CHERBURY, EDWARD HERBERT, LORD. See DEIBM, L, j 1.
CHERETHITES, ker'e thaits, AND PELETHTTES, pel'e thaits (Iieb. hakkerethi wehappelethij: The designation of the royal body guard of King David, commanded by Benaiah (II Sam. viii. 18, xv. 18, ax. 7, 23; I Kings i. 38, 44; I Chron. xviii. 17; called admatoiohylakes by Joeephus, Ant., VII. v. 4). The interpretations " executioners and runners " (Geeenius and others) and " bowmen and stingers " (Targum Jonathan, Peshitto) are not supported by etymological proof, and are inadmissible because the Hebrew forms are unquestionably gentilic nouns. The name " Cherethite " in the above passages is to be taken as in I Sam. xxx. 14 (cf. Zeph. ii. 5; Ezek. xxv. 16), where the reference is to the Philistine population, or at least to a part of the same. The connection of this people with the island of Crete is less certain, though it is easily possible that they were Cretans (see CaP=ox). The word Pelethi (" Pelethites ") seems to be an abbreviation of Peliahti (" Philistines "), intended to rime with Kerethi, and the two words taken together allude in a general way to the various elements of the Philistine population. There is nothing improbable in David's having a standing body guard wholly or chiefly of Philistines, subject to himself alone and reliable in times of civil strife. His attitude toward Ittai and his countrymen from Gath (II Sam. xv. 18 22, xviii. 2) shows that such relations with foreigners (even uncircumcised) were not found offensive, either from a national or a theocratic point of view. This body guard is not to be confused with the " mighty men " who constituted the native corps d'Blite (cf. II Sam. xx. 7).
Probably the royal body guard was popularly known as the " Cherethites and Pelethites " until long after David's time, though the appellation must soon have become inapplicable to the nationality of the guardsmen. In the time of Atbaliah mention is made of the " captains and the guard " (II Kings xi. 4, 19; Heb. hakkmri. weharazim, evidently formed after analogy with the old double name). The " guard " are the footmen and the accompanying halberdiers who ran before the king's chariot (II Sam. xv. 1; cf. I Sam. xxii. 17 and elsewhere). The " captains," however, are more correctly the " Carites " (cf. R.V.) or " Carians," and the passage shows that in a later period this adventurous people, who were often employed as mercenaries (cf. Herodotus, ii. 152, v. 111, Livy, xxavii. 40) had come to occupy in Jerusalem the place of the old Philistines. The Hebrew teat (kethibla) of II Sam. ss. 23 has karl (both English
versions follow the 4ri. in translating " Cherethitea "), perhaps by confusion with the later passage. The Great Cylinder Inscription of Sennacherib seems to indicate that Hezekiah had an Arabian body guard (cf. Sayce, Higher Criticism and the Monuments, pp. 431, 433, London, 1894). C. VON ORELLl.
BnHLI005APHT: The dissertations of Carpsov and Opits, still valuable, are in Uaolini, Thesaurus antiquitatum aacrarum, savii. 423 eqq., 451 eqq., 34 vole., Venice, 17441789. Consult also C. Iken, Dissertationae ylvilolopico theolopicos, pp. 111 132, Leyden, 1727; B. Behrend, Die %rsti and pled, Krotoeohin, 1888; $. R. Driver, Notes on the Hebr. Text of Samuel, London, 1890; R. Kittel, History of the Hebrews, 1153, 184, ib. 1898; DB, i. 378 377; EB, i. 739 740; Smith, OTJC, p. 282.
CHERUB. See ANGEL.
CHESHIRE, JOSEPH BLOUNT, JR.: Protestant Episcopal bishop of North Carolina; b. at Tarborough, N. C., Mar. 27, 1850. He was graduated at Trinity College, Hartford, Conn., in 1889, and after teaching for two years, studied law and was admitted to the North Carolina bar in 1872. He practised for six years, and then, having studied theology privately, was ordered deacon in 1878, and prieated two years later. He was curate at Chapel Hill, N. C., 1878 81, and was rector of St. Peter's, Charlotte, N. C., 1881 93. In the latter year he was consecrated bishop coadjutor of North Carolina, and within the year, on the death of Bishop Lyman, he became bishop of the diocese.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. $. Parry, The Episcopate in Ama^ica, p. 381, New York, 1895.
CHEYNE, ch8"ni', THOMAS BELLY: Church of England; b. at London Sept. 18, 1841. He was educated at Worcester College, Oxford (B.A., 1862), and also studied at the University of Gbttingen. He was ordered deacon in 1864, and ordained priest in the following year, and from 1868 to 1882 was fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, in addition to being a college lecturer on Hebrew and divinity in the same college from 1870 to 1871. He became rector of Tendring, Essex, from 1880 to 188; was Oriel professor of the interpretation of Scripture, Oxford 188Tr1908; became canon of Rochester 1885. He became a member of the Old Testament Revision Company in 1884, was Bampton Lecturer in 1889, and American Lecturer on the History of Religions in 1897 98. He is one of the leaders of the " higher criticism,, of the Bible in the Engliehepealdng world, sad in this spirit edited the Encyclopcedia Bt3lica in collaboration with J. S. Black (4 vo1s., London, 1899 1903). His independent works include, in addition to numerous contributions to standard works of reference, as well as to theological periodicals, Notes and Criticisms on the Hebrew Text of Isaiah (London, 1868); The Book of Isaiah Chronologically Arranged (1870; in collaboration with S. R. Driver); The Prophecies o f Isaiah (2 vole., 1880 81) ; Micah (1882) and Hoses (1884) in The Cambridge Bible ; Jeremiah in The Pulpit Commentary (1883 84); The Book of Psalms, a New Translation (1884); Job and .'~olomon (1887); Jeremiah, his Life and Times (1888); The Origin and Religious Contents of the Psalter (1891; the Bampton Lectures for 1889);
Aids to the Devout Study of Criticia»t (1892); Founders of Old Testament Criticism (1893); Introdttolion to the Book of Isaiah (1896); Book of Isaiah (critical text and translation) in the Polychrome Bible (2 vole., 1898 99); Jevrish Religious Life after the Exile (New York, 1898; American Isctures on the history of religions for 189? 98); The Christian Use of the Psalms (London, 1899); Critics Ba'blica (1904); Bible Problems and the New Materials for their Solution (1904); and Traditions and Beliefs of Ancient Israel (1P(YT).
CHEYNELL, FRANCIS: Puritan; b. in Oxford
1808; d. at Preston, near Brighton, Sussex, 1885.
He studied at Merton College, Oxford, and became
fellow; took orders and held a curacy near Oafosd
and a living near Banbury; on the outbreak of the
civil war he became an active partizan of the par
liamentary aide, and, as a reward for his services,
was given the living of Petworth, Sussex, in 1643.
He was a member of the Westminster Assembly
the same year. In 1848 parliament determined to
" reform "the University of Oxford and appointed
Cheynell one of a commission to " prepare the way,"
and the next year made him one of the visitors;
he is said to have been " the moat defeated as well
as the moat active slid meddlesome of all." In
1648 he took forcible possession of the Lady Mar
garet professorship of divinity and the presidency
of St.' John's College, but either resigned or was
removed in 1850. He was deprived of his living
some time before the general ejection of non con
forming ministers in 1862. He attended William
Chillingworth (q.v.) in his last illness, showing
himself " as charitable and compassionate as his
rigid orthodoxy would permit him to be " (Des
Maizeaux, Life of Chillingworth, p. 314): he refused
to officiate at the burial, but attended the cere
mony with Chillingworth's book in his hand, and
in the course of a bitter harangue threw it into
the grave, exclaiming, "Get thee gone, thou cursed
book; . . . rot with thy author and see corrup
tion." To justify his conduct he published Chil
lingworthi novissima, or the sickness, heresy, death,
and burial o f W. Chillingworth (London, 1664); he
also published The Rise, Growth, and Danger of
Socinianism (1643) and other works.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. g Wood, Afh8f1tu 0201tienCel, Ed. P. Bh&1, vol. ii., 4 vole., London, 1813 20; D. Neal, Hiat, of the Puritans, vol. iv., ib. 1738; DNB, x. 222 224.
CHICAGO LAMBETH ARTICLES. See FUNDAMENTAL DOCTRINEa OF CHBI$TIANITY, J 4; LAMBETH CONFERENCE.
CHIEMSEE, kf"em e5', BISHOPRIC OF: A bishopric of the modem Bavaria. Before the middle of the eighth century, a monastery was founded, probably from Salzburg, on an island in the Chiemsee, the largest lake of Bavaria. In 788 it was given by Charlemagne to the church of Metz, which retained possession of it till 891, when King Arnulf exchanged it for Luxeuil and presented it to Salzburg. The foundation of the bishopric was due to Archbishop Eberhard of that see (1200 48), and was confirmed by the Lateran Council in 1215
and by Innocent III. shortly after The extent of itx jurisdiction was only about eight miles by tour,
comprising the valleys of the Prien and the Achen
with their tributaries. The see was suppressed in
1807, in the process of reorganization of the Ba
varian Church. (A. HAUCS.)
BisLxoassrar: J. E. von Boch 8ternfeld, Beybdtpe our teutaehen Lander , . and SVaaten Kunde, ii. 289 314,
3 vola., Munich, 1826 33; Iiettberg, KD, ii. 243; Hauck,
KD, ii. 482, iv. 655, 924; KL, iii. 134 137.
CHILDREN'S BIBLES. See BIBLES FOR CHILDREN.
CHILDREN'S COMMUNION. See LOitD'a SuFPER, V.
CHILDREN'S DAY, CHILDREN'S SERVICES.
See SurrDAy acaooLS AND CHILDREN'S SERVICES.
CHILE: A republic of South America, bounded on the north by Peru, on the east by Bolivia and Argentina, on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; area, 307,620 square miles; population, 2,712,150 by census of 1895, estimated in 1903 at 3,205,992. The Indiana number about 50,000.
The predominant religion is Roman Catholic. An active missionary propaganda, in which Franciscans and Jesuits were especially zealous, began immediately after the Spanish conquest under Valdivia in 1539 41, from the town of Santiago i (founded 1541) as a base. The heroic resistance of the Araucanians, the ruling native people, prevented extensive results till late in the seventeenth century. The period of separation from Spain began in 1810 and ended in 1827, when the Spanish garrisons were finally withdrawn. The present ecclesiastical organization includes the archdiocese of Santiago of Chile (founded 1561, raised to archiepiscopal rank in 1840) and the dioceses of Conception (1363), Ancud (1840), and La Serena (1840). The vicariates apostolic of Antofagasta (for Chile and Bolivia) and Tarapac4. (for Chile and Peru), and the prefecture of Araucania have been established in recent years. There is an apostolic delegate and envoy extraordinary.
The Roman Catholic religion is legally recognized as " protected " (protetta) by the State, and the Church receives an annual subsidy of about one million pesos. Freedom of religious confession, however, is granted. Plans of the curia concerning the relations between the Church and non Catholics and educational affairs led to a difference with the government in 1883; nevertheless President Balmaceda maintained the provisions respecting complete tolerance of Protestant worship, and state promotion of higher instruction. One consequence was the founding of a Catholic University at Santiago in 1889; beside which the State University (founded by the Jesuits, 1743) with five faculties is still active.
Primary instruction is not uniform, and school attendance is not compulsory; private, parochial, and public schools exist aide by side for both white children and Indiana; approximately 1,960 schools are maintained. by public funds as against somewhat over 500 by other arrangements. The State also provides for several normal schools. There is evidence of a noteworthy expansion of secondary schools for boys and girls, and the management and equipment are good; a state peda
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
gogical institute for this branch of education is in operation at Santiago. Higher education is served, apart from the university, by an Academy of Art, a Conservatory, and an Institute for Agriculture and Mining.
Immigration has given rise to a number of considerable congregations of the Anglican Church and of the Presbyterian confession, and a German Evangelical Church " of the country." The former are found especially in Valparaiso, Santiago, Conception, Iquique. The fourteen German Evangelical congregations are not yet completely coordinated by synodical union, but they have everywhere an assuring support in the way of German schools, even though moat of these are not strictly associated with the Church. The German total is estimated at 12,000; that of English speaking Protestants at 7,000.
Breraoossrax: Mrs. M. R. Wright, Republic of Chile,
Philadelphia, 1905; d. T. Medina, Los Aborigines de Chile, Santiago, 1882; C. Oeheenius, Chile. Load and Leute, Leipaie, 1885; H. Kunz, Chile and die deutachen Rolonien, Leipeic, 1891; A. U. Hancock, A Iliat. of Chile, Chicago, 1893.
CHILIASM, kil'i azm. See MILLErnvIUm, MILLENARIATTISM.
CHILLIIYGWORTH, WILLIAM: Church of England; b. at Oxford Oct., 1602; d. at Chichester Jan. 30, 1644. He became a scholar of Trinity College, Oxford, 1618 (B.A., 1620; M.A., 1623; fellow, 1628). He entered heartily into the theological controversies of the time, and, undertaking to argue against a Jesuit at Oxford (John Percy, but known as John Fisher), became himself a convert to Romanism and went to Douai in 1630; here he attempted to write. out the reasons for his change of faith with the result that he wavered, returned to Oxford in 1631, and in 1634 declared himself again a Protestant. He seems to have been influenced by a longing for authority and certainty; the apparently firmer foundation offered by the Church of Rome proved delusive; and then he settled upon Scripture interpreted by reason. Some of the claims of the Church of England seemed to him unreasonable, and he declined to take orders. His great work was called forth by a controversy between a Jesuit, Matthias Wilson (alias Edward Knotty, and Dr. Christopher Potter, provost of Queen's College, Oxford, as to whether Protestants could be saved. Three books had already appeased when Chillingworth entered the contest (Charity Mistaken, 1630, and Mercy and Truth, 1634, by the Jesuit; Want of Charity Justly Charged, 1633, by Dr. Potter). His work, after being examined and approved by the vice chancellor of Oxford and two divinity professors, appeased at Oxford in 1638 with the title The Religion of Protestants to Safe Way to Salvation : or do Answer to a Book entitled Mercy and Truth. A second edition was necessary within five months, and a host of answers and criticisms was called forth, from Puritans as well as Roman Catholics. It is a defense of Protestantism, which, he says, he understands to be not " the doctrine of Luther, or Calvin, or Melanchthon; nor the confession of Augusta [Augsburg], or
Geneva; nor the catechism of Heidelberg, nor the articles of the Church of England; no, nor the harmony of Protestant confessions; but that wherein they all agree, and which they all subscribe with a greater harmony as a perfect rule of their faith and actions, that is, the BIBLE. The BIBLE, I say, the BIBLE only is the religion of Protestants " (part i., chap. vi., sec. 56). He argues strongly for fry inquiry, and denims that any church is infallible. Concerning the Church of England he declares that he believes its doctrine " no pure and orthodox that whosoever believes it, and lives according to it, undoubtedly he shall be saved; and that there is no error in it which may necessitate or warrant any man to disturb the peace or renounce the communion of it. Thin, in my opinion, in all intended by subscription " (preface, sec. 40). This being acceptable to the bishops, in 1638 Chillingworth was made chancellor of Salisbury with the prebend of Brixworth in Northamptonshire annexed. He took the royalist side in the contest between king and parliament, and wrote against " rebels "; became chaplain in the royal army and was taken prisoner at Arundel Castle in Dec., 1643; being ill at the time, he was taken to Chichester, where his death was hastened, as was believed by his friends, by the injudicious efforts of the Puritan Francis Cheynell (q.v.) to convert him.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Chillingworth's minor writings were published in 1887 under the title Additional Discourses, the beet edition of his Works is that of Oxford, 1838, 3 vole.; a Historical sad Critical Account of the Life and Writinpa of William Chrollingworfh by P. Des Maizeaux appeared in London, 1725; and his Life by Thomas Birch was prefixed to the tenth folio edition of his Works (1742), reprinted in the edition of 1838. Cf. DNB, a. 2~5~2 257.
CHIMERE'. SEE VESTMENTS AND INSIGNIA, ECCLESIASTICAL.
I. Native Religions.
i. Confuoisniam. Confucius (11). The Teaching of Confucius (4 2). ' its Defects (5 3).
2. Taoism. Origin and Chsraoterietica (¢ I). Superstition of the Chinese (§ 2).
b. Chinese Beets. II. Christian Missions.
1. Nestorian Missions.
2. Roman Catholic Mis.. eiona.
China forma the southeastern part of the Chinese empire, is from 1,300,000 to 1,500,000 equate miles in extent, and has a population of perhaps 375,000,000. Its capital is Peking. The name "China"is often loosely used for the entire empire, which includes, besides China proper, Manchuria, Mongolia, East Turkestan, and Tibet. The governmental authority in large districts is purely nominal, and for this reason and owing to the encroachments of European powers, the boundaries and area are uncertain and fluctuating. The extent is given an about 4,200,000 square miles, and
The FArliest Period (11). The Second Period (§ 2).
The Modern Period (¢ 3).
The First Period, to 1842 (¢ 1).
The Second Period, 18421$80 (§ 3)
The Third Period, 1880189b (¢ 3).
The Fourth Period, from
1895 (¢ 4).
General Features. Christina Literature (¢ b).
Various Forma of
Work (f s).
a late estimate of the population (admittedly very uncertain) is 425,000,000.
I. Native Religions: In speaking of the "religions " of the Chinese it is always necessary to point out that not only does the Chinese language contain no such word as " religion " in the sense of a relation between God and man, but there has never been any equivalent to this idea in the minds of the Chinese people. The teaching of the Sages, which are ethical as distinguished from religious, are grouped under the term " instruction." To " worship the gods " means also to pay one's respects.
1. Confucianism: Confucius (q.v.) was a teacher and a philosopher who wished to reform his native state by a return to the past. At the
1. Con age of fifty five he became an official,
thoins. but his morals were too pure and his aims too lofty to make him successful and he retired in disgust to private life. His great work was the instruction of his pupils, who are said to have numbered 3,000, seventy two of whom are enrolled among the Sages of the empire. They gathered up his sayings in a kind of Memorabilia which for ages has been a text book in every Chinese school. Confucius edited the books already reckoned as classical, but added comparatively little of his own, his most important work being a bald compendium of Chinese history covering about 240 years, including his own lifetime. Through I the use of them as text books his comments on the Book of Rites, the Book of Poetry, the Book of History, and the Book of Changes, together with the Memorabilia, have probably exerted more influence upon a greater number of human beings than any other writings in the history of mankind. The Book of History should be especially mentioned, which, as Dr. Williams remarks, " contains the needs of all things that are valuable in the estimation of the Chinese it is at once the foundation of their political system, their history, and their religious rites, the basis of their tactics, manic, and astronomy."
Although while he lived his precepts were neglected, Confucian began to be appreciated ai'ter he was dead, and has long been regarded by the Chinese as a perfect Sage (otherwise called " Holy Man "), to whom there is a temple in every city, where there are. annual offerings of animals and of silk. The ornamental portals inform the passer by that his " Virtue Equaled Heaven , and Earth," which is tantamount to his deification. In the words of Dr. Legge. " The homage which is offered to the Master could not be more complete were he Shang Ti himself." hl Bt19ki11g contrast with this universal estimate of the Chinese people is that of
Confuaua himself in such modest eenteneen as the following: " The Sage and the man of perfect virtue how dare I rank myself with them? It may simply be said of me that I strive to become such without satiety, and to teach others without weariness. In letters I am perhaps equal to other men; but the character of the Superior Man,
carrying out in his conduct what he professes, is what I have not attained to. The leaving virtue without proper cultivation: the not thoroughly
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 30
discussing what is learned; not being able to move toward righteousness of which knowledge is gained; and not being able to change what is not goodtheae are the things which occasion me solicitude. I am not one who was born in possession of knowledge; I am one who is fond of antiquity, and earnest in seeking it. A transmitter, and not a maker, believing in and loving the ancients." This latter trait of the Master has been perpetuated in the Chinese people, whose face has for more than two millenniums continued to be turned to the peat. Aside from the voluminous works which constitute the Chinese classics, a view of what is for convenience comprehensively termed Confucianism must take account of the standard interpretation of these works by Chu Hsi, a highly distinguished scholar of the Sung dynasty (1130 1200 A.D.), whose commentaries on the classical works have for centuries formed the recognized standard of orthodoxy.
Like all other complex systems of human thought, Confucianism is many aided. But its essence is expressed in the " Five Constant The Virtues " of Benevolence, Righteous