CHARROCB:, STEPHEN: Puritan; b. in London 1628; d. there July 27, 1680. He studied at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, took his degree there, and became minister in Southwark; in 1649
he went to Oxford and became fellow of New College (1650) and proctor (M.A., 1852); went to Ireland with Henry Cromwell as chaplain (1655); returned to England soon after the death of Oliver
Charles Elisabeth abase, rah
Cromwell, and lived for fifteen years in London in retirement and without regular charge; in 1675 he was appointed joint pastor with Thomas Wateon of a Presbyterian congregation in Bishopagate Street, London. He was a grave and impressive preacher and a man of fervent piety. His chief work was On the Existence and Attributes of God, published posthumously, ed. Richard Adams and Edward Veal (London, 1681; many subsequent editions; American ed., with biographical sketch by William Symington, 2 vola., New York, 1874); there is an edition of his Works with memoir by Edward Parsons (9 vole., London, 1815), and another with introduction by James MeCoeh, in Nichol's Series of Standard Divines (5 vole., Edinburgh, 1864).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Notices additional to those mentioned in
the tent are A. a Wood, Athena Oxonians", ed. P. Bliss,
iii. 1234 38, 4 vole., London, 1813 2V; DNB, z. 13413b.
CHARRON, ahdr"r8h', PIERRE: French Roman Catholic ecclesiastic and theologian; b. at Paris 1541; d. there Nov. 16, 1603. He studied law at OrlCana and Bourgea, and practised for several years, after which he entered the Church and soon became a pulpit orator of note. He preached for a number of years in various cities of southern France, and was finally appointed preacher to Queen Margaret. In his forty seventh year he returned to Parse and wished to enter a monastic order, but was rejected on account of his age. He then resumed his activity as a preacher, and in Bordeaux made the acquaintance of Montaigne. In 1594 he was appointed vicar general by the bishop of Cahora, and in the following year was sent as a deputy to a convention of the French clergy, where he was so highly esteemed that he was chosen first secretary. Charron was the author of three works. The first of these was his Trait, des tro^,'s v&ites, coretre loos athkes, idoldtres, juifs, maJaomEtana, hkrEtiques et schismatiques (Bordeaux, 1594), in which he maintained against the atheists that there is a God and a religion; against the pagans, Jews, and Mohammedans that the Christian religion alone is true; sad against heretics and achiamatica that salvation can be found only in the Roman Catholic Church. He likewise wrote a collection of sixteen Discours chr&*ns (1600), on the mass, the knowledge of God, salvation, and the communion of the saints. Still more famous was his Traitk de la sagesae (1601; Eng. tranal. by S. Leonard, London, 1612 ), in which he proceeded from the thesis that the true understanding of man consists in knowledge of himself and of the nature and limits of his powers, so that this wisdom should direct his inward and his outward life. Truth, on the other hand, can be found with God alone, and man is unable to gain it by himself. This agnostic tendency led Charron to express himself with such freedom concerning all positive religions, including Christianity, that the Jesuit Garasae branded him as an atheist. The Traits was accordingly expurgated by Jeannin for the edition of 1604, but in this form the book found few readers, and three years later the text was restored with Jeannin'a notes. Shortly before his death Charron published a compendium
of his work with an apology under the title Pent traitE de la aagesae (Paris, 1648). (C. PrmlvnEx.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The works, with s Life by M. de la RocheMaillet, were published, Paris, 1838. Consult: C. A. $ainto Beuve, Causeriea de Lundi, vol. n., 4th ed., 18 vole., Paris. 188288.
CHARTERIS, ARCHIBALD HAMILTON: Church of Scotland; b. at Wamphray (15 m. n.e. of Dumfries), Dumfriesshire, Dec. 13, 1835. He studied at Edinburgh (B.A., 1853), Tiibingen (1870) and Bonn (1871); d. at Edinburgh Apr. 24, 1908. He was minister of St. Quivox, Ayrshire (1858 59), New Abbey, Dumfriesshire (1859 63), and The Park Pariah, Edinburgh (18838). From 1868 to 1898 he was professor of Biblical criticism in Edinburgh University. He was chairman of the General Assembly's Committee on Christian Life and Work, 1889 94, and was instrumental in establishing the Young Men's Guild, the Woman's Guild, and the I)eaoonesaes' Hospital, and in reviving the order of deaconesaes as a part of the organization of the Church of Scotland. He was appointed a chaplain to the queen in 1869, and was moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1892. From 1901 to 1908 he was chaplain in ordinary to the king in Scotland. In theology he was a conservative. He has written Life of Professor Jameg Robertson (Edinburgh, 1863); Cartonicily : A Collection of Early Testimonies to the Canonical Books of the New Testament (London, 1880); The New Testament Scriptures (1888); and The Church of Christ (1905).
CHASE, FREDERIC HENRY: Anglican bishop of Ely; b. in London Feb. 21,1853; studied at Christ's College, Cambridge (B.A., 1876) ; was curate of Sherborne, Dorset (1878 79), and of St. Michael% Cambridge (1879 84). He was tutor of the Clergy Training School, Cambridge, from 1884 to 1887, and its principal from 1887 to 1901, and was lecturer in theology in Pembroke College, Cambridge, from 1881 to 1890, and in Christ's College from 1893 to 1901, as well as examining chaplain to the archbishop of York in 1894 1905. He was Hulsean lecturer in 1900, and was NorrWan pre. feeeor of divinity in Cambridge University and president of Queen's College, Cambridge, from 1901 to 1905, as well as vice chancellor of the university from 1902 to 1904. In 1905 he was consecrated bishop of Ely. He has written Chryaoatom (London, 1887); The Old Syriac Ele»unt in the Text of Codex Bezee (1893); The Lord's Prayer in the Early Church (Cambridge, 1891); The Syro.Latin Text of the Gospels (London, 189b); Credibility of the Book of Acts (Huleean lectures for 19001901; 1902); and The Gospels in the Light of Historical Criticism (190b). He also edited F. J. A. Hort'a Commentary on 1 Peter (London, 1898).
CHASE, IRAN: American Baptist; b. at Stratton, Vt., Oct. 5, 1793; d. at Newton Center, Mass., Nov. 1, 1864. He was graduated at Middlebury College, Vt., 1814, and Andover 1817; he was ordained 1817, and preached for a year as missionary in Virginia; in 1818 he became professor of languages and Biblical literature in the first Baptist theological school in the country, then at Phila
THE NEW BCHAFF HERZOG
delphis, is 1822 incorporated with Colombian University at Washington; he resigned in 1825 and was one of the founders of the Newton Theological Institution and professor of Biblical theology there till 1838, of ecclesiastical history, 1838 45. The latter part of his life was spent in literary work. He wrote much for the religious periodicals and published, with other books, Remarks on the Book of Daniel (Boston, 1844); The Work Claiming to be the Constitutions of the Holy Apostles, including the Canons, Whistoxi's Version, revised from the Greek, with a prize essay upon their original contents translated from the German (New York, 1848); The Design of Baptism Viewed 8n its Relation to the Christian Life (Boston, 1851); Infant Baptism an Invention of Man (Philadelphia, n.d.).
CHASIDI>K (Heb. $aaidhim, "Pious"): 1. A Jewish religious party important during the time of the Maceabean wars. They advocated the strictest ideals of Judaism prescribed by the scribes, opposed the Grecizing tendencies of the age, and for a long time supported the Maccabees in the struggle with the $eleucida; for independence. They were the precursors of the Pharisees. See HesMoxP"s, J 1.
2. The adherents of a religious movement which arose among the Polish Jews in the seventeenth century. It was essentially a pietistic and mystic reaction against Talmudism, and thus presents a certain analogue to the pietism current in Christian circles about the same period, though there was no actual relation between the two. The founder of the Chasidim was an obscure Polish rabbi named Israel ben Eleazar, who received the epithet of Ball $hem Tob or " Master of the good name " (i.e., the mystic name of God), whence he was frequently termed Besht (from the initial letters 6 sh t). Teaching a religion of the heart, and discarding Talmudic formalism for personal faith and
love of God, he gathered about himThe self an enormous following which num
Founder of bered many rabbis whom the legalism the Chasi of the Talmud had failed to satisfy. dim and his About 1740 he made his headquarters
Teachings. in Miedzyboz in Podolia, sad there
developed his two cardinal doctrines
that God is everywhere, and that man may com
mune with God. The first tenet was pantheistic
and the second cabalistic. To attain perfect com
munion with the deity ecstatic prayer and medita
tion, often induced by violent physical motions
or even by the use of intoxicants, were necessary,
while thus a direct influence might be brought to
bear upon God himself. Formalism was altogether
discarded by Chasidism, and in a like spirit the
non Jewish asceticism grafted on Talmudic ritual
ism by the " practical Cabala " was rejected. The
Chasidim were to serve and worship God with
gladness and in the freedom of the spirit, while
reason was distinctly subordinate to faith.
He who realized Chasidic ideals was " righteous " (?addik) and had preeminence over lesser souls. Herein lay the danger of the system, for the zaddik came, in increasing measure, to be regarded as a quaeimediator with God, who could influence the
deity to bestow blessings on those that had not achieved perfect righteousness and communion
with the divinity. This concept was The thoroughly non=Jewish, nor was such ZaddiJrIm. homage ever rendered to any rabbi as to the ordinary 4addik. The cleavage between the orthodox Jews and the Chasidim grew wider; separate synagogues were formed, and changes were made in the arrangements of the prayers, the rules for slaughtering, and other ancient Jewish customs. It was not until after the death of Besht, however, that the power of the foddiTc gained full development, but then the rule was evolved that the `' righteous " should be supported by less holy souls in return for his mediation with God. From a sincere, though often ignorant, leader of his flock he became only too frequently a mere thaumaturgist, healing the sick and performing other miracles with his amulets and the penancea which he imposed. Yet Chasidism was not a homogeneous system, but developed, in course of time, into two distinct schools, one finding its center in South Russia and Poland, and the other in Lithuania sod White Russia. The cause of this demarcation was, in the main, intellectual. In South Russia and in Poland the mystical and pietistic trend was no new thing. It had already been exemplified in the movements headed by Jacob Frank (q.v.) and in the religious upheaval caused in Oriental Judaism by the pseudo Messiah $habbethai Zebi. It had been augmented, moreover, by the religious anarchy consequent on the political disturbances in Poland and by the savage persecutions of Chmiebvcla and the Haidamacks. The result was a combination of ignorance and despair, which furnished a fallow soil for an optimistic mysticism freed from all restraints of the ritual law. In these regions, then, the qaddik flourished and worked his miracles at the expense of the still more benighted Chasidim. In White Russia and Lithuania, on the other hand, these destructive factors had not been at work, and the Talmud retained its position of honor and its conservative
power. There, moreover, the Jews History centered in the cities, and thus were of under the intellectual restraint and
Chasidism. stimulus of the scholars of the Talmud, while in the villages of Poland and South Russia imagination could run riot, devoid of the restraint of scholarship. For all these reasons Chasidism did not gain in the north the exclusive dominance which it possessed in the south, and its break with rabbinical Judaism was far lees radical. The ?addik of White Russia and Lithuania was tittle more than a heterodox rabbi, and was deeply influenced by the " rational Chasidism " taught by Zalman of Liozna (1747 1812), who postulated the need of an intelligent faith rather than absolute subjection of reason, and reduced the ;add4 to the place of a teacher instead of a thaumaturgist.
Chasidism, being suspected (and not without some probability) of an affinity with the vagaries of Frank and $habbethai Zebi, was everywhere bitterly opposed by orthodox Judaism, represented by the mitnaggedim (" opponents "). In the north,
where the hold of Chasidism was so alight, the hostility was extreme, and the sectarians were denounced to the government, although without success. The result was the existence of the two schools side by aide, but in the south rabbinical Judaism was completely routed, and the iaddi~im took the place of the rabbis. The Chasidim, however, met with their moat formidable opponents when the maskilim (" enlightened ") arose in the nineteenth century. This movement, inspired by Moses Mendelesohn and his followers, was fatal, in its importation of Occidental Christian learning and criticism, to the ignorant mysticism of Chasidism. Its power is now confined to the uneducated Jews of southern Russia, where the maskilim meet
the stubborn resistance of stagnation
Opposition and a reactionary tendency which is
to the more intense, because lees enlightSystem. ened, than that of rabbinical Judaic.
This trend is not improbably increased by the attitude of the Russian government toward the Jews, but elsewhere the despair which evoked it no longer saints, and with the absence of the cause the effect has vanished. Yet in pawing judgment on Chasidism, it should not be forgotten that, with all its faults, it possessed one important element which was the secret of its power, the insistence on personal piety and faith as the means of salvation, rather than on the intellectualism of rabbinical legalism, a teaching by no means new in Judaism, but revived and fostered by this sect in a time of need.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Greets, (ieachichte der Juden. Vol. Xi., chap. 3. Leipeic, 1891 (the fullest account); J. M. Jost, (ieachichte den JuderUhums and asiner Saktsn, iii. 184. 3 parts, ib. 1857 59; L. Law, Yerpanpenheit uud (#eDenwart der CluueidSer, Budapest, 1859; J. B» Ehrlich, Der Wep meinea Lebena, Vienna, 1874; 8. Schechter, Studies in Judaism, Philadelphia, 1898; RL, iii. 102 103; JE, vi. 251 258.
CHASTEL, ahae"tel', 1'TIEliNE LOUIS: Swiss church historian; b. at Geneva July 11, 1801; d. there Feb. 24, 1886. He was educated at Geneva, and subsequently studied in France, Italy, and England. In 1832 he became a pastor in his native city, where, seven yearn later, he was appointed professor of church history in the theological faculty of the university. He was a prolific author, his chief works being as follows: Conf&ertces sur l'histoire du Ckriatianisme (2 vole., Geneva, 1839 47); Histoire de la destruction du pnganisme darts l'emplre d'Oriertt (1850); etudes historiques our l'F.nfhcence de la charitE durant les premiers sie'cles chritiens (Paris, 1853; Eng. transl. by G. A. Matile, Philadelphia, 1857); Le Christiartisme au dix rteuvi_~me sitcle (Geneva. 1874; Eng. travel, by J. R. Beard London, 1875), this forming, in a new edition, part of his Histoire du Christianisrrae depuis sort ortgirte 9u8qu'd nos fours (5 vole., Paris, 1881 84); and Ldtrea in~dites de Madame de Mdintenort du lieutertetrrt de Baville (1875). His MElanges historiques et religietrx appeared posthumously, together with a biographical sketch by A. Bouvier (Paris, 1888).
CHASTITY: Chastity in the modern acceptation of the word is a condition and a virtue the state of physical and moral purity in sexual rela
tions, and self preservation from unallowel sexual desires. As a virtue it was highly esteemed early in heathen antiquity, by the Romans, and among the Germanic tribes all the more as it was uncommon. Even to the present day it has been required more strictly from women than from men, and there are traces of this inequality in the Mosaic law. Indeed it can not be said that as concerns chastity Israel rose much above the general level of the pre Christian period; the nation's moral consciousness of sexual purity was not acute. Christianity first gave to chastity its full value. The New Testament writers use the word hayrwa in this connection, which originally meant " dedicated," " holy," then " pure," " chaste." The New Testament idea is based upon the entirely new, Christian, conception of the value and significance of the human body and of its life. Included in the plan of salvation, destined to eternal communion with God, called to future transfiguration in celestial existence, the body to the Christian is an object of solicitude and conscientious care (I Cor. vi. 19).
In the performance of this duty the Christian must fight all carnal desires (I Pet. ii. 11), especially the sexual instinct, which in all times and places has been recognized and felt by men as one of the fiercest and moat invincible. That the instinct in itself is not sinful may be inferred from God's institution of wedlock. But any transgression of thin limit is uncbastity, whether in thought .(Matt. v. 28), in word (Eph. v. 3, 12), or in deed (I Cor. vi. 15). The destructive effect of incontinence extends not only to the body, but to the soul as well, which is thereby polluted, made unfit for all good, and irretrievably estranged from spiritual intercourse with God, hence these, sine exclude from the future communion of heaven (I Cor. vi. 9, 10; I Eph. v. 5; Rev. xxi. 8, 27).
For the attainment of chastity training is necessary. For the Christian this training has its root in the grace of regeneration. The guidance and support of the Holy Spirit is indispensable and assured (Rom. viii. 13; Gal. v. 22 23), but is ineffectual without personal exertion and self discipline on the part of the individual (I Cor. ig. 27; Eph. iv. 29, v. 4; Phil. iv. 8; I Tim. v. 22). The duty of prayer, watchfulness, and the other means of self training is incumbent on all without respect to sea or age, and rests in an especial degree upon those whose calling is to educate others. While wedlock is a holy defense of chastity (I Cor. Vii. 2), it is no guaranty of purity (I Cor. vii. 3 5; I Pet. iii. 1 7). Celibacy, too, has its dangers; it is imposed upon many by circumstaRCE9 in Ill1pde]Zt times, but incontinence is not excused thereby. Finally the successful result of Christian training and discipline, made possible by the Christian's inward relation to Jesus Christ, is something different from the natural sense of shame and outward decorum, also from the particular gifts of chastity referred to in Matt. tea. 12, which Paul attributes to himself (I Cor. vii. 7), for which the tradition of the Church Praises the Apostle John, and which is mentioned in the Apocalypse (uv. 4).
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 22
CHASUBLE (Let. caaula): The principal vestment worn by Roman Catholic priests when celebrating mass. Bee VESTesmwms Am IxamNre, Eccr.>oarssTtcer..
CHATEL, ahd"tel', FERDINAND FRAft~OIS
Founder of the Jfgliee catholique frangaise; b. at
Gannet (34 m. s.e.w. of Moulins) Jan. 9, 1795; d.
at Paris Feb. 18, 1857. At first chaplain of a regi
ment of the line, he was called by the July Revo
lution of 1830 to a place of importance at Paris.
An adherent of the liberalism of the period, he
sought to found a Church based on reason rather
than on Rome, retaining, for the moat part, the
forma of Roman Catholic ritual, yet changing their
meaning and rendering them patriotic in tendency.
His theological education was but superficial, and
it is clear that at first he was rationalistic and
later pantheistic in tendency, while he preserved
traces of the cult of Reason in the sense that term
bore during the French Revolution. Chltel soon won
a considerable following is his movement for re
form, and is 1831 he was able to announce the
establishment of the Aglise catholique frangaise, a
temple for several thousand persons being erected
at Paris in the Faubourg St. Martin two years
later. On the high altar was a representation of
Reason in the form of a woman who supported
another holding a crone and typifying Religion,
while near them was a lion as a symbol of the
strength of Reason. The sides of the altar were
adorned with pictures of Ftnelon and St. Vincent de
Paul, with the words gloire and patrie. The service
had the form of a mesa; feasts were celebrated in
honor of great men, especially Frenchmen; and
at Christmas ChAtel himself was honored as a
" reformer " by the side of Christ. About 1837
the community reached its height, although the
majority of its adherents were confined to Paris,
but in 1842 it came to an end. The government
of Louis Philippe favored it at first, but later be
came hostile to it. Chatel long survived the
organization which he had founded, and died in
poverty and neglect. He expounded his views in
a series of works, none of which was of any spiritual
importance. F. Ksz rErtsusca.
Biaaroagsray: A. Theiner, in TQ, 1832, pp. 861 eqq.; H. Reuohlin,DwChmin h'rankreich, pp. 293 eqq., Hamburg, 1837; F. F. Fleck, WiaeanschafUiclts $eiae durdv . . . Frankreic7v, vol. ii., part 2, pp. 65 eqq.. Leipeio, 1838: F. xunetmann, in Zeitechrift far Theoiopie, iii (1840), 57 eqq.; R. Holaapfel, in ZHT, riv (1844), 103 eqq.; A. Martin, ChBtet et l'iplies franfaies, Montauban, 1904; BL, iii. 108 110.
CHAUNCY, CHARLES: 1. Second president of Harvard College; b. at Ardeley or Yardley Bury (10 m. n. of Hertford), Hertfordshire, England, 1592 (baptized Nov. b); d. in Cambridge, Mass., Feb. 19, 1872. He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1813; M.A., 1817; B.D., 1824), and became fellow and lecturer in Greek (or professor); was vicar of Ware, Hertfordshire, 1627 33, and of Marston St. Lawrence, Northamptonshire, 1633 37. His stern Puritanism brought him into difficulties with the church authorities in both parishes, and in 1834 he was suspended and imprisoned; after some months' confinement he made submission, but regretted the act ever afterward.
He decided to go to America, and before sailing
wrote The Retraction of Charles Chauncy formerly
minister of Ware in Hertfordshire (London, 1841),
published, as he says, " for the satisfaction of all
such who either are, or justly might be, offended
with his scandalous submission, made before the
High Commission Court, Feb. 11, 1835." He ar
rived at Plymouth, Dec., 1837, and acted as as
sistant there till 1841, when he went to Scituate;
he was invited to return to ware in 1854 and was
making preparations for departure when he was
offered the presidency of Harvard to succeed Henry
Dunater; he accepted with reluctance, was in
augurated Nov. 29, and filled the position faith
fully and well. He was a good scholar and, in
addition to his attainments as a theologian, had
considerable knowledge of medicine; he is said to
have been an admirable preacher and was esteemed
for his piety. He published The Doctrine of the
Sacrament, with the right use thereof, calechetically
handled by way of question and ansvxr (London,
1842); a volume of sermons on justification (1859);
and Antisynodalia scripts Americana, or a pro
posal of the judgement of the dissenting ministers of
the churches o f New England assembled Mar. 10,
186.E (Cambridge, 1882). He had six sons, who
were all graduated at Harvard, all became ministers,
and all are believed, like their father, to have been
physicians as well. His eldest son Isaac (b. at
Ware Aug. 23, 1832; d. in London Feb. 28, 1712)
was ejected as rector of woodborough, Wiltshire,
by the Act of Uniformity in 1882, and in 1687
became minister of the independent congregation
in Bury Street, London, formerly nerved by John
Owen; on his resignation in 1701 he was succeeded
by his assistant, Isaac watts; for the rest of his
life he practised medicine and taught. He was
a voluminous writer.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: William Chauncey Fowler, Memorials of the Chaunuys, Boston, 1858; Cotton Mather, in his Magnolia, gives a chapter to President Chaunoy under the title Cadmue Annue, bk, iii., chap. xtiii., vol. i.. pp. 483 478, Hartford, 1855; James Savage, Genealogical Dictionary of the First Se#lere of New England, i. 388 389, Boston, 1880.
2. New England clergyman, great grandson of President Chauncy; b. in Boston .tan. 1. 1705; d. there Feb. 10, 1787. He was graduated at Harvard, 1721; ordained assistant minister of the First Church of Boston, 1727, and remained there till his death. He cultivated a plain sad matterof fact style in preaching, and was noted for scrupulous integrity. He tried to check the extreme excitement attending the preaching of whitefield, and v rote in reference to it Seasonable Thoughts on the State of Religion in New England (Boston, 1743), and two or three open letters to Whitefield (17441745). He stoutly opposed the establishment of episcopacy in the colonies, and published The Validity of Presbyterian Ordination Asserted dud Maintained (1782) and A Complete View of Episcopacy until the Close of the Second Century (1771). He believed in the final restoration of all, or Universaliam, and advocated it in The Salvation for All Men Illustrated and Vindicated as a Scripture Doctrine (1782); Divine Glory Brought to View in the Final Salvation of All Men (1783); The Beneuo
RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Chasuble
lertce of the Deity Fairly oral Impartially Considered (1784); Five Dissertations on the Scripture Account of the Fall and its Consequences (1787).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. C. Fowler, Memorials of the'Chaunceyt,
pp. 49 70, Boston, 1868.