Australian Heritage Database Places for Decision



Download 166.57 Kb.
Page1/4
Date02.06.2016
Size166.57 Kb.
  1   2   3   4

Australian Heritage Database
Places for Decision
Class: Historic


Identification

List:

National Heritage List

Name of Place:

Cascades Female Factory - Yards 1, 3, and Yard 4 South

Other Names:




Place ID:

105932

File No:

6/01/004/0038







Nomination Date:

26/07/2006

Principal Group:

Law and Enforcement

 




Status




Legal Status:

27/07/2006 - Nominated place

Admin Status:

09/08/2006 - Under assessment by AHC--Australian place

 




Assessment










Recommendation:

Place meets one or more NHL criteria

Assessor's Comments:




Other Assessments:

:

 




Location




Nearest Town:

South Hobart

   Distance from town (km):




   Direction from town:




Area (ha):

.5

Address:

8,16,18 Degraves St, South Hobart, TAS 7004

LGA:

Hobart City TAS

Location/Boundaries:
About 0.5ha, Degraves Street, South Hobart, comprising Land Parcels 1/202398, 1/229358 and 1/229260.

Assessor's Summary of Significance:
Cascades Female Factory is highly significant because of its association with the lives of convict women, its demonstration of the changing philosophies of punishment and reform as they relate to women and as a place of tremendous suffering and harsh treatment.  Convict women made a significant contribution to the development of the colonies.  They contributed through their labour and their presence enabled social cohesion and stability as they populated the colonies. Over half of the 25 000 convict women transported to Australia were sent to Van Diemen’s Land.  The majority of these spent some time at Cascades Female Factory as it was the primary site for the reception and incarceration of women convicts and was one of the colony’s longest running penal institutions operating from 1828 to 1856. 
Female factories were a unique colonial response to the management of convict women, one that reflects both moral and penal philosophies.  The factories were multifunctional but were intended largely for reform.  They operated as places of work, places of punishment, hiring depots and places of shelter for women between assignments and those who were sick, infirm or pregnant.  The high exterior walls surrounding Yards 1, 3 and 4 south remaining at Cascades Female Factory demonstrate the desire to isolate convict women from negative influences and in turn protect society from their corrupting influence.  The matron’s cottage at Yard 4 south demonstrates its function both as the residence of the administrator and a model for civil society.
Cascades Female Factory had a range of infrastructure associated with its different functions, most of which is now archaeological remains.  Yard 1 which was initially the full extent of the factory is thought to contain subsurface evidence of convict dormitories, twelve solitary cells, chapel, staff quarters, and separate courtyards and buildings for the nursery, hospital, kitchen and punishment, crime and hiring classes. 
The changing approaches to punishment and reform are demonstrated in the move from convict dormitories in Yard 1 to the solitary apartments in Yard 3 built in 1845 which survive as sandstone footings and sub-floor cavities.  Isolation from fellow convicts was considered in the time of the probation system to be conducive to repentance and reform.
Cascade Female Factory is highly significant as a site of great suffering.  Its appalling living conditions and excessively high infant mortality were the subject of numerous inquests and inquiries.  Unlike any other penal institution, the suffering fell disproportionately on children and poor women and was not the result of punishment regimes.  Although the causes of suffering and the management regimes are very different, it can be considered along with Norfolk Island as a place of harshness.
Cascades Female Factory as represented by Yards 1, 3 and 4 south is uncommon in its extensive sub-surface occupational deposits which reflect the evolution of the Female Factory, and the later phases of its use.  Yards 1, 3 and 4 south are largely unexcavated and have considerable archaeological and research potential.  There are also extensive documentary and pictorial collections associated with the site.  The archaeological potential along with the documentary and pictorial collections can significantly add to the knowledge and understanding of convict women and their children which is an emerging area of study and scholarship.  Cascades Female Factory is highly valued by community groups and historians as a place that reflects the significant story of convict women.  The absence of intact historic sites and fabric associated with convict women makes what remains at Cascade Female Factory very important.  The place has become an important catalyst for academic and community interest in the important role convict women played in the development of the colonies.  Cascades Female Factory site is also valued as important part of the wider story of women in Australia.
 

Draft Values:

Criterion

Values

Rating

A Events, Processes

Cascades Female Factory is highly significant because of its association with the lives of convict women, its demonstration of the changing philosophies of punishment and reform as they relate to women and as a place of tremendous suffering and inhumane treatment. 
 
Convict women made a significant contribution to the development of the colonies.  They contributed their labour and their presence was regarded as contributing to social cohesion and stability and they populated the colonies.
 
Over half of the 25 000 convict women sent to Australia were sent to Van Diemen’s Land, the majority spending some time at Cascades Female Factory as it was the primary site for the reception and incarceration of women convicts. It was one of the colony’s longest running penal institutions operating from 1828 to 1856. 
 
Female factories were a unique colonial response to the management of convict women, one that reflects both moral and penal philosophies.  The factories were multifunctional but were intended largely for reform.  They operated as places of work, places of punishment, hiring depots and places of shelter for women between assignments and those who were sick, infirm or pregnant. 
 
The high exterior walls surrounding Yards 1, 3 and 4 south remaining at Cascades Female Factory demonstrate the need to isolate convict women from negative influences and in turn protect society from their corrupting influence.  The matron’s cottage at Yard 4 South demonstrates its function both as the residence of the administrator and a model for civil society.
 
Cascades Female Factory had a range of infrastructure associated with its different functions, most of which is now archaeological remains.  Yard 1 which was initially the full extent of the factory is thought to contain subsurface evidence of convict dormitories, twelve solitary cells, chapel, staff quarters, and separate courtyards and buildings for the nursery, hospital, kitchen and punishment, crime and hiring classes. 
 
The changing approaches to punishment and reform are demonstrated in the move from convict dormitories in Yard 1 to the solitary apartments in Yard 3 built in 1845 which survive as sandstone footings and subfloor cavities.  Isolation from fellow convicts was considered in the time of the probation system to be conducive to repentance and reform.
 
Cascade Female Factory is highly significant as a site of great suffering.  Its appalling living conditions and excessively high infant mortality were the subject of numerous inquests and inquiries.  Unlike any other penal institution, the suffering fell disproportionately on children and poor women and was not the result of punishment regimes.  Although the causes of suffering and the management regimes are very different, it can be considered along with Norfolk Island as a place of harshness and inhumanity.
 

AT

B Rarity

Cascades Female Factory is rare as the only remaining female factory with substantial extant visible fabric. The remaining walls in particular evoke a sense of the isolation, control and harshness experienced by women convicts and their children.
 
Cascades Female Factory as represented by Yards 1, 3 and 4 south is also uncommon in its extensive sub-surface occupational deposits which reflect the evolution of the Female Factory, and the later phases of its use.
 

AT

C Research

Yards 1, 3 and 4 south are largely unexcavated and have considerable archaeological and research potential.  There are also extensive documentary and pictorial collections associated with the site.  The archaeological potential along with the documentary and pictorial collections can significantly add to the knowledge and understanding of convict women and their children which is an emerging area of study and scholarship.
 

AT

G Social value

Cascades Female Factory is highly valued by community groups and historians as a place that reflects the significant story of convict women.  The absence of intact historic sites and fabric associated with convict women makes what remains at Cascade Female Factory very important.
 
The place has become an important catalyst for academic and community interest in the important role convict women played in the development of the colonies.  Cascades Female Factory site is also valued as important part of the wider story of women in Australia.
 

AT

Historic Themes:

Nominator's Summary of Significance:
The Cascades Female Factory Historic Site (CFFHS) is a nationally significant symbol of Australia's female convict and pioneering past. Australia's female colonial history is an emotive and all too often trivialised part of the colonial system. It is often overlooked that punishment and retribution were applied to women and children in addition to its male charges and that women contributed strongly in pioneering the British colony in Australia, doing much of the physical work of homes, towns and farms, and bearing of the next generation. More than half the 25,000 women transported to Australia came to Van Diemen's Land, and most of these had a connection with the Cascades Factory either as a place of reception from ships, a place of punishment, or a hiring depot.

The CFFHS is significant in a national and international context as part of a major historic human migration movement which resulted from British colonial policy during the 19th century. In employing exiled penal labour as an occupational vanguard preceding more substantive free settlement, the British crown established a blueprint that allowed it to occupy and retain control of one of the largest colonial empires in history. The CFFHS should therefore be seen as a part of an internationally significant historic event that left a vast social and cultural legacy throughout the former colonial British Empire.

The CFFHS demonstrates many important facets of the Colonial penal system through its structural configuration and evolution over time including changing social attitudes during the convict period and subsequent end of transportation. The CFFHS forms part of a relatively small group of surviving sites dating from the formative convict period. Its role as a purpose built place for the incarceration of women and children increases its rarity and significance accordingly.

Within the Tasmanian context, the CFFHS was a long lived and pivotal centre of confinement for convicts and social outcasts (1828-1903). As such it figures prominently in the social history of Tasmania from which resident socially disenfranchised members came to be re-located and concentrated for administrative purposes. It can be seen as a major venue for understanding convict history generically in addition to the convict period development of Tasmania and the city of Hobart. The significance of the CFFHS is made more tangible by the well researched lives of the individual women and children who were incarcerated here and of their administrators, including Matron Mary Hutchinson who has a Nationally significant life story related to colonial female public service, female factories and Methodist missionaries in the Pacific.

The bleak nature of the CFFHS Courtyard 1 has strong aesthetic value. The low density historically cohesive nature of the surrounding residential area is an appropriate backdrop to the whole CFFHS. The presence of Mount Wellington and the adjacent Hobart rivulet provide an environment very reminiscent of those depicted in mid 19th century illustrations of the Female Factory. Likewise the 19th and early 20th century housing provide an additional but sympathetic addition to the contemporary vista surrounding the site. Collectively these elements ensure that the CFFHS retains a high degree of environmental authenticity.

The surviving physical evidence of the CFFHS also has exceptional implications for scientific and historical research and for cultural inspiration. Although the bulk of the site occurs below the ground, research to date has indicated that the archaeological resource survives to a high degree of integrity in all three yards. In addition, associated documentation consisting of prison records, photographs and artefacts has great potential to add to the site's capacity to impart an evocative and holistic story about the convict experience. Therefore, the value of the CFFHS for community education and cultural venue cannot be understated.

The CFFHS reflects much about gender in Australian (particularly colonial) society. Because of this association the site is of great social significance to contemporary Australian women. This is demonstrated by the enthusiasm and support for the Cascades Female Factory Historic Site by women's organisations and networks (research, support, cultural and social) both at a State and National level.

The association of the site with the Aboriginal woman 'Truganini' is highly significant in what it reflects of race relations in Tasmanian and the greater Australian `contact' history.

The Cascades Female Factory (CFFHS) is significant in a national and international context as part of a major historic human migration movement, which resulted from British colonial policy during the 19th century. In employing exiled penal labour as an occupational vanguard preceding more substantive free settlement, the British crown established a blueprint that allowed it to occupy and retain control of one of the largest colonial empires in history. The CFFHS should therefore be seen as a part of an internationally significant historic event that left a vast social and cultural legacy throughout the former colonial British Empire

The Cascades Female Factory demonstrates many important facets of the colonial penal system through its structural configuration and evolution over time, which reflects changing social attitudes during the convict period and subsequent end of transportation. As one of the earliest surviving facilities constructed in Van Diemen's Land, the Cascades Female Factory forms part of a relatively small group of surviving sites in public ownership dating from the early convict period. Its role as a purpose built place for the incarceration of women and children increases its rarity and significance accordingly.

The Cascades Female Factory was a long lived and pivotal centre of confinement for convicts and social outcasts (1828-1903). As such it figures prominently in the social history of the Hobart region from which resident socially disenfranchised members came to be concentrated for administrative purposes. It is a major venue for understanding convict history of Australia generically and the impact of convictism on subsequent historical and social development.

The Cascades Female Factory was not only a prison but also a factory, a hiring depot, and a nursery for the children of convict women. Its use as a female factory reflects the mid-19th century reform of the prison system in Britain, particularly as it affected women. The documentary and archaeological evidence of the CFFHS clearly demonstrate these changes in the Australian context.

After the end of transportation in 1853, the Cascades Female Factory was recycled as a welfare institution for various outcasts of society-lunatics; the chronically ill, aged and blind; paupers; boys under sentence; women giving birth to illegitimate children; and women deemed prostitutes and gaoled under the Contagious Diseases Act. Many of these groups who were substantially human legacies of the Colonial convict system. The succession of institutions at the site represents the whole journey from the penal oppression of convict times to late philanthropy and social control. The Cascades Establishment is one of the few historic places in Australia where such continuity can be easily traced through its development.

The Cascades Female Factory is one of only a few well documented female factory sites in Australia and is therefore a rare place which has an outstanding connection with the women's history in Australia in the early to mid 19th century. More than half the 25,000 women transported to Australia came to Van Diemen's Land, and most of these had a connection with the Cascades Factory either as a place of reception from ships, a place of punishment, or a hiring depot. Women contributed an important role in pioneering the British colony in Australia, doing much of the physical work of homes, towns and farms, and through their bearing of the next generation.

The site is one of the few in Australia with visible archaeological features from the early Female Convict Phase. It has proven extensive sub-surface occupational deposits relating to this and other phases of its use.

The integrity of the existing archaeological resource across all the Yards at the Cascade Female Factory and within associated nearby places offers a unique opportunity for material culture research to provide an eloquent insight into the convict experience.

In combination, the oral tradition, documentary evidence, collections, structures and archaeological features at the Cascades Female Factory have highly significant potential for community education.

The Cascades Female Factory Historic Site is an exceptional example of a 19th century Colonial Female Convict incarceration facility in Australia. Female transportation and incarceration and its management formed an important part of a broader punishment, probationary and emancipation themes associated with the initial settlement of both the Australian mainland and the island of Tasmania.

The Cascades Female Historic Site has significant visual and historical characteristics which inspire contemporary scholarship and culture. Examples include learned articles and literature in journals seminars, performances and art installations both on site and performed elsewhere .

Yard 1 of the Cascades Female Historic Site is an outstanding case of an historic place whose melancholy character enhances its social and historical significance; the aspect of the place is so bleak most of the year it serves to evoke a material reflection of the Western social policy, particularly as in relates to women, in the nineteenth century.

The low density and historically cohesive nature of the surrounding residential area is an appropriate backdrop to the Cascades Female Factory site which heightens the visitor experience. The presence of Mount Wellington and the adjacent Hobart rivulet provide an environment very reminiscent of those depicted in mid 19th century illustrations of the Female Factory. Likewise the 19th and early 20th century housing provide an additional but sympathetic addition to the contemporary vista surrounding the site. Collectively these elements ensure that the Cascades Female Factory retains a high degree of environmental authenticity.

The Cascades Female Factory begun c.1828, is the oldest prison designed, purpose built and administered solely for women which retains substantial significant built and archaeological fabric.

The site contains archaeological evidence of a range of convict cell types (flanking, single and alternating cells) varying greatly in design. The flanking cells used for solitary confinement in the First Yard were particularly rare in the history of prison design.

The association of the site with 'Truganini' is highly significant in what it reflects of race relations in Tasmanian and greater Australian contact history. Because of this association, the site is of considerable social significance to Tasmania's contemporary Aboriginal community.

The Cascades Female Factory is a nationally significant symbol of Australia's Female convict past, an emotive and all too often trivialised part of the colonial penal system that applied punishment and retribution to women and children in addition to its male charges.

The site reflects much about gender in colonial society. Because of this association, the site is of great social significance to contemporary Australian women and feminists. This is demonstrated by the enthusiasm shown for the Cascades Female Factory Historic Site by women's research, support and social organisations and networks both at a State and National level. For example the National Council of Women of Australia has formed a Committee for the Conservation of the Female Factory at Cascades.

The Female Factory at Cascades is a site of major significance in the history of Australian women. It represents many aspects of women's history - its role as a women's prison being only one of them. Both the fabric and the operation of the institutions which once operated on the site tell the story of the central relationships that made up the female convict experience including those: between women and the prison authorities, between women and men, between women and their children, with each other and between women and their masters.

The interment of the Tasmanian Aboriginal woman `Truganini' in Yard 1 for a period of two years prior to the removal of her remains, links that part of the Female Factory Site to post contact Aboriginal history and the less savory practices associated with 19th century British scientific profession and its impact on Indigenous Australia.

Mary Hutchinson (nee Oakes) was matron of the Cascade Female Factory from 1832 to 1851. Her life story is one which touches poignantly on the social history of women in early Australian colonial society including a childhood spent as daughter of the Superintendent at the Parramatta Female Factory; experience as a Methodist Missionary on Tonga in 1826 ?28, the loss of six of her children during infancy, and (following her long and controversial stint at Cascades Female Factory) an appointment in charge of the Launceston Female Factory until 1854 when she retired (transportation to Van Diemen's Land having ceased in 1853).

Yard 1 was designed by the noted Colonial Architect John Lee Archer. Archaeological investigations have revealed that his ground plan design was in fact implemented and the surviving sub surface archaeology of Yard 1 admirably expresses this.

There are further associations between the Cascade Female Factory and noted personages in Tasmanian and Australian history including Lieutenant Governor Sir John Franklin, Lady Jane Franklin, Sir Eardley Wilmot and Captain William Denison.

The Cascades Female Factory Historic Site is not nominated to the National Heritage List under this criteria at this time, although the site's Aboriginal heritage values may be found to have significance at a National level in the future.





Share with your friends:
  1   2   3   4




The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2020
send message

    Main page