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Registered by Australia Post Publication No, NPB 0282

ISSN 0312-5807




The Australian Naval Institute was formed and incorporated in the Australian Capital Territory in 1975. The main objects of the Institute are: a. To encourage and promote the advancement of knowledge related to the Navy

and the maritime profession. h to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas concerning subjects related to the

Navy and the maritime profession, and >.. to publish a journal.

The Institute is self-supporting and non-profit-making. All publications of the Institute will stress that the authors express their own views and opinions are not necessarily those of the Department of Defence, the Chief of Naval Staff or the Institute. The aim is to encourage discussion, dissemination of information, comment and opinion and the advancement of professional knowledge concerning naval and maritime matters.

The membership of the Institute is open to:

a. Regular Members. Regular membership is open to members of the RAN or
RANR and persons who having qualified for regular membership, subsequently
leave the service.

b. Associate Members. Associate membership ts open to all other persons not
qualified to be Regular Members, who profess an interest in the aims of the

c. Honorary Members. Honorary membership is open to persons who have made a
distinguished contribution to the Navy or the maritime profession, or by past
service to the institute.


Views expressed in this journal are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Department of Defence, the Chief of Naval Staff or the Institute.


The Australian Naval Institute is grateful for the assistance provided by the
corporations listed below. They arc demonstrating their support for the aim of the
Institute by being members of the "friends of the Australian Naval Institute" coterie.
Australian Defence Industries
Stanilite Llectromcs

Blohm and Voss Thomson Sintra Pacific

Computer Sciences of Australia Scientific Management Associates

GIIC Marconi Westinghouse Electric

Jeumont Schneider Division Krupp Atlas Electronik (Australia)

Nobeltech Ansett Australia

Rockwell Ship Systems


In this Issue:

ANI Annual General Meeting:

Washington Notes

Pane It

President's Address



Book Review

Pane 54

Auditor's Report



Balance Sheet



Australian Naval History


Profit & Loss



Page 56

Budget for 1992



Advertising Information

Guide for Authors



Pane 59

From the Editor



Membership Information

Pane 60

Feature Articles:


- The Way Afead

Tom Frame



P H James



G N Adsett



R J Sherwood



Michael Head


Cover: Top: IIMAS Australia (2)- Flagship of RAD J.G Grace. RN (Commander of Task Force 44) Bottom: UMAS Hoharl (IJght Cruiser) - Part 8 Task Force 44

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the objectives for 1991 were to;

  • encourage debate on maritime defence matters, by sponsoring a Seminar tilled "Maritime Power and its Place in the New World Order" at XMAS WATSON, on IS May 1991

  • produce a professional Journal.

  • maintain the friends of the Naval Institute coterie and expand it if possible.

  • host at least one Vernon Parker Oration.

  • host a Naval Institute Dinner.

  • arrange a sea day for die Friends with the Fleet if possible.

  • support Chapter activity.

  • promote new memberships.

All these objectives were met successfully except for the final two. Chapter activity languishes in all states and although I hope that the Sydney Chapter sain will restart, there were in effect no chapters for the Council to support during 1991. Membership continues to decline and will I understand he a high priority interest for the 1992 Council.

1 was specially pleased widi the high standard of the HMAS WATSON seminar in May. Attendance by Fleet Officers was very good and will encourage future Councils to repeat the exercise when opportunities present themselves. 'Ihe papers delivered the seminar were published in the Journal and did I believe ensure that the second objective could be met handsomely. Ihe new publishing arrangements are now producing dividends but I would like to see a greater number of quality contributions from serving personnel. The Naval Institute Journal should reflect Ihe thinking of its members on professional matters. Some might argue that the evidence suggests there is not too much of this going on.

The Council has gained great satisfaction from its association with the Friends of the Naval Institute. Despite the hard economic times they face, they have remained steadfast in their support.

In November, the Friends were the Institute's guests at a dinner and the Fleet Commanders guests lor a VII' Sea Day. Thirteen corporations, currently arc members of the coterie. Ihis is an increase of one during the year. The Friends are:Australian Defence Industries Rockwell Ship Systems

Ulohm and Voss

Stanilite Electronics

Computer Sciences of Australia

Thomson Sintra I'acific

GEC Marconi

Scientific Management Associates

Jeumont Schneider Division

Westinghouse Electric

Krupp Atlas Electromk Aus.

Ansett Australia

Nobel tech

The Vernon Parker Oration for 1991 was delivered by Commodore Too Chee Hcan. Chid of Navy, Republic of Singapore on 17 September. Although the numbers attending the Oration were reduced at the last minute by an untypical Canberra downpour, the Oration maintained the very high standards set for this event.

Tliere were several highlights in the year, but one of the most pleasurable was the dinner on Friday I November to honour Sir John Gorton and the Friends of the Institute. Sir John was the friend in high places the Navy needed in the late fifties, although few people nowadays seem to realise this. Perhaps the dinner was able to rectify the situation a little.

The state of the Chapters is a sorry story. The Melbourne Chapter is lorn between continuing at XMAS Cerberus or XMAS lonsdale or both. I have been advised by the Convenor. Commander Nckrasov. that he intends to close the chapter books and return them to the Council. I have assured him that when Melbourne again wishes to activate its chapter, or even host an Institute

Journal »i the Australian Naval Inanuie - February IW2

event, they will have the financial and moral support of the Institute.

I have written to a possible volunteer Convenor in Sydney and believe that a Sydney Chapter at XMAS Penguin will soon start up again. I hope so.

The Chief of Staff. New Zealand has agreed to the formation of a New Zealand chapter. The Council has offered to provide some financial support for the running of the Chapter and a deeission to proceed appears iminent.

The Way Ahead for the ANI

At last years Annual General Meeting, Ueutenant Commander Peter Jones and Lieutenant Tom frame presented a discussion paper on the way ahead for the ANI. 'I"here have hcen several developments on this subject during the year and I specifically invited several people, with interests in the advancement of maritime matters, here tonight. The response I got from them was very positive. I thank them for it and I hope the discussion which will follow later will be productive.

ANI Silver Medals

During the year ANI Silver Medals were presented to Squadron Leader T.C. De la HUNTY. for his paper titled "A Maritime Strategy in Support of Australia's Regional Foreign Policy for South Last Asia" and Senior Chaplain G.N. ADSETT, for his paper titled "Australia's Comprehensive Engagement with South East Asia". I congratulate both officers.

Financial Status

The financial strength of the Institute has improved dramatically of the past two years as the result of the financial suppon provided by the Friends. During this period I have moved from a position of deep concern about the financial viability of the Institute to one of optimism and great confidence for the future.

Public Officer

Capt. L.G. Fox RANEM has resigned as Public Officer for the Institute. Commodore A.X.R Breeht RANEM has agreed to take over. I thank both officers for their suppon.

The Council

1 wish to record my appreciation for the enthusiastic support I have received from the Councillors over the past few years. They have continued to come back for reelection and their efforts during a particularly busy year have gone unrecognised by all but a very few. This is unfortunate but with an increasing Institute profile I hope the situation will change.

I am about to step down as President. My term has given me great satisfaction. By establishing the Friends Coterie. 1 have seen the Institute placed on a sound financial footing and able to function effectively. With the degree of official support which I believe will be forthcoming in 1992.1 am very confident that during the coming year the Institute will be very successful in its endeavours to encourage and promote the advancement of knowledge related to the Navy and the Maritime profession.

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Guide for Authors


All leaders, whether members Of not, are invited to siibiiut articles (in publication Articles should ileal with interesting nseiil developments in maritime matters which have a direct or indirect In-snug on naval nutters I oiitribiitnais Iniin overseas arc welcome

Articles specially written ha lite AMI,and accompanied by a statement 10 that elicit, may lie eligible ha RUSH Ironi tunc to time.

I he I Jit. o reserves the right to re|ecl or amend articles tor pollination

Annies from 2500 to ftOtX) worrls are welcomed arid the Institute will pay fiat ongiual articles at $10 tor each lOOOworda published

Ling articles .should be subdivuled appropriately aral accotii(>anied by an abstract ol up to 75 words describing the BCOpv ol the article.

I In- Journal's established style is for impersonal, semi-forma I. prose. Where a published work, whether serial oi Ismk. is directly i|uiited. due as knowledgenient should be given Specific numbered relerenees should he used where appropriate and a suitable bibliography appended to the article

Illustrations, photographs, graphics etc.

While glossy black-and-white prints are preferred, colour prints with good contrast are often acceptable. Altai h i .iptioti

and other information to the back of the print with a small piece of tape. Aw idlh/heighl ratio ot about 5:4 is ideal I In

Editor likes to include a mix of vertically (portrait) and horizontally (landscape) oriented |ihoti>gr.qihs Tables, diagrams

and graphs should, tl complex, he carelully drawn in black on white paper and treated as photographs Simple tables can

lie reproduced m the typesetting process, but it is the authors responsibility to ensure the clarity ot the inlornialiou


The typescript

As much of the |oumal as possible is entered from computer disk ot via an optical scantier. Hie prelerred disk format is Macintosh Ian |xi(xilar MS-DOS packages are welcome . II in doula. sulmiit ASCII text format. The preferred typescript
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