The overall aim of the Māori Health Strategy, He Korowai Oranga, is Pae Ora or Healthy futures. Pae Ora is a holistic concept that includes three interconnected elements; whānau ora, wai ora and mauri ora. Further detail on He Korowai Oranga can be found here. Health indicators contained in the Māori Health Profiles are arranged according to these three elements. Whānau ora, healthy families, includes indicators of whānau wellbeing and support, participation in Māori culture and reo. Wai ora, or healthy environments, encompasses indicators on education, work, income, housing and deprivation. Mauri ora, healthy individuals, includes individual level indicators of health status. Mauri ora indicators are ordered according to life stage from pepi/tamariki to rangatahi then pakeke, and also a section on indicators that affect individuals of all ages.
The main data sources for this report are: the 2013 Census of Population and Dwellings, Te Kupenga 2013 (the Māori Social Survey), mortality registrations, public hospital discharges, cancer registrations, the national immunisation register, the community oral health service, the Health Quality and Safety Commission’s Atlas of Healthcare Variation, Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) Year 10 Snapshot Survey of tobacco smoking among 14 and 15 year olds, and data from the Well Child/Tamariki Ora Quality Improvement Framework indicators.
Most data are presented for Māori and non-Māori residents of Auckland DHB. Accompanying Excel tables also include data for the total Auckland DHB population and the total New Zealand population for reo speakers, socioeconomic indicators, mortality, cancer registrations, and hospital discharges.
The unequal distribution of the social determinants of health is an important driver of health inequities between Māori and non-Māori. Information from the 2013 Census on living conditions that influence health has been analysed by individual, household, and neighbourhood. A household was classified as Māori if there was at least one Māori resident. The 2013 NZ Deprivation Index was used for classifying neighbourhoods. The index combines eight dimensions of deprivation, including access to telecommunications and internet, income, employment, qualifications, home ownership, support, living space, and access to transport.
Māori models of health encompass cultural vitality and whānau wellbeing. Indicators of these dimensions of health have been included in these Profiles, sourced from Te Kupenga 2013, the Māori Social Survey conducted in 2013 by Statistics New Zealand (SNZ). Further information on Te Kupenga can be found here. Data from Te Kupenga is presented for Māori only.
Hospitalisation, cancer registration, and mortality rates and Census data were age–sex-standardised to the 2001 Māori population1.
Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for crude and age-standardised hospitalisation and mortality rates and ratios using the log-transformation method (Clayton and Hills 1993). Confidence intervals for data from Te Kupenga were calculated by Statistics New Zealand. Confidence intervals have not been calculated for data from other sources.
For ambulatory care sensitive admissions and admission rates for specific causes, transfers are only included as an admission if the principal diagnosis is not in the same diagnostic group as the initial admission.
Average numbers of events per year have been rounded to the nearest whole number.
Further technical notes and methods are provided in Appendix 2.