Asteroid Affirmative



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Impact Extensions



Sharing science and technology builds Russian and American relations—plan increases science to share diplomatically with Russia.

Turkeain and Wang, No Date [International Science and Technology Center, “Building an International Network of Knowledge” http://www.istc.ru/istc/istc.nsf/va_WebPages/ScienceDiplomacyEng mjf]



In the decades since the depths of the Cold War, scientists and engineers in the United States and Russia have built a special bond. As relations between their governments have shifted from acute tension to the thaw of détente to friendship and back to mutual wariness, our researchers have worked side-by-side on a range of successful projects. This cooperation has been critical in building and enhancing relationships that, while outside of the political realm, have helped to promote understanding and trust among the our people. And the relationships produced important science in fields ranging from physics, health, and space exploration to the development of Internet-based information-sharing networks and the control of nuclear proliferation. Today, the world is a vastly different place than it was 40 years ago, or even 10 years ago. Though tensions remain among countries, we no longer struggle with the strong polarization of national philosophies that characterized the Cold War. At the same time, common issues confront us on a global scale. The current financial crisis, international terrorism, the changing climate, and competition over energy supplies all show how interrelated we are. National leaders are ever more aware of the reality that solving these and other challenges will require the innovative power of science, engineering and technology. Russia’s leaders understand that, and U.S. President Barack Obama does, too. These developments suggest that science diplomacy is entering an important new era, and that, if it is employed to help nations share knowledge and seek common solutions, it can be a powerful force of prosperity and peace.
Science and technology developments, similar to the plan, are key to U.S.-Russia relations.

Turkeain and Wang, No Date [International Science and Technology Center, “Building an International Network of Knowledge” http://www.istc.ru/istc/istc.nsf/va_WebPages/ScienceDiplomacyEng mjf]



The Russia-U.S. relationship has tended to be bilateral, but as the world grows more interconnected, this will have to evolve. Nations on every continent are investing in science and research capacity: South Korea and China have been transformed, seemingly overnight, by investing in innovation. Cuba has become a world leader in biomedical research. Rwanda is wiring itself for the Internet, and has begun to distribute thousands of computers to its young students. Argentina, as it develops its capacity in biotechnology and nanotechnology, is building cooperative science relationships not just in Latin America, but with Europe, Africa and the Arab world. However different these nations are, each recognizes that science and technology will be the currency of the future; investments today will pay off in economic growth and societal development tomorrow. It is in this context that international science cooperation provides the opportunity to build bridges between countries, both through governments and through civil society relationships. To be most effective, such an approach needs commitment from all interested parties—not just scientists and engineers, but policy-makers, the foreign policy community, educators and the public.

**AFF Answers To**

AT U.N. CP



UN won’t do plan - historically doesn’t care, and would waste time debating about laws we haven’t signed

Sommer 05 (Doctorate in Policy Analysis at the Pardee Rand Graduate School. “Astronomical Odds A Policy Framework for the Cosmic Impact HazardPardee Rand Graduate School Dissertation Series. June 2005. EBSCOhost. TDA)

Chapter Two discussed past U.N. involvement in the NEO hazard issue. This has consisted of one co-sponsored conference devoted to the subject in 1995 and a passing mention included in the final declaration of the UNISPACE III conference in 1999. Should activities related to NEO mitigation gain momentum, it could be expected that issues associated with the militarization of space would become contentious. The U.N. forum for resolving these issues would be the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS), with its executive arm, the U.N. Office for Outer Space Affairs (OOSA), located in Vienna. COPUOS is the body responsible for interpretation of the “five treaties,” the international treaties that collectively form the basis of international space law. The U.N. Conference on Disarmament in Geneva has higher oversight over space militarization issues, however.20 Of the five treaties, the ones most relevant to the NEO impact hazard (specifically, interception of threatening NEOs) are the Outer Space Treaty (discussed in Chapter Two in connection with the use of nuclear devices or “warheads” in space) and the Liability Convention. The latter “provides that launching States are liable for damage caused by their space objects on the Earth’s surface” and could become relevant if an interception attempt(or experiment) results in fragments of a disrupted NEO impacting the Earth absent some type of “hold harmless” agreement.21 Should NEO resource exploitation (mining of asteroids and comets for their metal or mineral content) ever approach reality, the Moon Treaty would become relevant. This treaty sets up the basis for the future regulation of the exploration and exploitation of space resources. Although considered to be in force as a matter of international law, among the spacefaring nations only India has signed the treaty.22



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