a stronger nation, they did so by cheating the system and abusing their workers. They set a dangerous precedent for future business leaders, and their questionable business practices are ones that unfortunately continue to be used today. These robber barons made a conscious decision to pursue money over their morals.

Huddle Up Superheros! It’s Time to Super-Annotate! The Annotator!http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_f5obm-cwdoc/tbaa-mi-ohi/aaaaaaaaaf4/ww3cng5owda/s200/key_elastigirl2.jpg






Circle words that are unknown or that might need explanation. Double circle words that might have a unique connotation or meaning. If necessary, comment in the margins.
Look up and write a synonym for words you cannot guess using context clues.

?

Consider this the “huh, what?” section. Put a ? next to areas where you say, “huh, what?” and write a brief description of your inference in the margin.



HIGHLIGHT
Intro
Conclusion


Highlight YELLOW the Super claim in the intro.

Highlight YELLOW the COUNTER CLAIM in the conclusion


HIGHLIGHT

BODY paragraphs



Highlight YELLOW the CLAIM
Highlight ORANGE the EVIDENCE (examples, facts, numbers)
Highlight PINK the REASONING: Explains how evidence led to the claim

1-3

EVALUATE (judge) each REASON (each body paragraph), a 1 is given if the paragraph convinces you with excellent evidence, a 2 if the evidence is kind of convincing, and a 3 if you feel the author failed to convince you at all!

Use this document as you read The Industry article

Name___________________________ Period_______

Industrialism Structured Academic Controversy

Side A


Directions: With your group, go through the document, following these steps:

Step one: Introductory paragraph:

-Based on the introduction, what is the BACKGROUND information on this topic?
-Based on the introduction, what is the QUESTION BEING ASKED, and, how did the writer CLARIFY what the question means?
-What is the author's CLAIM or ARGUMENT?
Step two Body paragraphs:

Body paragraph #

What REASON(S) are given to support claim

What EVIDENCE is given to support claim? Put a STAR by most CONVINCING evidence

#1








#2







#3







Conclusion:

What is the author's COUNTER-claim?


How effective is this conclusion? Why?

Structured Academic Controversy

Question: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

My argument/super claim: ___________________________________________________________________

Background Reading

Vocabulary words I should know and use

Important facts from background reading






































Preparing My Argument

My Claims

My Evidence and Reasoning


1.





2.





3.






4.




5.




The Other Side of the Issue

Opposing Claims and Reasoning

Opposing Evidence and Reasoning

1.





2.






3.






Common Ground and Further Questions

Using evidence, we can agree that…

We need further clarification on…

1.


1.

2.


2.

3.


3.

What did you learn about the industrialists of the late 19th and early 20th century? What is your final position on the issue? Use at least three pieces of evidence to explain why.


Reflect on your participation in the discussion. What did you do well? What do you need to improve upon?


Name___________________________________

Industrialism Structured Academic Controversy

Side B


Directions: With your group, go through the document, following these steps:

Step one: Introductory paragraph:

-Based on the introduction, what is the BACKGROUND information on this topic?
-Based on the introduction, what is the QUESTION BEING ASKED, and, how did the writer CLARIFY what the question means?
-What is the author's CLAIM or ARGUMENT?
Step two Body paragraphs:

Body paragraph #

What REASON(S) are given to support claim

What EVIDENCE is given to support claim? Put a STAR by most CONVINCING evidence

#1








#2







#3







Conclusion:

What is the author's COUNTER-claim?



How effective is this conclusion? Why?

Structured Academic Controversy

Question: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

My argument/super claim: ___________________________________________________________________

Background Reading

Vocabulary words I should know and use

Important facts from background reading






































Preparing My Argument

My Claims

My Evidence and Reasoning


1.





2.





3.






4.




5.




The Other Side of the Issue

Opposing Claims and Reasoning

Opposing Evidence and Reasoning

1.





2.






3.






Common Ground and Further Questions

Using evidence, we can agree that…

We need further clarification on…

1.


1.

2.


2.

3.


3.

What did you learn about the industrialists of the late 19th and early 20th century? What is your final position on the issue? Use at least three pieces of evidence to explain why.


Reflect on your participation in the discussion. What did you do well? What do you need to improve upon?


Formalities of the Structured Academic Controversy (Teacher copy)
I. Divide Students into groups of 4.

A. Split each group into two pairs. Each Group is assigned one side of the Argument (The Super claim)

2. Read Documents: Each Pair studies one side of the argument by reading the background material, their side

of the issue, or the entire article.



A. Each pair identifies claims and reasoning and evidence within the text to support their position

3. Discussion:

A. Pair #1 advocates their position while Pair #2 takes notes citing specific claims.

1. Pair #2 shares back what they learned and ask clarifying questions about information

presented.

2. Students DO NOT exchange papers to complete this task.

B. Pair #2 advocates their position while Pair #1 takes notes citing specific claims.

1. Pair #1 shares back what they learned and ask clarifying questions about information

presented.

2. Students DO NOT exchange papers to complete this task

4. Common Ground and Further Questions

A. Students work together as a group of four to synthesize the ideas and come to consensus on at

least on major point.

B. Students should also identify at least one area where they agree to need more information or

clarification.

5. Whole Class Debrief/Reflection

A. Reflect upon content

B. Reflect upon process


HELPFUL HINTS:

  • Allow students to review material prior to SAC (if assigned for homework etc.)

  • Provide some type of literacy strategy- annotation, note taker, highlighting, etc.)

  • Build comprehension around background knowledge, vocabulary, and layout of documents.

  • USE A TIMER. HAVE BREAKDOWN OF TIME SEQUENCE AVAILABLE FOR STUDENTS TO SCAN.

  • When students are teaching the argument to each other, have them flip their handouts over. They should have to explain, rather than read their most compelling reasons. They cannot just exchange papers.

  • Designate a lead facilitator

  • WHOLE GROUP DEBRIEF!!! Make time for this!


Name:_________________________________Period:_______________#_____________

Rewrite the question in your own words:

________________________________________________________________________________________________

Paragraph Outline

Claim (Answer the question, taking a side)

_____________________________________________________________________________________________



Evidence #1 (with citation- What document/line#’s?) _________________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________



Reasoning Linking Evidence to Claim

(Explain the evidence and then describe how does evidence relate to whether they were captains or robbers?)

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Evidence #2 (with citation- What Document/line #’s?)

__________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________



Reasoning #2 Linking Evidence #2 to Claim

(Explain the evidence and then describe how does evidence relate to whether they were captains or robbers?)



__________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________


___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Summary sentence

(summarize the paragraph)



__________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________


___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Name:____________________________________Period:__________________#____________

HIGHLIGHT: You must highlight before the paragraph is turned in!
CLAIM-GREEN EVIDENCE-RED OR PINK REASONING-YELLOW

Final Paragraph

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


***Sentence Starters for introducing Evidence:


For example,

Another example from the documents,

According to the documents,

In documents A it states

As found on document B,

As document…states,

Evidence for this can be seen on …



***Sentence starters for Reasoning or connecting evidence to claim:


This shows…

This demonstrates…

This evidence suggests

This evidence contributes

This evidence supports

This evidence confirms

It is apparent this evidence caused

Considering this evidence, it can be concluded

Based on the… it can be argued that

According to…

The connection

Hence, This proves…This highlights…



Claim



4




 Claim missing
 Reasoning unclear or does not demonstrate link to claim
 Document(s) not cited
 Evidence doesn’t support claim



Evidence #1 with citation

2




Reasoning links evidence/claim

5




Evidence #2 with citation

2




Reasoning links evidence/claim

5




Language Choices

2








Total 20_____________________




A level

B Level

C Level

D level

F Level

The Claim

Presents a clear, well-developed /strong claim.

Presents a clear claim

Presents a claim using I and/or with limited development

Claim is confusing or underdeveloped. Might have used I.

Missing claim

Evidence

Supports claim with 2 substantial, relevant, and accurate pieces of evidence. Evidence is cited.

Supports claim with 2 substantial, relevant, and accurate pieces of evidence.

Supports claim with 2 pieces of evidence.

Provides minimal, irrelevant, or insufficient evidence.

Evidence is missing


Reasoning

Reasoning linking evidence (Both pieces of evidence) to claim is sound and logical. It helps persuade the reader.

Reasoning linking evidence (both pieces of evidence) to claim is sound

Only links 1 piece of evidence soundly to the claim

Reasoning used does not link evidence to claim

There is no clear reasoning


Language Choices

Uses sophisticated words, phrases and clauses to clarify the relationship and create cohesion btw the claim, evidence and reasoning.

Uses words, phrases and clauses to clarify the relationship and create cohesion btw claim, evidence and reasoning

Inconsistently uses words or phrases to clarify the relationship btw claim, evidence and reasoning

Attempts once to use words or phrases to clarify the relationship btw claim, evidence and reasoning

Language choices creates uncertainty

Scoring Guide


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