CHAUTAUQUA INSTITUTION r An institution on Chautauqua Lake (poet office, Chautauqua, N. Y.), founded in 1874 se a Sunday school teachers' normal institute by John H. Vincent, now retired bishop in the Methodist Church, and by Lewis Miller of Akron, O. Within four years there developed a complete system of popular education, the main features of which have survived to the present day.
The activities of the institution center primarily about a summer assembly conducted on the institution ground for eight weeks from late June to late August. At this assembly two main educational features are carried on side by side. A series of summer schools hex been evolved which divides itself into two main groups: the first the academic courses or schools including the English language and literature, modern languages, classical languages, mathematics and science, psychology and pedagogy, and religious teaching. The eecondthe professional schools includes library training, domestic science, music, arts and crafts, expression, physical education, and practical arts. The work in these schools is carried on for six weeks (JulyAugust) and is conducted by a faculty of some ninety instructors from universities, colleges, and normal schools from the Atlantic Coast to the Middle West and the Far South. The second systematic scheme for general education is promoted by means of a popular programme which includes during the season over three hundred lectures, readings, concerts, and entertainments.
Besides the two divisions of the summer schools and public programme, Chautauqua Institution shows its sense of responsibility toward visitors through an established aeries of clubs which makes place for Chautauquans of all ages from the kindergarten child to the members of the men's and women's clubs. Of these different organisations, five the Kindergarten, the Girls' Club, the Boys' Club, the Athletic Club, and the Men's Club now have their own well equipped and centrally located buildings.
The work of the Institution, however, does not cease with the close of the summer assembly, for through the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle large numbers of people are reached throughout the year by means of a regular series of university extension readings. Four books are prepared yearly for the course and The Chautauqua,,, a monthly magazine, supplements the lines of thought developed in the text books. The activity of the Reading Circle is directed and systematized by the adoption of a succession of years the American Year, English Russian Year, FrancoGerman Year, and Classical Year; by reading for four years a person passes through the series and qualifies himself for the certificate of completion of the course. During 1905 07 registration in the summer schools averaged 2,485, the total attendance at the assembly each summer was somewhat over 50,000,
and the total membership for the Reading Circle from the beginning to 1907 approximated 270,000.
The plan of Chautauqua Institution is extensive,
but constantly developing. On the tract of nearly
three hundred acres a town with some five hundred
cottages has sprung up. An amphitheater seating
five thousand, a hall of philosophy with a capacity
of eight hundred, and a doses smaller halls and class
buildings provide amply for the various classes and
audiences. The Institution holds a charter from
the State of New York whereby no element of
private profit is permitted. It owns its own light
ing and water plants and its own printing estab
lishment, and performs all the functions of an
ordinary town although upon a system of govern
ment which is entirely unique. The Extension
Department circulates each year over a million
pieces of matter, and the number of assemblies
more or less similar in nature which all owe their
stimulus to the original Chautauqua aggregates
nearly three hundred. P. H. BoYNmorr.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. H. Vincent, The Chautauqua dfousment,
Boston, 1888; C. A. Teal, Counting the Coet; or, a Sum
mer at Chautauqua, New York, 1889; F. C. Bray, Reading
Journey throuoh Chautauqua, Chautauqua, 1906 (on the
system of instruction).
CHAVASSE, sha"vas', FRANCIS JAMES: Anglican bishop of Liverpool; b. at Edgbaston (a suburb of Birmingham) Sept. 27, 1$46. He studied at Christ Church, Oxford (B.A., 1889), and was curate of St. Paul's, Preston (1870 73), vicar of St. Paul's, Upper Holloway (1873 78), and rector of St. Peterle Bailey, Oxford (1878 89). He was then principal of Wycliffe Hall, Oxford, in 1889 1900, and in the latter year was consecrated bishop of Liverpool. He was select preacher at Oxford in 1$881889 and 1901 02, and at Cambridge in 1893 and 1902, and was also lecturer in pastoral theology in the latter university in 1898.
CHEDORLAOMER. See BASyroirre (vol. i., p. 407, foot note); IeaaEr., HreTOSy or, I.
CHEETHAM, SAMUEL: Anglican archdeacon and canon of Rochester; b. at Hambleton (20 m. n.e. of Leicester), Rutlandshire, Mar. 3, 1827; d. at Rochester July 19, 19(1&. He was educated at Christ's College, Cambridge (B.A., 1850), became deacon in 1851, and priest in 1852. He was vioeprincipal of the Collegiate Institute, Liverpool, in 1851 53, and from 1853 to 1858 was assistant tutor of Christ's College, where he was also fellow from 1850 to 1886. He was curate of Hitchin, Harts, in 1888 61, vice principal of the Theological College, Chichester, and curate of St. Bartholomew's in the same city in 186i 63 and professor of pastoral theology in King's College, London, from 1863 to 1882. He was also chaplain of Dulwich College from 1886 to 1884 and archdeacon of Southwark from 1879 to 1882. In the latter year he was made archdeacon of Rochester, and hoe also been canon of the same cathedral since 1883, as well as examining chaplain to the bishop of Rochester from 1$78 to 1897. He was Hulsean lecturer at Cambridge in 1898. In theology he is a Broad churchman. In addition to numerous minor contributions, he has written The Law of the Land and the Law of the mind (Lon
Choke THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 24
don, 1866); Colleges and Tests (1871); A History
of the Christian Church during the First Six Cen
same, Since the Reformation (1908);
The Mysteries, Pagan and Christian
tures for 1896,1897); MediawalGreek History (1899).
He likewise edited the Dictionary of Christian An
tiquities (2 vole., London, 1875 80) with Sir William
Smith, and contributed a large number of articles
CHEgE, SIR JOHN: English scholar; b. at
Cambridge June 16, 1514;
d. in London Sept. 13,
He studied at St. John's, Cambridge, and
adopted the Reformation doctrines there; became
one of the first Greek scholars in England, and in
1540 regiua professor at Cambridge; in 1544 was
made tutor to Prince Edward, and when the latter
succeeded to the throne, in 1547, received honor
and wealth. He espoused the cause of Lady Jane
Grey, was her secretary of state, and was com
mitted to the Tower by Mary in 1553; released the
next year, he went abroad and settled at Strasburg.
In 1556 he visited Belgium, was arrested there by
order of Philip IL, and taken to England; through
fear of dying at the stake he renounced the Protes
tant religion, and his death is said to have been
hastened by shame and regret for his weakness.
He made an English translation of the Gospel of
Matthew (all but the last ten verses) and of the
first twenty verses of the first chapter of Mark,
with notes (ed., with seven of his letters, James
Goodwin, London, 1843), to illustrate a notion he
had about " reform " in English spelling and to
show that it was possible to use only Saxon words;
he edited and translated into Latin some of the
homilies of Chrysoatom; also Cranmer'a treatise
upon the Eucharist (1553) and wrote some other
tracts; of special interest is The Hurt of Sedition,
how grievous it is to a Commonwealth (1549).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. 8trype, Life of the Learned Sir John
Oxford, 1821 (contains a tranal, of Cheke's " Trea
tise of Superstition "); an account of the Life is also added
to G. Langbsine'a ed. of The True Subject to the Rebell,
Oxford, 1841. For his Gospel tranal. consult J. I. Mom
bert. English Versions of the Bible, pp. 234 237, London,
new ed., 1908.
CHEMMTZ (gEMIUTZ), MARTIK.
Pretheologieal Activity (§ 1). Work as a Theologian (§ 2).
Share in the Formula of Concord (§ 3).
Part in the Adiaphoriat Controversy (§ 4).
Polemics against the Roman Catholics (§ 6). Evaluation of Chemnits (§ 8).
German theologian and controversialist of the Reformation period; b. at Treuenbrietzen (35 m. a.w. of Berlin), Brunswick, Nov. 9, 1522; d. at Brunswick Apr. 8, 1586. The death of his father when he was a boy made attainment of education difficult; he was at the Magdeburg school from 1539 to 1542, and then earned money enough by teaching to go to the University of Frankfort onthe Oder for a time, and in 1545 to that of Wittenberg. Here he came into contact with Melanchthon, on whose advice he took up mathematics, which led him to astrology. These studies consumed so much time that he paid little heed to Luther's teaching, though he heard him. The outbreak of war took him away from Wittenberg; in 1547 he
settled at Konigaberg and supported himself by
teaching some young Polish noblemen, becom
ing later rector of the school at Kneip
1:. Pre hof. He still pursued his astrological
theological studies, until on a visit to Wittenberg
Activity. he was advised by Melanchthon to
turn his attention to theology. The
plague put au end to his school work, and he ac
companied Melanchthon's son in law Sabinua to
Salfeld, where he laid the foundation of his theo
logical learning. In 1550 he returned to Kdniga
berg, where the duke, who esteemed him as an
astrologer, made him his librarian. He was now
convinced of the insecure foundations of astrology,
and devoted himself systematically to theology,
studying the Bible in the original, the Fathers, and
the controversial writers of the time. The dis
turbances stirred up by Osiander's controversy on
justification made him uncomfortable at Kbniga
berg, and in 1553 he returned to Wittenberg, where
he lectured for a time; but in the following year
went to Brunswick to settle permanently, as coad
jutor to the superintendent, becoming superin
tendent himself in 1567 and holding the post until
1584, when he resigned on account of
z. Work his health. He was not noted as a
as a preacher, but he was a diligent and
Theologian. methodical pastor. The continuance
of his studies, however, made him
known rather as one of the first theologians of his
time, and he was called upon to take part in every
controversy. In 1567 he went with his superior
Mbrlin to Prussia to reorganize the Church there,
distracted by the divisions over Oaiander's teaching,
and the Corpus dodrince Prutenicum was the result.
He rendered still more important services in the
principality of Brunswick Wolfenbiittel, where, in
1568, Duke Julius summoned him, with Andrea,
to assist in establishing Protestantism. The docu
mentary results of his work here, and at Luneburg
with Duke William, remain in . the Corpus doo
trino; Julium and the Corpus Wilhelminum. He
also gave the impulse to the founding of the Julian
University at Helmatadt in 1576. The later years
of his life were largely taken up by work connected
with the Formula of Concord (q.v.). Its final
acceptance, in spite of all difficulties, was largely
due to the untiring work of Chemnitz. Before this,
however, he had the misfortune to fall out with
Duke Julius, whom he rebuked sharply for having
his son consecrated bishop of Halberstadt with
all the rites of the old Church. The Protestant
princes who were working for the
3. Share adoption of the Formula omitted on
is the For this account to invite the duke to their
mule of conferences at Juterbock, and he de
Concord. clined to have anything further to do
with their undertaking. Thus the
Formula was not definitely accepted in Brunswick,
and the Corpus Julium remained the standard
there, as at the University of Hehnatadt, which thus
assumed an isolated position ultimately favorable
to the growth of the doctrines of a Calixtus. Chem
nitz wrote a defense of the Formula against its
critics, which was published at Magdeburg in 1582.
This the Hehnatadt theologians attacked, eape
26 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA abets
cially on the ground of its containing the doctrine of ubiquity, and a conference was called at Quedlinburg by the three electors and Duke Julius to reconcile the differences. Chemnitz made his last important public appearance at this meeting, but could not prevail. His death was felt as a public calamity by all Protestant Germany.
His first participation in the disputes of the time was occasioned by the Adiaphorist controversy (see ADIAPHORA), at the instance of Morlin, who was a steadfast Lutheran. He was next moved to utterance on the question of the Lord's Supper by the fact that Zwinglianism had found an entrance into Brunswick. He was not present at the conference held there in 1561 by MSrlin against Hardenberg, the principal representative of this doctrine in northern Germany, but sent a treatise
which contributed to Hardenberg's ;. Part in condemnation. In the same year he
the Adi published a more complete and sys
aphorist tematic Repetitio cans; doctrine' de
Contro vera Pra'sentia, in which, avoiding
versy. dogmatic subtleties, he rests his be
lief in the real presence on the plain
sense of the words of institution. In 1570 he went
on to treat directly of the Incarnation, which then
(exactly contrary to the logical sequence of the
early Church) was treated as dependent on the
eucharistic controversy, in his De duahus naturis
in Christo, etc. Soon afterward he declared against
Crypto Calvinism. (see PHILIPP18T8) in two forcible
expressions of opinion on the Wittenberg Cate
chism, which influenced the action of the authorities
in Brunswick and Lower Saxony.
But he was even better known through his polemics against the Roman Catholic Church and the Jesuits. The latter in 1560 had published in Cologne, where they were strong, a criticism of a Protestant catechism. This was the first literary onslaught of theirs to attract general attention in Germany, and Chemnitz was the first to take it up and warn people. of the danger from the Order. His counterblast was entitled Theologia! Jesuitarum prcecipua capita (1572). Payva d'Andrada (q.v.), a Portuguese Jesuit and member of the Council of Trent, published two works in rejoinder (1564),
the first of which came into Chemg. Polemics nitz's hands together with the decrees
Against of the Council, to which it appealed.
the This seemed to him to open the way
Roman for a more thoroughgoing work, and
Catholics. gave him the idea of his famous
Examen concilii Tridentini. (1565 73), than which no book of the period was more damaging to the Roman claims. It ran through numerous editions, and was translated into German and French; a modern edition was brought out by Preues (Berlin, 1861). His dogmatic standpoint is indicated not only in these polemical works, but in the Loci theologici, commenting on Melauchthon's Loci, which, left uncompleted by him, his successor Leyser and his son published in 1591. Here, without directly contradicting Melanchthon, he interprets him in a tone of moderate Lutheran orthodoxy, attempting to work out a consistent integral body of doctrine, and to show its relation
to the Christian life. Leyser also edited and published his incomplete exegetical works, the Harmonic evangelica and the Postilla oder Auslegung der Evangelien, in 1593.
Chemnitz's mind was not of the creative order; but it was just what was needed for his time, following upon an age of productivity, when systematization and confirmation were the great requirements. He took a middle
6. Evalua course among the parties of the age;
tion of strongly influenced as he had been Chemnitz. by Melanchthon, his doctrine leaned more to strict Lutheranism, and the Philippists (q.v.) upbraided him as an apostate. Sober discretion characterized both his writings and his practical work. He was suspicious of innovations, exhorting his readers to " hold fast the form of sound words," and never going to the extremes of the younger Lutheran school. His practical cast of mind shows itself in his theology, which is never merely speculative, but occupied rather with laying down serviceable and unquestionable formulas. His life, taken as a whole, must certainly be pronounced a blessing to the Church he served so long. (Joaaisltra Kl>NZE.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The beet source for a life is J. Rehtmeyer, Der berfihmten Stadt Braunechweip Hirdsqq., Brunswick, 1710. Other sources are the letters of Chemnits in the library of the University of GBttingen, and J. Gasner, Oratio de vita, atudiia et otwtu M. Chemnitii [Brunswick], 1588 Other accounts are' T I'reasel Martin Chemnita, Elberfeld. 1882; C. G. H. Lents, Dr. Martin Chemnitz, Gotha, 1888 (uses M&9. sources); H. Hachfeld, Martin Chamnitz. Leipsic, 1887 (also based partly on unprinted sources): R. Mumm, Die Pdemik den M. Chamnits gepen daa Konzil von Trent, Leipeie, 1905; Schaff, Christian Church, vii. 801.
CHEMOSH : The national god of the Moabites according to the Old Testament, confirmed by the Moabite Stone (q.v.); by the Moabitish names Kam2isvaaadbi. (ie., Chemoshnadab, cf. the Hebr. Jehonadab), mentioned as a king of Moab in an inscription of Sennacherib (" Taylor Cylinder," II. 53; H. Zimmern, in Schrader, RAT, p. 472), Chemoshmelek (or Chemoshgad), the father of Mesha (Moabite Stone, 1), and Chemoshyehi, upon a gem with Phenician inscription found at Beirut and probably Moabitiah (E. Reran, Mission de Phknicie, Paris, 1864, pp. 351 352; De VoAii6, M& langes d'arch6dogie orientate, Paris, 1868, p. 89). The name may possibly be found also in one or two other inscriptions (VP. Geaenius, in Scriptures linguceqtte P)usrticice monuments, Leipaie, 1837, p. 159; P.Le Bas and W. H. Waddington, Inscriptions greeques et Wines reeueillies en Grtace et en Asie Mineure, iii. 1, Paris, 1870, n. 2220). In Judges Id. 24 Chemosh is spoken of apparently as god of the Ammonites; but elsewhere in the Old Testament the Ammonitish god is called Milcom (related to Molech) (I Kings xi . 5, 7, 33; II Kings xxiii.13), and there is reason to believe that the passage Judges xi. 12 28 is an interpolation and originally referred to the Moabites (cf. the commentaries on judges). The etymology of Chemosh is uncertain. Concerning the character of the god and his worship not much is known. His priests are mentioned, and an image of him (which was to be carried away as a trophy by enemies) is implied in Jer. xlviii. 7 (cf.
ahiens.ee THE NEW BCHAFF HERZOG
verse 13); the expression "Chemoeh said to me "
(Moabite Stone, 14, 32) indicates prophets or an
oracle; he was worshiped at a " high place "
(I Kings xi. 7; Iea. xvi. 12; II Kings xxiii. 13; Moab
ite atone, 3) and, at least in extreme cases, his cult
included human sacrifice (II Kings iii. 27; of.
Moabite Stone, 14 17). The expression "Ashtar
Chemosh " (Moabite Stone, 17) probably indicates
that a female deity was associated with Chemosh;
it is thought by some, however, that Ashtar is an
other name for Chemosh and that the compound
"Aahtar Chemoeh" is formed like Yahweh Elohim
(cf. F,. Meyer, in ZDMG, vol. xxxi., 1877, p. 733;
F. Baethgen, Beitrdtge zur semitisehen Religionage
achichte, Berlin, 1888, pp. 13 eqq.; G. A. Barton,
A Sketch of Semitic Origins, New York, 1902, pp.
141 144). Chemosh was worshiped by the idola
trous Israelites (I Kings xi. 7, 3 , II Kings sxiii.
13). The similarity of the language applied to
Chemosh, both in the Old Testament and in the
Moabite Stone, to that used of Yahweh is very
striking. The Moabites are the " people of Che
mosh," his sons and daughters he "gives into cap
tivity " (Num. xxi. 29; of. Jer. xlviii. 46); Che
mosh gives possessions (Judges xi. 24 ). In the Moabite
Stone Chemosh is the lord and protector of Moab;
he commanded Mesha to go to war (14, 32) and
gave the victory (4, 19); the slaughter of his ene
mies was a "pleasing spectacle for Chemosh " (11
12); because he was " ° angry with his land " Che
mosh allowed Omri to oppress 'Moab (b). See
Moos, and for the inscription, Moesrrs: STONE.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Besides the works already mentioned and those referred to in the article Moearrm &roxa, consult: D. Heckmann, Ds Chemoecho Moabitarum iddo. Bremen. 1730; F. C. Movers, Die PAenizier, i. 334 337, Bonn, 1841; P. Scholz, ptltzend%auat and Zaubenaesen bei don after Hebrdarn, pp. 178 182, Regensburg, 1877, and the literature under Moss.
CHENEY, CHARLES EDWARD: Reformed Episcopal bishop; b. at Canandaigua, N. Y., Feb. 12, 1836. He was educated at Hobart College (B.A., 1857) and at the Protestant Episcopal Theological Seminary, Alexandria, Va., from which he was graduated in 1859. He was ordered deacon in 1856 and ordained priest two years later. After being curate of St. Luke's, Rochester, N. Y. (18581859), and of St. Paul's, Havana, N. Y. (1859 60), he became rector of Christ Church, Chicago, in 1880. His pronounced evangelicalism, however, caused him to be tried by Bishop Whitehouse, although the verdict was overruled by the civil courts. His church, nevertheless, seceded from the Protestant Episcopal communion, and in 1873, on the organization of the Reformed Episcopal Church, he was elected first bishop, still retaining his rectorate, which he has since held continuously. His jurisdiction was changed in 1878 from the Northwest to the Synod of Chicago, and in 1905 he was president of the Synod of Reformed Episcopal Churches of the Central States. While in the Protestant Episcopal Church he was, naturally, an adherent of the pronounced Low church party, and now describes himself as " believing heartily in the great fundamental principles held by all evangelical Christians," and as " totally opposed to all that leans toward any compromise with Roman
iem, and equally .opposed to the radicalism in
volved in the destructive criticism of God's Word."
He has written: Twenty Eight Sermons (Chicago,
1880); A Word to Old Fashioned Episcopalians
(Philadelphia, 1884); What is the Reformed Episco
pal Church? (1885); What do Reformed EpiacopCa
liana Believe F (1888); The Enlistment o f the Christian
Soldier (Chicago, 1893); A King of France un
named in History (1903); and The Second Norman
Conquest of England (1907).